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Viewing 1 to 30 of 85403
2018-01-19
Journal Article
2018-01-9077
Arya Yazdani, Mehran Bidarvatan
Power split in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs) has been controlled using different strategies ranging from rule-based to optimal control. Dynamic Programming (DP) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) are two common optimal control strategies used in optimization of the power split in FCHEVs with a trade-off between global optimality of the solution and online implementation of the controller. In this paper, both control strategies are developed and tested on a FC/battery vehicle model, and the results are compared in terms of total energy consumption. In addition, the effects of the MPC prediction horizon length on the controller performance are studied. Results show that by using the DP strategy, up to 12% less total energy consumption is achieved compared to MPC for a charge sustaining mode in the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) drive cycle.
2018-01-19
Journal Article
2018-01-9625
Michael Sabisch, Meredith Weatherby, Sandeep Kishan, Carl Fulper
Under contract to the EPA, Eastern Research Group analyzed light-duty vehicle OBD monitor readiness and diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) using inspection and maintenance (I/M) data from four states. Results from roadside pullover emissions and OBD tests were also compared with same-vehicle I/M OBD results from one of the states. Analysis focused on the evaporative emissions control (evap) system, the catalytic converter (catalyst), the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and the oxygen sensor and oxygen sensor heater (O2 system). Evap and catalyst monitors had similar overall readiness rates (90% to 95%), while the EGR and O2 systems had higher readiness rates (95% to 98%). Approximately 0.7% to 2.5% of inspection cycles with a “ready” evap monitor had at least one stored evap DTC, but DTC rates were under 1% for the catalyst and EGR systems, and under 1.1% for the O2 system, in the states with enforced OBD programs.
2018-01-19
Journal Article
2018-01-9675
Youssef Sabry, Mahmoud Aly, Walid Oraby, Samir El-demerdash
This study aims to take the first step in bridging the gap between vehicle dynamics systems and autonomous control strategies research. More specifically, a nested method is employed to evaluate the collision avoidance ability of autonomous vehicles in the primary design stage theoretically based on both dynamics and control parameters. An integrated model is derived from a half car mathematical model in the lateral direction, consisting of two degrees of freedom, lateral deviation and yaw angle, with a traction mathematical model in the longitudinal direction, consisting of two degrees of freedom, the longitudinal velocity and rolling velocity of the wheel. The integrated model uses a mathematical power train model to generate the torque on the wheel and connects the two systems via the magic formula tyre model to represent the tyre non-linearity during augmented longitudinal and lateral dynamic attitudes. These mathematical models are represented using MATLAB in the time domain.
2018-01-12
Technical Paper
2018-01-9626
Marcus Schmitz, Lena Rittger, Henning Kienast, Alexandra Neukum
Potential collisions with oncoming traffic while turning left belong to the most safety-critical situations with ~25% of all intersection crossing path crashes. A Left Turn Assist (LTA) was developed to reduce the number of crashes. Crucial for the effectiveness of the system is the design of the human machine interface, i.e. defining how the system uses the calculated crash probability in the communication with the driver. A driving simulator study was conducted evaluating a warning strategy for two use cases: firstly, the ego-vehicle comes to a stop before turning (STOP), and secondly, the driver moves on without stopping (MOVE). 40 drivers drove through three STOP and two MOVE scenarios. For the STOP scenarios, the study compared the effectiveness of an audio-visual warning with an additional brake intervention and a baseline. For the MOVE scenarios, the study analyzed the effectiveness of the audio-visual warning against a baseline.
2018-01-12
Journal Article
2018-01-9677
Sabine Bonitz, Dirk Wieser, Alexander Broniewicz, Lars Larsson, Lennart Lofdahl, Christian Nayeri, Christian Paschereit
The flow around and downstream of the front wheels of passenger cars is highly complex and characterized by flow structure interactions between the external flow, fluid exiting through the wheel and wheelhouse and flow from the engine bay and the underbody. In the present paper the near wall flow downstream of the front wheel house is investigated. To visualize the surface pattern a new method is applied, which uses the traditional tuft visualization to capture image series of instantaneous flow patterns and is extended by a digital image processing component to obtain quantitative and time dependent information. Additionally, time resolved surface pressure measurements are reported. The data allows the calculation of the pressure distribution, the standard deviation, cross correlations and a spectral analysis. This paper shows how occurring flow structures propagate over the area studied, by investigating cross correlations of the pressure signal.
