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Viewing 1 to 30 of 19851
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2362
Lijun Hao
The fuel economy model for a Light-Duty vehicle adopted backward simulation method and was written in Matlab language, and it mainly consists of vehicle dynamic model, internal combustion engine model, transmission model and differential model. The vehicle dynamic model is used to determine the forces resisting the movement of the LD vehicle driving on a road. The resistive forces against the moving vehicle at a steady speed on a level road mainly consist of the rolling resistance and the aerodynamic drag. And the combined effects of aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance are generally determined using coastdown tests. In this paper, the on-road coastdown tests for the Light-Duty vehicle were carried out at different altitudes and the road load coefficients of the Light-Duty vehicle were obtained and used to calculate the resistive force at constant speed.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2215
Mingming Ma
Lubricating oil system models of aero-engine whole process are established by applying ANN based on a large number of flight test data. Model results are in good agreement with flight test results, which shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented modeling method. The results of model are applied to the test condition monitoring of the aero-engine lubricating oil system, thus the real-time tendency monitoring of lubricating oil parameters is realized and application. In addition, a method to determine the main influence parameters of aero-engine lubricating oil parameters is developed by using the presented modeling method.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2036
William Schley
Of all aircraft power and thermal loads, flight controls can be the most challenging to quantify because they are highly variable. Unlike constant or impulsive loads, actuator power demands vary randomly. Some inherent nonlinearities complicate this even further. Actuation power consumption and waste heat generation are both sensitive to input history. But control activity varies considerably with mission segment, turbulence and vehicle state. Flight control is a major power consumer at times, so quantifying power demand and waste heat is important for sizing power and thermal management system components. However, many designers sidestep the stochastic aspects of the problem initially, leading to overly conservative system sizing. The overdesign becomes apparent only after detailed flight simulations become available. These considerations are particularly relevant in trade studies comparing electric versus hydraulic actuation.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2038
Russell H. Strehlow
A Vapor Envelope is an ultra-thin walled vapor chamber that enables a unique combination of lighter weight, lower profile, and lower cost for heat spreading or heat removal applications. It evolved from work done as part of a DARPA program on Thermal Ground Planes. This paper examines a published testing protocol for the measurement of the thermal resistance of thin flexible thermal ground planes. It then applies an adapted version of the published technique to measure the thermal resistance of a vapor envelope and a dimensionally equivalent solid copper heat spreader. Finally, it looks at the implications of a significantly lower thermal resistance for a specific configuration.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2041
Luis Felipe Espinosa
The Szorenyi engine is a new kind of rotary engine named after its creator, Peter Szorenyi. This paper provides an explanation of its geometry, design, and operational principles. A basic mathematical simulation of this engine was performed as well as an equivalent Wankel rotary engine and reciprocating engine simulation. A comparison in pressure traces and cycle performance is made between the Szorenyi engine, the Wankel engine and a reciprocating engine. The study concludes analysing and comparing the sensitivity to the ignition advance and net work of the three engines in one working cycle. Keywords: Rotary engine; Szorenyi engine; Wankel engine; Reciprocating engine; mathematical modelling; Wiebe function; net work comparison; Szorenyi engine geometry; pressure change.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2045
Shivam Mishra, Sanjay Y
Gas turbine air-film blade cooling is widely used aero-derivative gas turbine blade cooling technique. The present paper reviews previously developed air-film blade cooling models. The article further proposes a new blade cooling model for estimating blade coolant mass fraction which takes into account the effect of radiative heat transfer from hot flue gases to aero-derivative gas turbine blade surface. Various possibilities to achieve enhanced performance from aero-derivative gas turbine have been enumerated namely effect of advanced design philosophies, thermal barrier coatings, advancement in blade material. Also adoption of advanced design philosophies such as 3-D CFD would lead to improved component design. Further use of advanced blade material specifically for gas turbine blade application including single-crystal blade, directionally solidified blade material being nickel-chrome-molybdenum alloys may be explored.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2048
Bryan Shambaugh, Patrick Browning
This paper investigates the effect of various magnetic field configurations on an ionized exhaust plume operating under near vacuum conditions. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if deploying a toroidal magnetic field around an ionized exhaust plume can alter the exhaust profile. The test apparatus utilizes a series of twelve N52 grade neodymium magnets mounted on a steel toroid. The design is proposed as a low-cost alternative to toroidal electromagnets. Five different apparatus configurations were tested in this experiment. Each test was documented using 12 sets of photographs taken from a fixed position with respect to the flow. Photographs were taken after the arc jet had run for 10, 20, and 30 seconds. Data from each configuration was compiled using image processing and compared with data from other configurations at corresponding time periods. Two configurations were run as control tests without any magnetic interference.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2053
