Frølund, K. and Schramm, J., "PAH-Transport in Diesel Engines," SAE Technical Paper 972960, 1997, doi:10.4271/972960.
Engine experiments were carried out on a six cylinder DI-diesel engine using synthetic fuel and lubricant containing no PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) . By selectively doping the fuel and oil with pyrene, the effect of fuel and oil originating PAH on the exhaust emissions could be investigated. The experimental results are analyzed in a new way by suggesting a general transport model for PAH. By estimating as many transport quantities as possible it is attempted to gain knowledge about the most dominant mechanisms. The main finding is not surprisingly that for commercial fuels containing substantial concentrations of PAH, the by far major contributor to exhaust PAH is unburned fuel PAH. The concentration of PAH in the oil sump affects only weakly the PAH concentration in the exhaust for engines operating on commercial fuels. The PAH desorbing from the liner are getting burned efficiently, thereby being insignificant. Finally, the oil consumption transports PAH directly and mostly unburned to the exhaust, however for engines operating on commercial fuels this mechanism is insignificant. The results therefore suggests, that lower PAH emissions can be obtained by lowering the PAH content in the fuel and by improving the combustion efficiency.