2017-12-06
Technical Paper
2017-01-5100
Thorsten Langhorst, Olaf Toedter, Thomas Koch, Patrick Gonner, Matthew Borst, Richard Morton
Abstract Particulates and nitrogen oxides comprise the main emission components of the Diesel combustion and therefore are subject to exhaust emission legislation in respective applications. Yet, with ever more stringent emission standards and test-procedures, such as in passenger vehicle applications, resulting exhaust gas after-treatment systems are quite complex and costly. Hence, new technologies for emission control have to be explored. The application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) as a means to perform exhaust gas after-treatment is one such promising technology. In several publications dealing with NTP exhaust gas after-treatment the plasma state was generated via dielectric barrier discharges. Another way to generate a NTP is by a corona high-frequency discharge. Hence, in contrast to earlier publications, the experiments in this publication were conducted on an operated series-production Diesel engine with an industrial pilottype corona ignition system.
2017-11-27
Technical Paper
2017-01-5022
Sebastian Zirngibl, Stefan Held, Maximilian Prager, Georg Wachtmeister
Abstract In order to fulfill future exhaust emission regulations, the variety of subsystems of internal combustion engines is progressively investigated and optimized in detail. The present article mainly focuses on studies of the flow field and the resulting discharge coefficients of the intake and exhaust valves and ports. In particular, the valves and ports influence the required work for the gas exchange process, as well as the cylinder charge and consequently highly impact the engine’s performance. For the evaluation of discharge coefficients of a modern combustion engine, a stationary flow test bench has been set up at the Chair of Internal Combustion Engines (LVK) of the Technical University of Munich (TUM). The setup is connected to the test bench’s charge air system, allowing the adjustment and control of the system pressure, as well as the pressure difference across the particular gas exchange valve.
2017-11-20
Technical Paper
2017-01-5021
Greg Suter, Lodewijk Wijffels, Oliver Nehls
This paper will detail the development of a Handling Controller designed to assist the driver in recovering from oversteer situations using an Active Front Steering (AFS) system. The AFS system uses an electric motor to provide a steering angle overlay to the driver’s steering input. This angle can be used to supplement countersteer during an oversteer event, and to rapidly remove countersteer when the sideslip is collapsing, preventing a fishtailing situation. Key factors considered in designing the system were functional safety considerations for potential sensor failures, and how to assist the driver without creating an unnatural feel or excessive torque feedback in the steering wheel. This system may be used to supplement brake stability controls, increasing stability levels with less harshness. The lessons learned from this application may also be used in designing autonomous steering systems to recover from oversteer situations.
2017-11-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-5020
Mark Stuhldreher, Youngki Kim, John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba
Abstract As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from testing of recent engines and vehicles. The benchmarking data are used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model created to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles. For complete powertrain modeling, ALPHA needs both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission efficiency maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has previously relied on contractors to provide full characterization of transmission efficiency maps. To add to its benchmarking resources, EPA developed a streamlined more cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to broadly characterize transmissions within ALPHA.
2017-11-15
Journal Article
2017-32-0119
Akira Iijima, Takuya Izako, Takahiro Ishikawa, Takahiro Yamashita, Shuhei Takahata, Hiroki Kudo, Kento Shimizu, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Hideo Shoji
Engine knock is the one of the main issues to be addressed in developing high-efficiency spark-ignition (SI) engines. In order to improve the thermal efficiency of SI engines, it is necessary to develop effective means of suppressing knock. For that purpose, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism generating pressure waves in the end-gas region. This study examined the mechanism producing pressure waves in the end-gas autoignition process during SI engine knock by using an optically accessible engine. Occurrence of local autoignition and its development process to the generation of pressures waves were analyzed under several levels of knock intensity. The results made the following points clear. It was observed that end-gas autoignition seemingly progressed in a manner resembling propagation due to the temperature distribution that naturally formed in the combustion chamber. Stronger knock tended to occur as the apparent propagation speed of autoignition increased.