Jim Stabile
Since oxygen has been a part of the aircraft system it has always been managed using a difficult metric to understand.......PSI. Today's technology has allowed us to efficiently and inexpensively convert PSI into a timed based metric which allows for improved oxygen management and a method which provides an interface between two important energy aircraft resources (fuel and oxygen). These resources have inverse consumption rates tied directly to the altitude of the aircraft. Using time as the management metric, the pilot can balance these 2 resources during any oxygen contingency by varying the altitude of the aircraft.. This allows for regulatory fuel savings and an increase in operational safety This program diverges from traditional thinking in that it applies an information and skill based solution to a system that has otherwise been viewed as a hardware problem.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2054
K Friedman, G Mattos, K Bui, J Hutchinson, A Jafri, J Paver
Aircraft seating systems are evaluated utilizing a variety of impact conditions and selected injury measures. Injury measures like the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) are evaluated under standardized conditions using anthropometric dummies such as those outlined in 14 CFR part 25. An example would be a dummy seated in an upright position held with a two point belt decelerated from an impact speed and allowed to engage components that are in front of the dummy. Examples of head contact surfaces would include video monitors, a wide range of seat back materials, and airbags from which the HIC and other injury measures can be calculated. Other injury measures, such as Nij, are also of interest and can be measured with the Hybrid III dummy as well. It has been shown that the friction between the head form and contact surfaces can affect the test results obtained in other safety applications.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2059
Enrico Cestino, Giacomo Frulla, Renzo Duella, Paolo Piana, Francesco Pennella, Francesco Danzi
Future generations of civil aircrafts and unconventional unmanned configurations demand for innovative structural concepts to obtain the structural performance, and thus reduce the structural weight. For instance, one of the method to improve structural component is the material coupling used to alter static and dynamic aeroelastic stabilities. It is therefore useful to use an accurate and computationally efficient beam model during the preliminary design phase. In the present work, a numerical validation of equivalent homogeneous orthotropic material procedure, described in [1] and [2], is performed by the application of structural topology optimization technique [3] on a box beam made of isotropic material. The overall equivalent bending, torsional and coupled stiffness is derived by means of homogenization of the shell skin and of the stiffener plate stiffness. The optimum theoretical conditions of bending-torsion coupling was obtained when stiffeners were oriented at about 27°.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2057
Robert E. Voros, David Merdgen, Andrew Wallington
In the last five years, technical advances and regulatory pressures have motivated the need for streamlined solutions for conducting development assurance in support of a system safety assessment process. Additionally, the affected design space for commercial vehicles has been growing beyond the conventional regulatory parts of airplanes, rotorcraft, engines, and propellers, addressed by current guidance. This space is beginning to include commercial technologies such as unmanned aerial systems, multi-stage spacecraft systems, and road-able aircraft. These developing areas are each accompanied with their own development assurance expectations to meet their own safety concepts. At the same time, the industry and regulators are working to simplify standards and guidance for system safety and development assurance, which have existed as staples for decades.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2058
Francesco Noziglia, Paolo Rigato, Enrico Cestino, Giacomo Frulla, Alfredo Arias-Montano
Innovative aircraft design studies have noted that uncertainty effects could become significant and greatly emphasized during the conceptual design phases due to the scarcity of information about the new aero-structure being designed. The introduction of these effects in design methodologies are strongly recommended in order to perform a consistent evaluation of structural integrity . The benefit to run a Robust Optimization is the opportunity to take into account uncertainties inside the optimization process obtaining a set of robust solutions. A major drawback of performing Robust Multi-Objective Optimization is the computational time required. The proposed research focus on the reduction of the computational time using mathematic and computational techniques. In the paper, a generalized approach to operate a Robust Multi-Objective Optimization (RMOO) for Aerospace structure using MSC software Patran/Nastran to evaluate the Objectives Function, is proposed.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2061
Andrea Cravana, Gerardo Manfreda, Enrico Cestino, Giacomo Frulla, Robert Carrese, Piergiovanni Marzocca
An accurate aeroelastic assessment of powered HALE aircraft is of paramount importance considering that their behaviour contrasts the one of conventional aircraft mainly due to the use of high aspect-ratio wings with distributed propulsion systems. This particular configuration shows strong dependency of the wing natural frequencies to the propulsion distribution and operating conditions. Numerical and experimental investigations are carried out to better understand the behaviour of flexible wings, focusing on the effect of distributed electric propulsion systems. Several configurations are investigated, including a single propulsion system (composed of the electric motor, propeller, and the wing-propulsion mounting POD) installed at selected spanwise positions, and configurations with two and three propellers. References: Amato, E.,Polsinelli, C.,Cestino, E.,Frulla, G.,Carrese, R.,Marzocca, P. (2016).
