Nag, P., Ghosh, B., Das, R., and DuttaGupta, M., "NOx Reduction in SI Engine Exhaust Using Selective Catalytic Reduction Technique," SAE Technical Paper 980935, 1998, doi:10.4271/980935.
Copper ion-exchanged X-zeolite with urea infusion was tested for nitrogen oxide (NOx)conversion efficiency in this study. Temperature datapoints were obtained to arrive at peak activation temperatures. Variation of the air/fuel ratio showed the widening of the λ-window(the range of air-fuel ratios over which the NOx conversion efficiency is considerable); a maximum of 62% NOx conversion efficiency was obtained in the lean-burn range. Effects of space velocity variations were also observed. In order to minimise the deactivation of zeolite caused by water, ammonium carbonate and ammonium sulphate were deposited on the copper ion-exchanged X-zeolite and the corresponding NOx conversion efficiencies measured. Ammonia slip (leakage of unreacted ammonia), a prospective pollution hazard, was observed to be more in case of urea infusion than ammonium salt deposition at higher temperatures.