2017-11-15
Journal Article
2017-32-0120
Go Asai, Yusuke Watanabe, Shuntaro Ishiguro, Gen Shibata, Hideyuki Ogawa, Yoshimitsu Kobashi
To extend the operational range of premixed diesel combustion, fuel reformation by piston induced compression of rich homogeneous air-fuel mixtures was conducted in this study. Reformed gas compositions and chemical processes were first simulated with the chemistry dynamics simulation, CHEMKIN Pro, by changing the intake oxygen content, intake air temperature, and compression ratio. A single cylinder diesel engine was utilized to verify the simulation results. With the simulation and experiments, the characteristics of the reformed gas with respect to the reformer cylinder operating condition were obtained. Further, the thermal decomposition and partial oxidation reaction mechanisms of the fuel in extremely low oxygen concentrations were obtained with the characteristics of the gas production at the various reaction temperatures.
2017-11-13
Technical Paper
2017-01-5019
Dietmar Fischer, Ger Cronin, Andreas Bock, Ingolf Raschke, Michael Lezuo, Claus Schmitz, David Ruecker, Jenni Herr
One of the functions of a cowl area in a vehicle is the separation of water and air flow. A well working separation of water droplets in the airflow is required under all circumstance, to avoid the blower or air filter to become wet. Airflow calculations help improving the design of the cowl to achieve an effective water droplet separation and simultaneously low pressure losses. The proposed design has been tested under sever conditions. Test results were compared to theoretical results and revised design requirements will be proposed.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0064
Christian Hubmann, Harald Mayrhofer, Hubert Friedl, Gerald Hochmann
ABSTRACT The motorcycle and small engine industry is entering a chapter where emission legislation (EU5, BS6) is adapted to the automotive industries and especially CO2 emission is coming more and more into the focus of the OEMs, the legislative authorities and finally the end-user. Technologies like variable valve actuation, direct gasoline injection and turbo charging are state of the art in the automotive industry and have brought the efficiency of the internal combustion engine onto the next level. Nevertheless the small engine manufacturers are seeking for solutions which are cost efficient as well as simple and easy to apply. Even powertrain complexity is increasing the development efforts have to be kept moderate. Therefore, there is strong request for modern instrumentation and Testbeds which support an efficient and effective development process.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0011
Alberto Grimaldi, Lorenzo Mucciarella, Francesco Virgilii
Concerning internal combustion engines (ICEs), the analysis and evaluation of combustion quality and pollutant agents has drawn the attention of public opinion and worldwide authorities. Moreover, combustion quality in ICEs affects the drivability of motorbikes/cars, a most important quality for the customers’ point of view. The possibility to monitor engine behavior is a target that every car/motorcycle OEM is seeking, so as to comply with legislated pollutant limits. As the EURO V OBD Stage II regulations state, starting from the year 2020 all the emission related components will need to be monitored. In particular, the legislator requests to monitor the frequency of misfires, due to possible damage to the catalytic converter; in fact, the malfunction of this component can dramatically affect exhaust gas pollutant emissions.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0017
Yuzuru Sasaki, Nobuhiko Yamaguchi, Akira Arioka, Katsunori Komuro, Dai Kataoka, Shunji Akamatsu
Abstract In recent times, due to the improvement of internal cylinder flow analysis technology with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), the prediction accuracy of fuel consumption and emission has improved. However, small motorcycles often have complex intake ports which restrict the layout of injectors. Therefore optimization of injection spray to achieve high combustion efficiency and less wall wetting is a challenge. In this study, we predicted fuel consumption and emission performance by the simulation result of air fuel distribution and wall wetting amount with an actual motorcycle engine model. We optimized injector nozzle length, spray angle and spray tip penetration. After the optimization, we evaluated the emission performance and fuel consumption with an actual engine. As a result, we were able to confirm the improvement of fuel consumption and emission performance.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0020
Koichi Tanaka, Kunio Arase, Amane Kitayama, Toru Shimizu, Akihisa Shimura
