Lyon, K., "The Chrysler/Lamborghini 3.5L Formula One Engine: Control System Development and Calibration Methodology," SAE Technical Paper 962544, 1996, doi:10.4271/962544.
During the 1993 Formula One season, the 3.5L Chrysler/Lamborghini V12 engine reached a performance level that was considered by some to be the second best engine in the sport. As the most technologically advanced naturally aspirated racing engine, the Formula 1 engine is typified by a very high power ratio (≻200 BHP/liter), as well as a very wide dynamic operating range (2,500-15,000 RPM). In addition, the engine must exhibit exceptional responsiveness to driver input or "driveability." Finally, the engine must be both fuel efficient (as fuel capacity was limited by design) and durable over the qualifying/race distance. This paper will document the final year in competition for the Chrysler/Lamborghini F1 engine; focusing on both the collaboration between the Chrysler Technical Center (CTC) and Lamborghini Engineering SpA in Modena, Italy, and the implementation of OEM passenger car engine control techniques to the world of F1 racing engines.