The Variable Orifice Nozzle (VON), has been developed to improve diesel combustion by changing the cross-sectional area of the injection hole. The area of the nozzle orifice is continuously controlled by the rotary valve, one component of the VON. The discharge coefficient of the VON was increased by simulating an internal flow in the nozzle tip. The VON performances were evaluated by its rate of injection, injection pressure, spray droplet diameter and instantaneous photographs taken by a high speed camera.These results show that, injection characteristics and spray patterns respond to the nozzle orifice area which is changed by the rotary valve from larger to smaller. The orifice area controlled nozzle provides higher maximum pressure and a longer injection duration than the conventional hole nozzle without full-load point of the injection pump. A smaller nozzle orifice has a wider spray angle compared with larger nozzle orifice. Numerical simulation results suggest that the swirl is induced by the rotary valve in the injection hole of the nozzle. Thus, the wider spray angle is affected by this swirl.