Omary, N., Bhatti, T., Subrahmanyam, J., and Babu, M., "Comparative Assessment of the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Port and Manifold Gasoline Fuel Injection Systems of a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Spark Ignition Engine," SAE Technical Paper 981460, 1998, https://doi.org/10.4271/981460.
Experimental investigations relating to the comparative assessment of the performance and emission characteristics of port and manifold gasoline injection systems of a single cylinder four stroke spark ignition engine are described. These investigations have been carried out under carburettor, port injection and manifold injection modes The experiments pertaining to the injection mode were conducted for both the single and double hole injectors by optimising the injection pressure, injection timing and its duration. Optimisation of injection timing and duration was done in terms of engine crank angle by means of a newly designed crank angle selection unit in conjunction with a developed optical crank shaft encoder capable of generating pulses at one degree crank angle intervals. These studies have indicated that the performance and emission characteristics of a spark ignition engine operating in port injection mode with a two hole injector are comparatively better than carburettor and manifold injection modes of operation which is arrived based on the improved power and fuel consumption.