An adaptive air fuel ratio (AFR) control system has been implemented on a modern high performance fuel injected four cylinder engine. A pressure transducer in the combustion chamber is used to measure the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) for efficiency and cyclic variability feedback. The controller tunes the relative AFR, λ, in the range λ = 1 to λ = 1.5, to maximise the thermal efficiency in real time. The system adaptively accounts for changes in operating conditions such as ambient temperatures and user demands. The IMEP feedback allows the closed loop control system to update every few revolutions with short tune in times in the order of seconds. Open and closed loop test results are presented, demonstrating the incremental efficiency gains over fixed or mapped AFR control. The system continually adjusts the fuelling for maximum efficiency given its constraints and provides a basis for optimisation of future lean burn technologies.