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2062
Tushar Choudhary, Mithilesh Sahu, Shreya KRISHNA
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is the most promising candidate for utilization of waste generated from the GT based power system. By coupling SOFC with gas turbine (GT) based power system, a hybrid SOFC–GT power system has been developed and the thermal efficiency of the system can be enhanced upto 70-85%. This paper focuses of thermodynamic analysis of an internal reformed solid oxide fuel cell which is integrated with the gas turbine cycle to form a hybrid power generation system for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a long range. Thermodynamic 1st and 2nd law, parametric analysis has been carried out and the effect of various parameters such as compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, air flow rate has been examined. In order to validate the results, present work has been compared with the available literature and it shows good agreement.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2068
Shyam Sundar Batagnalli Thimmasetty, Agamemnon L. Crassidis
Drones are used in almost all the operations as well as the industries nowadays because of their reliability, cost effectiveness and multi-functionality. Jet pack is a type of device like drone but that are propelled by jets of escaping gases/fluids to propel into the air or to fly. Water jet that used to cut the metals, have been used a high-density propulsion fluid. The hydro jet packs have been successfully designed and developed and used in various applications. Water Jet Fire Extinguisher is an invention, which uses the water jet as a propeller as well to extinguish the fire. The hose is connected to the body and the other end is connected to fire hydrant (water supply line). The sprinkler is provided on the top which can spray water to some radius and also it can made to rotate and shoot jet of water and it has telescopic arm which can stretch. This paper describes the design and testing of the Water Jet Fire Extinguisher system or Fire Fighting Drone.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2067
Alessandro Ceruti, Pier Marzocca, Antonio Bacciaglia
The paper describes the activities led to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a UAV able to operate in air and water. The situation awareness after environmental calamity usually requires to gather data about the pollution both in air and in water (sea, lakes, rivers) in times as short as possible. An Unmanned vehicle able to collect samples in flight and below the water could provide an effective data retrieval platform, which can be also expendable in case of contamination of the vehicle itself. After a description of the conceptual design phase and sizing/weight breakdown, the paper focuses the attention on the simulation of the UAV both in air and in submerged modality, introducing the dynamics models used in this conceptual phase. The simulation of a realistic mission has been finally implemented to better assess the efficiency and effectiveness of such a vehicle.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2066
Jose C. Pascoa, Frederico Rodrigues, Michele Trancossi
Plasma actuators of the Dielectric Barrier Discharge type are an adequate mean to increase the eficiency of propulsion systems. By controlling the boundary layer DBD actuators are able to provide increased efficiency of turbomachinery propulsion systems at diverse operating points. The operating points change as a function of the external environment conditions, namely pressure and temperature, and also of mission profile. Herein we will demonstrate that the DBD actuators are actually performing better at higher altitude. An teoretical framework will be developed and a numerical approach will be able to demonstrate their better operation as initially proposed. A specific application framwork will be considered for a differential vector thruster based on a Coanda surface.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2065
Sebastian Bandycki, Michele Trancossi, Jose Pascoa
This paper presents a comparison between different hypotheses of propulsion of a spherical UAS. Different architectures have been analyzed assessing their specific aerodynamic, energetic, and flight mechanics features. The comparison has been performed assuming the robustness of flight control in different wind conditions, defining for each the specific operative ranges, mission profiles, and energy assessment. An effective energy assessment and comparison against a commercial UAS has been produced. Even if the paper considers a preliminary simplified configuration, it demonstrates clearly to be competitive against traditional quadcopters in a predefined reference mission.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2075
Burton Bigoney, Nicholas Huddleston
