The schlieren visualization of in-cylinder processes from the side of an engine cylinder is useful to understand the phenomena which change along the cylinder axis. A transparent collimating cylinder, TCC, permits schlieren observation inside the cylinder through its transparent wall. In this study, a single cylinder visualization engine with the TCC was applied to a direct-injection gasoline engine. A fuel spray, mixture formation and combustion were observed with a simultaneous measurement of in-cylinder pressure. The shape of the fuel spray and subsequent mixture formation process are drastically changed with the injection timing. The images of luminous flame were also taken with the schlieren images during the combustion period. Stable combustion, misfire and abnormal combustion are discussed with the comparison between the observed results and in-cylinder pressure analysis.