The baseline Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS) includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies for Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Waste Management (WM), and Vacuum System (VS). The U.S. Lab module will contain complete THC and ACS subsystems and an open loop AR including a Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly (TCCS), and a Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). An Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) is added with the U. S. Hab module, along with the WRM and WM subsystems. The final baseline configuration is a closed water loop and partially closed atmosphere loop and represents the best available mature technologies.It is desirable to pursue technology advances beyond the baseline ECLSS for ISS evolution, not only for the benefit of the ISS but also as an on-orbit Advanced Life Support (ALS) test bed for future long-duration manned space missions. Goals for ISS include reducing resources required, enhancing the ECLSS capability, and extending the life of current subsystems and components. Specific ECLSS evolutionary need areas are presented and prioritized along with possible technology solutions and approaches. Strategies for use of the ISS as an ALS test bed are discussed.