Electroimpact and Lockheed Martin have developed an automated drilling and fastening system for C-130J aft fuselage panels. Numerous design and manufacturing challenges were addressed to incorporate the system into Lockheed Martin’s existing manufacturing paradigm and to adapt Electroimpact’s existing line of riveting machines for manufacture of these legacy aircraft parts. Challenges to automation included design of a very long yet sufficiently rigid and lightweight offset riveting anvil for fastening around deep circumferential frames, automated feeding of very short, “square” rivets in which the length is similar to the head diameter, creation of part programs and simulation models for legacy parts with no existing 3d manufacturing data, and crash protection for the aircraft part from machine collisions, given the uncertainties inherent in the model and the unique geometry of the aircraft parts.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2074
Thorsten Dillhoefer
Paper Title: CPAC Bulkhead Riveting System Author: Thorsten Dillhoefer, Broetje-Automation GmbH Mailing Address: Broetje-Automation GmbH Am Autobahnkreuz 14 26180 Rastede Germany Phone: +49 (0) 4402 966-300 Fax: +49 (0) 4402 966-289 E-Mail: Thorsten.dillhoefer@broetje-automation.de Paper Content: New customer requirements for a CPAC machine to not only perform fuselage panel fastening but also include additional capability for automated bulkhead positioning, drilling and riveting inspired the design of a new CPAC System configuration incorporating a separate drilling unit and a bulkhead rotating subsystem into a “universal” machine. This new design provides additional capability and flexibility for existing production and also reduces the investment for multi-product automation applications.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2073
Rick Calawa
The decision to completely replace a successful automated production system at the heart of a high volume aircraft factory does not come easily. A point is reached when upgrades and retrofits are insufficient to meet increasing capacity demands and additional floor space is simply unavailable. The goals of this project were to greatly increase production volume, reduce floor space, improve the build process, and smooth factory flow without disrupting today’s manufacturing. Two decades of lessons learned were leveraged along with advancements in the aircraft assembly industry, modern machine control technologies, and maturing safety standards to justify the risk and expense of a ground-up redesign. This paper will describe how an automated wing spar fastening system that has performed well for 20 years is analyzed and ultimately replaced without disturbing the high manufacturing rate of a single aisle commercial aircraft program.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2080
James Merluzzi
Manually changing stringer-side tooling on an automatic fastening machine is time consuming and can be susceptible to human error. Stringer-side tools can also be physically difficult to manage because of their weight, negatively impacting the experience and safety of the machine operator. A solution to these problems has recently been developed by Electroimpact for use with its new Fuselage Skin Splice Fastening Machine. The Automatic Tool Changer makes use of a mechanically passive gripper system capable of securely holding and maneuvering twelve tools weighing 40 pounds each inside of a space-saving enclosure. The Automatic Tool Changer is mounted directly to the stringer side fastening head, meaning the machine is capable of changing tools relatively quickly while maintaining its position on the aircraft panel with no machine operator involvement.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2079
Ronald J. Mack
Mechatronic advanced manufacturing systems blur the line between an automated fastening system and an assembly tool. Multi-purpose end effectors sit directly on the assembly jig or holding fixture to access the part and augment the work of skilled operators. This paper and presentation will explore existing installations and their various geometries, designed to provide the most efficient and cost-effective access to the aerostructure. A C-frame runs the length of the jig for lateral panel fuselage fastening of large commercial transports. Square frames run the length of wing assembly jigs. The ARC frame was developed for structures that require circumferential drilling and fastening, such as spars, but has literally expanded to take on fastening of medium-sized fuselages. In some cases, one multi-purpose end effector can be moved from tool to tool, creating the equivalent of several advanced manufacturing systems from one drill spindle.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2085
Sergey Lupuleac, Nadezhda Zaitseva, Margarita Petukhova, Julia Shinder, Sergey Berezin, Valeriia Khashba, Elodie Bonhomme
The paper is devoted to simulation of A320 wing assembly on the base of numerical experiments carried out with the help of ASRP software [1]. The main goal is to find fasteners’ configuration with minimal number of fastening elements that provides closing of admissible initial gaps. However, for considered junction type initial gap field is not known a priori though it should be provided as input data for computations. In order to resolve this problem the methodology of random initial gap generation based on available results of gap measurements is developed along with algorithms for optimization of fasteners' configuration on generated initial gaps. Presented paper illustrates how this methodology allows optimizing assembly process for A320 wing. 1. Lupuleac, S., Petukhova, M., Shinder, J., Smirnov, A. et al., "Software Complex for Simulation of Riveting Process: Concept and Applications," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-2090, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-2090.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2088
