A foundation of battery normalizations, modeling and control techniques is presented for charge sustaining HEV applications. Charge and voltage based battery state observers and controllers are compared. The voltage based technique is shown to provide robust state control, as it directly constrains terminal voltage. Additionally, it provides good power cycle efficiency, and is insensitive to the initialization and drift problems characteristic of charge based controllers. Special attention is given to VRLA batteries, and dynamic loads from typical driving cycles. Future work is introduced which identifies battery power capability and efficiency as possible state control variables.This work was supported by a Netherland-America Foundation Fellowship, and by the staff at the Technical University of Eindhoven, the Netherlands.