The aim of this study is to analyze the emission improvement in the oil-cooled engine by use of internal cylinder gas pressure measurement and 3D simulation of thermal flow and combustion. In the previous study, two test engines were designed to evaluate the benefits of the oil-cooled engine. One was an oil-cooled, and the other was a water-cooled engine. Both engines were single cylinder engines with SOHC valve-train systems. The hardware specifications of both engines were exactly the same except for their cooling systems in order to clarify how the difference in engine cooling system affects their cooling performance, warm-up performance and emission performance.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0018
Masayuki Miki, Tetsuya Kimura
The stability factor is widely used for four-wheel vehicles as an index representing the turning performance of a vehicle. Stability factor for two-wheel vehicles has been proposed as an indicator of cornering performance from the same way of thinking. In line traceability evaluation as a sensory evaluation item of motorcycles, the expressions of understeer and oversteer are sometimes used, but the relation with stability factor for two-wheel vehicles has not been investigated. In this paper, a test in which the slip angle characteristics of the front and rear tires were varied using a riding simulator was conducted, and the correlation between the stability factor and the rider evaluation was investigated to derive an index showing the line traceability.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0027
Chien-Hsiung Tsai, Hui-Hui Huang, Wei-Chun Chang
In this paper, the temperature of coupling system including cylinder, head, inlet/exhaust valve, and the cooling jacket of a 400cc engine is investigated by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method. Firstly, the total pressure loss of water jacket, radiator, and thermostat is calculated first, and then the mass flow rate inside the cooling system can be determined by fitting the water pump’s performance curve (P-Q curve). The thermal boundary conditions for analysis of conjugate heat transfer of cooling system, such as combusting gas temperature and heat transfer coefficient are utilizing the results of 1-D engine simulation software (Ricardo WAVE). The current approach is that the heat transfer coefficients of valve while opening are calculated by considering the intake and exhaust stroke using FLUENT to overcome the difficulty of these values that are not modeled in such 1-D software. Finally, the finite element method (FEM) is used for the valve stress calculation.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0034
Shunsuke Ishimitsu, Takuma Sagawa, Tomoaki Ito, Naoaki Shibatani, Toshihisa Takagi, Kazuki Yoshida, Kenta Suzuki, Takanori Chino
Recent years, ANC (Active Noise Control) technology has been paying attention. However, rather than the noise measures, the noise gives us the impression even running sound for motorcycles. That is, the control method of the engine sound is shifted from the noise reduction to sound design in each manufactures. Therefore, we proposed a method to design the engine sound using Active Sound Quality Control (ASQC) based on the ANC. Specifically, we proposed the algorithm amplifying and reducing the engine specific order components. From the simulation results, the engine specific order components can be amplified and reduced like an equalizer with the proposed algorithm. And, auditory impressions of engine sound controlled by ASQC were investigated using psychoacoustic measurements. 13 stimuli were obtained by applying ASQC for several order components to amplify or reduce their levels.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0035
Takuya Mino, Hiroshi Enomoto, Noboru Hieda, Yoshikazu Teraoka
Liquid fossil fuels such as gasoline, diesel oil, and kerosene are widely used as a fuel of various transportation apparatus and generating electricity apparatuses including the automobiles. The spray combustion has been widely used for internal combustion engine to use the fuel efficiently. But some parts of the phenomenon are not elucidated because this combustion method is complicated phenomenon. To elucidate this phenomenon, there are many ways of analyzing droplet. For example, observing a single droplet which suspended by a catenary or under the microgravity. However, those methods are not enough simulation of a real droplet in the internal combustion engine. In this study, we developed an apparatus which could inject a freedom droplet of diameter about 30µm. It is considered that the droplet is in a real internal combustion engine. And the apparatus was installed in a container which could realize elevated temperature and pressure.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0039
Satoshi Itoh, Michiyasu Yamamoto
