The effect of several aqueous metal-salt solutions on NOx and smoke lowering in an IDI diesel engine were examined. The solutions were directly injected into a divided chamber independent of the fuel injection. The results showed that significant lowering in NOx and smoke over a wide operation range could be achieved simultaneously with alkali metal solutions which were injected just prior to the fuel injection. With sodium-salt solutions, for instance, NOx decreased by more than 60 % and smoke decreased 50 % below conventional operation. The sodium-salt solution reduced dry soot significantly, while total particulate matter increased with increases in the water soluble fractions.