The 4T65-E transmission produced by General Motors is the third evolution of GM's original 4-speed F.W.D. automatic. This most recent redesign introduced for the 1997 model year meets new corporate goals for fuel economy and reduced noise, along with the ability to adjust shift character to meet the brand image of the various nameplates. Improving fuel economy and cooling at increased engine power levels was enabled by designing a larger diameter torque converter with the aid of 3-D modeling. The new converter has reduced internal leakage and incorporates a controlled slip clutch. Improvements in NVH have been achieved through a revised oil pump design and the use of the new phased drive chain, made affordable by the joint development of powdered metal technology required for the unique sprocket design.