Exploration of the solar system has captured the imagination of scientists and artists for centuries. The U.S. and other space-faring nations now plan to take the first step by examining the requirements for a human mission to Mars. A three-year journey to Mars will test the limits of our technical and human experience. Maintenance of crew mental and physical health is of utmost importance to mission success. Several critical technologies must be developed to enable healthy and productive crews during Mars missions. The technology development process must begin now, by identifying technology and research requirements, so that the necessary systems are ready when the decision is made to leave Earth and travel to Mars.