Long Yu, Qingzhen Bi PhD, Yilian Zhang, yu Wang PhD
A novel normal measurement device for robotic drilling and countersinking has been developed in this paper. This device is mainly composed of three contact displacement sensors and a spherically compliant clamp pad. The compliance of the clamp pad allows it to be perpendicular to the part when the Multi-Function End Effector (MFEE) drives it to clamp the part surface prior to drilling, while the displacement sensors are used to measure the movement of the clamp pad relative to the MFEE. Once the sensors’ position is calibrated, the rotation angle of the clamp pad can be calculated by the displacement of the sensors. Then, the normal adjustment of MFEE is obtained, and the adjustment process can be achieved by the Tool Center Point (TCP) function of robot. Thus, an innovative method based on laser tracker to identify the position of sensors is proposed.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2081
Richard Kasler, Agata Suwala, Ashwin Gomes
One way assembly of aero structures has the potential to significantly reduce build times. One of the solutions which goes towards achieving this philosophy is the use of a ‘C' clamping automated drilling system. The Manufacturing Technology Centre has developed, manufactured and tested a ‘C' clamping automated drilling unit to overcome many of the limitations of current designs which prevent their use on a broader range of structures. The drilling unit addresses issues with inter-stack burrs, access, size and the weight restrictions as well as economic factors. The technical paper will present the outcomes from the design and manufacture of the drilling unit that is to be used within restricted access areas as either a hand held device or as a robotic end effector, free from any cables or hoses, allowing full and unhindered articulation of any robot motion.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2083
Jim Coy, Frank Mestemacher, Nathan McRae
Accuracy and normality of tack and datum holes is critical to the manufacturing of aerospace assemblies. These features are frequently referenced for secondary manual and automated processes, and any mis-locations will be propagated further, potentially leading to costly rework. Conventional manual back drilling from pilot holes located in internal features does not ensure normality with the outer skin, and in some cases drill access from within the structure is restricted. The ability to reference internal datum holes from the outside with proper normality helps increase quality by reducing mis-located primary features. To accomplish this, a lightweight manually-deployed 3-axis tack driller was developed. This machine attaches to the outer skin and uses magnetic through-skin sensing technology to accurately locate and drill the tack locations while maintaining normality. This paper will discuss the function and accuracy of this machine in a production setting.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2084
Karl-Erik Neumann
True Mobile/Portable Drilling & Machining, a Paradigm Shift in Manufacturing The evolving Aerospace manufacturing environment has created challenges that until now, are not achievable with standard machine tools, large monumental gantry style machines, robots or even manually. The solution is a lightweight, portable, modular, mobile solution capable of machining to high tolerances, with minimal time and effort to relocate to a different area, and capable of machining a different part, or be reconfigured to machine in a different orientation…….at an affordable price. With the carbon fiber PKM mounted on the flexible mobile manufacturing stand, the module can be simply relocated using a standard fork lift to any area of the factory. The module can also be easily removed from the mobile platform and mounted in a desired location, in any orientation. It can also can be disassembled into modules, and reconstructed in an area, that is not typically accessible by machines or robots.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2096
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Aaron Geenen, Tobias Masiak
Assembly processes in aircraft production are difficult to automate due to technical risks. Examples of such technical challenges include small batch sizes and large product dimensions as well as limited work space for complex joining processes and organization of the assembly tasks. A fully automated system can be expensive and requires a large amount of programming knowledge. For these reasons, ZeMA believes a semi-automated approach is the most effective means of success for optimizing aircraft production. Many methods can be considered semi automation, one of which is Human-Robot-Collaboration. ZeMA will use the example of a riveting process to measure the advantages of Human-Robot-Collaboration systems in aircraft structure assembly. In the assembly of the aircraft aft section the pressure bulkhead is mounted with a barrel section using hundreds of rivets. This assembly process is a non-ergonomic and burdensome task in which two humans must work cooperatively.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 19851