One of the fuel efficiency improvement policy of Small vehicle included Regenerative Braking System (JSAE 20139006 / SAE 2013-32-9006), but developed New Compact Hybrid System to realize further fuel efficiency improvement. The previous system has losses for the engine friction when deceleration energy is collected, but the new system realizes effective regeneration with separating the engine. The new system collect deceleration energy in decelerating time and coasting as well as the previous system, but the fuel consumption with the engine is minimized by running EV with the collected energy and realize further fuel efficiency improvement. In addition, the assist is also performed with collected energy, so both good efficiency and good accelerating performance are realized. This system adopts Auto Gear Shift® system (following, AGS) which is based on a manual transmission.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0006
Yoichi Inoue, Toshiya Ohta, Hirotaka Kurita
A carburizing is widely applied for many kinds of engine components for motorcycles. On the other hand, a delayed fracture phenomenon of strengthened steel materials occurred under actual usage is a serious concern. The delayed fracture characteristics of surface modified steels such as a carburized steels followed by a tempering have a difficulty being evaluated by only measuring a partial characteristic of the hardened portion due to the existence of an inhomogeneity of a microstructure and a gradient of strength. Therefore, the studies on the characteristics of the delayed fracture of the surface modified steels are not so many. In this paper, the authors evaluated the delayed fracture characteristics of carburized and tempered actual components by comparing hydrogen desorption curves acquired with a thermal desorption spectroscopy using hydrogen-charged specimens with changing tempering conditions.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0036
Gundavarapu V S Kumar, M Suresh, Manish Garg
Thermal management is of vital importance in the development of a scooter type motorcycle (two-wheeler). Traditionally the thermal management development of a two-wheeler is done through experimental methods, or using sub-system level CFD models. In current work, a comprehensive, complete vehicle, three-dimensional CFD model has been developed to assess thermal performance of the scooter and its sub-systems. The model can predict thermal performance in different operating conditions, such as, wide open throttle, idling and key-off. A typical thermal interaction in engine happens through metal contact conduction, air cooling and oil flow path in the engine. The model can capture the sub system interaction, such as, an interaction between the cooling system and engine cabin. Modeling oil is computationally expensive, as it involves complex physics modeling such as multiphase flow.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0037
Stephan Schneider, Horst Friedrich, Marco Chiodi, Michael Bargende
The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is developing a free-piston engine as an innovative internal combustion engine for the generation of electrical power. The arrangement of the Free Piston Linear Generator (FPLG) in opposed-piston design consists of two piston units oscillating freely, thereby alternately compressing the common combustion chamber in the center of the unit and gas springs on either side. Linear alternators convert the kinetic energy of the moving pistons into electric energy. Since the pistons are not mechanically coupled to a crank train, the bottom and top dead centers of the piston movement can be varied during operation e.g. to adjust the compression ratio. Utilizing these degrees of freedom, the present paper deals with the analysis of different combustion processes in a port scavenged opposed-piston combustion chamber prototype.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0009
Kazuya Miura, Toyofumi Tsuda, Akio Hikasa, Hiroyuki Minokoshi, Fumikazu Kimata, Ryo Watanabe, Choji Fukuhara
We investigated the interaction between the platinum and oxide support based on the HSAB (Hard-Soft-Acid-Base) concept to obtain guidelines for a superior exhaust-gas purification catalyst. The Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation provided the chemical potential (μ) and chemical hardness (η) via the eigenvalue of the Valence Band Maximum and Conduction Band Minimum. Moreover, it was found that the interaction depends on the μ and η, e.g., the metallic Pt cluster (Pt1, Pt3) had a greater interaction with the oxide supports having a lower η, on the other hand, the oxidized Pt cluster (Pt1O1, Pt1O2, Pt1O3, Pt1O4, Pt3O6) tends to be stabilized on the oxide support with a higher μ. These results could be explained by the HSAB concept. It was also found that the oxidation energy of the supported Pt cluster well corresponds to the actual valency of the supported Pt, furthermore, the particle size of the Pt after the thermal treatment depends on the μ of the oxide supports.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0008
Pei Yi Lim, Youhei Inagaki
