Temperature measurement of internal components and surfaces can enhance understanding of thermal processes that occur during engine operation. Such measurements have typically been made with thermocouples, temperature sensitive paints or plugs, or infrared emission methods. Phosphor thermometry, a non-contact measurement technique, is an alternative that can be applied when more traditional methods are not feasible or are too costly. Recent efforts described in this paper have used phosphor thermometry to measure steady state piston crown temperature in a single cylinder engine. Additional testing with this technique included monitoring intake valve temperature in a multicylinder engine under cold start conditions. Packaging of the optical hardware necessary for this technique was substantially refined during these tests for use in modern engine geometries. The results shown here establish phosphor thermometry as a feasible alternative for making temperature measurements in internal combustion engines.