In automotive-, truck-, and rail-vehicle sub-systems involving rotating and sliding surfaces, problems often arise with wear, friction, and noise in various combinations. These problems have been reduced or eliminated by replacing steel, nylon, acetal and other materials with ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) components. The objective of this paper is to show how UHMWPE can be effectively utilized to eliminate the above problems.We will present advancements in processing and application of UHMWPE with case study examples. Laboratory studies of various material properties will be compared and contrasted with other more common materials. We will also present principles of part design for manufacturability.