There are many aspects of engineering integrity which require careful consideration during design, manufacture, operation and maintenance of the complex systems such as automobile. The ultimate realisation of the “goals of design” implies successful service during the entire life of the product. There is tremendous pressure to utilise lighter materials which results in fuel saving. Assessing the engineering integrity of components and systems under service conditions can be extremely complex and prognostic situation at design stage is often more difficult than the diagnostic one once failure has occurred. Review of various advanced techniques with case studies have been done for the safety and reliability of automobiles for Indian conditions.