In this paper, four Variable Camshaft Timing (VCT) strategies are described: Intake Only, Exhaust Only, Dual Equal, and Dual Independent. The strategies utilize internal residual at part load for NOx reduction and fuel consumption improvement. The emphasis of the paper is a detailed comparison of part load data from steady-state engine dynamometer testing. Projections of EPA cycle fuel economy and emissions benefits relative to external EGR are also shown. Only limited data was acquired at idle and WOT.Implications of the strategies on the engine control system are briefly addressed.