Six heavy-duty diesel engines were tested for exhaust emissions on the ISO 8-mode nonroad steady-state duty cycle and the U.S. FTP highway transient test cycle. Two of these engines were baseline nonroad engines, two were Tier 1 nonroad engines, and two were highway engines. One of the Tier 1 nonroad engines and both of the highway engines were also tested on three transient cycles developed for nonroad engines. In addition, published data were collected from an additional twenty diesel engines that were tested on the 8-mode as well as at least one transient test cycle.Data showed that HC and PM emissions from diesel engines are very sensitive to transient operation while NOx emissions are much less so. Although one of the nonroad transient duty cycles showed lower PM than the steady-state duty cycles, all four of the other cycles showed much higher PM emissions than the steady-state cycle. Average increases in HC, NOx, and PM emissions due to transient operation, when tested on the five transient cycles discussed in this paper, were 36%, 1%, and 47% respectively.