Sustainability trends and reduced fuel consumption as a value proposition to end users have led to an ever-increasing focus on fuel efficiency in the personal mobility segment. This is evident in the development of smaller and lighter engine hardware with optimized combustion systems as well as the lowering of engine oil viscosity grades and formulation of additives with improved friction properties. Due to the unique challenges of lubricating motorcycle engines, the development of fuel efficient motorcycle engine oil presents several technical dilemmas. The reduction of oil viscosity gives rise to durability concerns particularly in such high temperature and high speed operating conditions, while the formulation of additives with lower friction properties may affect clutch friction that is necessary for a manual motorcycle.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0030
Yoshihide Ota, Hiroshi Enomoto, Jun Higashihara, Masahiro Sasao, Noboru Hieda, Yoshikazu Teraoka
In internal combustion engine, it is necessary to grasp droplet evaporation for using liquid fuel efficiency and improving exhaust gas composition. However, it has not known completely yet. In this study, fuel droplet of approximately 20μm diameter that is assumed to be in combustion chamber is injected by experimental apparatus. After that, droplet goes to butane flame. We observed by high-speed camera, and experimentally considered the effects of heat flux on the fuel droplet evaporation and breakup phenomenon. For the sample fuel, we use kerosene and diesel oil. It is important for understanding evaporation condition to know temperature around droplet in butane flame. Thus, flame temperature is measured by sheathed thermocouple. Heat flux is changed by initial velocity. From experiment, we found some result. Time that from injector tube to location of breakup of the droplet is short by increasing heat flux.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0032
Rizal Mahmud, Seong Bum Kim, Toru Kurisu, Keiya Nishida, Yoichi Ogata, Jun Kanzaki, Tadashi Tadokoro
Heat loss is more critical for the thermal efficiency improvement in small size diesel engines than large-size diesel engines. More than half of total heat energy in the internal-combustion engine is lost by cooling through the cylinder walls to the atmosphere and the exhaust gas. Therefore, the new combustion concept is needed to reduce losses in the cylinder wall. In a Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine, the spray behavior, including spray-wall impingement has an important role in the combustion development to reduce heat loss. The aim of this study is to understand the mechanism of the heat transfer from the spray and flame to the impinging wall. Experiments were performed in a constant volume vessel (CVV) at high pressures and high temperatures. Fuel was injected using a single-hole injector with a 0.133 mm diameter nozzle. Under these conditions, spray evaporates, then burns near the wall. Spray/flame behavior was investigated with a high-speed video camera.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0033
Akinori Shinagawa, Hisayuki Nozawa, Yutaro Uchiyama
Two-wheeled off-road vehicles are mainly ridden on slippery dirt roads that include steep slopes and rough, uneven surfaces. An analysis method for the driving state and the vehicle movement limits that would be suitable for analyzing the movement of such two-wheeled off-road vehicles under these conditions was examined. These movement limits were then formulated by taking into consideration the coefficient of friction and the road surface gradient in accordance with the basic laws of physics and also by focusing on the vehicle movement in the longitudinal direction. Measurements were also taken during actual off-road riding by top-class Japanese off-road motorcycle riders. It was confirmed that this measurement data was distributed within the range of the assumed vehicle movement limits. Consequently, it was confirmed that it is possible to use such measurements to accurately grasp the vehicle movement limits and the associated driving state for two-wheeled off-road vehicles.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0041
Johannes Hiesmayr, Stephan Schmidt, Stefan Hausberger, Roland Kirchberger, Christian Zinner, Patrick Filips, Roland Wanker, Hubert Friedl
Real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and fuel consumption. To reduce climate-relevant and environmentally harmful gaseous emissions and the exploitation of fossil resources, deep understanding concerning the real drive behavior of mobile sources is needed because emissions and fuel consumption of e.g. passenger cars, operated in real world conditions, considerably differ from the officially published values which are valid for specific test cycles only [1]. Due to legislative regulations by the European Commission a methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is well approved for heavy duty vehicles and automotive applications but may not be adapted similar to two-wheeler-applications. This is due to several issues when using the state of the art portable emission measurement system PEMS that will be discussed.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 85403