Biological treatment technologies used in removing air pollutants are reviewed from the perspective of an Advanced Life Support System (ALSS). These are based on the capability of microbial communities to biodegrade complex and variable mixtures of organic and inorganic compounds, typically to innocuous end products. The technologies considered are biofilters, biotrickling filters and bioscrubbers, with emphasis on biofilters. Theoretical design aspects are outlined. Different bed media (matrices) are described. A list of compounds treated successfully, solely or in complex mixtures, is provided. A brief summary of our current research on the removal of ethylene and ammonia (model compounds) through biofiltration is included.