Effects of changing ambient humidity and temperature have been studied on the performance and emissions of a hand-held two-stroke and a hand-held four-stroke engine. The main effect of changes in ambient conditions is to change the intake air density and therefore the air-fuel ratio metered by the carburetor. Trends in the effects of humidity and temperature on emissions are predicted reasonably well by theoretical thermodynamic models. They suggest an improved correction for the dependence of NOx on ambient conditions, as a function of both humidity and operational air-fuel ratio, which appears to collapse NOx production data better than the existing KH correction factor. They also suggest a simple procedure for tuning engines to design air-fuel ratios using the measured exhaust-gas %CO, which takes into account the prevailing ambient conditions.