This paper describes some of the recent work carried out in our laboratory regarding the effects of novel oxygen and nitrogen containing compounds on the antiknock quality of unleaded gasoline and their effects on some other gasoline properties. In particular, the research included Research Octane Number (RON) measurements and the evaluation of the effects of the most effective antiknock compounds on Dry Vapour Pressure Equivalent (DVPE), distillation temperatures, aromatic content, olefins, and oxygen content. Emphasis was given in studying chemical structures that can be derived from renewable raw materials.The compounds tested included substituted phenols, furan derivatives, aliphatic amines, various amide structures and Mannich base phenols. Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), the most widespread oxygenate currently used in gasoline, was used as a yardstick for assessing the quality of the compounds tested. It was found that many of the chemical structures studied perform better than MTBE regarding ignition quality and, in addition, are able to reduce the aromatic content of gasoline. The effects of the various compounds on the other gasoline properties measured depend largely on their individual chemical structure and their physical properties.