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Viewing 1 to 30 of 84902
2017-09-16
Journal Article
2017-01-9181
Zhongming Xu, Nengfa Tao, Minglei Du, Tao Liang, Xiaojun Xia
Abstract A coupled magnetic-thermal model is established to study the reason for the damage of the starter motor, which belongs to the idling start-stop system of a city bus. A finite element model of the real starter motor is built, and the internal magnetic flux density nephogram and magnetic line distribution chart of the motor are attained by simulation. Then a model in module Transient Thermal of ANSYS is established to calculate the stator and rotor loss, the winding loss and the mechanical loss. Three kinds of losses are coupled to the thermal field as heat sources in two different conditions. The thermal field and the components’ temperature distribution in the starting process are obtained, which are finally compared with the already-burned motor of the city bus in reality to predict the damage. The analysis method proposed is verified to be accurate and reliable through comparing the actual structure with the simulation results.
2017-09-16
Journal Article
2017-01-9180
Johannes Wurm, Eetu Hurtig, Esa Väisänen, Joonas Mähönen, Christoph Hochenauer
Abstract The presented paper focuses on the computation of heat transfer related to continuously variable transmissions (CVTs). High temperatures are critical for the highly loaded rubber belts and reduce their lifetime significantly. Hence, a sufficient cooling system is inevitable. A numerical tool which is capable of predicting surface heat transfer and maximum temperatures is of high importance for concept design studies. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a suitable method to carry out this task. In this work, a time efficient and accurate simulation strategy is developed to model the complexity of a CVT. The validity of the technique used is underlined by field measurements. Tests have been carried out on a snowmobile CVT, where component temperatures, air temperatures in the CVT vicinity and engine data have been monitored. A corresponding CAD model has been created and the boundary conditions were set according to the testing conditions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0170
Michael R. Buchman, Amos Winter
This paper evaluates the lag time in a turbo charged single cylinder engine. The goal of this research is to increase the power output, reduce the fuel economy, and improve emissions through turbocharging. Due to the timing mismatch between the exhaust stroke, when the turbocharger is powered, and the intake stroke, when the engine intakes air, turbocharging is not used in commercial single cylinder engines. Previous work has shown that it is possible to turbocharge a four stroke, single cylinder, internal combustion engine using an air capacitor. An air capacitor is a large volume intake manifold, in between the turbocharger compressor and the engine intake to smooth out the flow. This work builds on previous theoretical and experimental work that shows that a turbocharger could be fitted to a single cylinder engine using an air capacitor to increase intake air density by forty three percent and peak power output by twenty nine percent.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0172
Haijun Chen, Lin Li, Mark Schudeleit, Andreas Lange, Ferit Küçükay, Christian Stamme, Peter Eilts
In view of the rapidly increasing complexity of conventional as well as hybrid powertrains, a systematic composition platform seeking for the global optimum powertrain is presented in this paper. The platform can be mainly divided into three parts: the synthesis of the transmission, the synthesis of the engine and the optimization and evaluation of the entire powertrain. In regard to the synthesis of transmission concepts, a systematical and computer-aided tool suitable both for conventional und hybrid transmission is developed. With this tool, all the potential transmission concepts, which can realize the desired driving modes or ratios, can be synthesized based on the vehicle data and requirements. As a result of the transmission synthesis, the detailed information of each transmission concept, including the transmission structure, the shifting logic, the estimated efficiency in each gear, and the estimated space arrangement of the transmission can be given out.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0173
Jean-Charles Dabadie, Antonio Sciarretta, Gregory Font, Fabrice Le Berr
Due to more and more complex powertrain architectures and the necessity to optimize them on the whole driving conditions, simulation tools are becoming indisputable for car manufacturers and suppliers. Indeed, simulation is at the basis of any algorithm aimed at finding the best compromise between fuel consumption, emissions, drivability, and performance during the conception phase. For hybrid vehicles, the energy management strategy is a key driver to ensure the best fuel consumption and thus has to be optimized carefully as well. In this regard, the coupling of an offline hybrid strategy optimizer (HOT) based on Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP) and an online equivalent-consumption-minimization strategy (ECMS) generator is presented. Additionally, methods to estimate the efficiency maps and other overall characteristics of the main powertrain components (thermal engine, electric motor(s), and battery) from a few design parameters are shown.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0174
Laura Tribioli, Paolo Iora, Raffaello Cozzolino, Daniele Chiappini
Road transportation is proved to be one of the main contributor to pollutant and global greenhouse gas emissions. This, together with the rising of fuel price, is striving the automotive sector research towards innovative solutions. Promising solutions fuel cell vehicles, which generally make use of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with the possibility of further reducing pollutant emissions, giving a satisfactory range without the need of an internal combustion engine. Nonetheless, even being a relatively mature technology, there are still some disadvantages related to the use of fuel cells for vehicles, such as high costs, low power density, and lack of hydrogen infrastructures. The latter issue could be solved by using an on-board fuel processor for hydrogen production.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0167
Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Rinaldini, Tommaso Savioli, Giuseppe Cantore, Alok Warey, Michael Potter, Venkatesh Gopalakrishnan, Sandro Balestrino
A CFD study on a 2-stroke (2-S) opposed piston high speed direct injection (HSDI) Diesel engine is reported in this work. The engine main features (bore, stroke, port timings, et cetera) were defined in a previous stage of the project, with the support of CFD-1D engine simulations and empirical hypotheses. The current analysis is focused on the assembly made up of scavenge ports, manifold and cylinder. The first step of the study consisted in the construction of a parametric mesh on a simplified geometry. Two geometric parameters and 3 different operating conditions were considered. A CFD-3D simulation by using a customized version of the KIVA-4 code was performed on a set of 243 different cases, sweeping all the most interesting combinations of geometric parameters and operating conditions. The post-processing of this huge amount of data allowed us to define the most effective geometric configuration, named baseline.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0168
James W.G. Turner, James P. Lewis Monsma
Modern automotive engines almost exclusively operate on the 4-stroke Otto cycle and utilize poppet valves for gas exchange. This state of affairs has not always been the case, however, and one unusual and relatively successful technology that was once in mass production (albeit in piston aero engines) was the Burt-McCollum single sleeve valve. This paper investigates the timing and angle-area of a Bristol Centaurus engine cylinder, which utilized such a single sleeve valve for gas exchange, using some modern tools. A comparison with poppet valve angle-areas is made. Finally, the results are also used to study the potential of variable valve timing and the interaction with compression ratio of a single sleeve mechanism.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0169
Robert E. Morgan, Neville Jackson, Andrew Atkins, Guangyu dong, Morgan Heikal, Christopher lenartowicz
Electrification of long haul freight applications offers a number of major challenges mainly the cost and weight of on-board energy storage. Efforts to reduce the cost and complexity of electrification will continue, but there will remain a long term need for a clean and efficient chemically fuelled thermal powertrain. Best in class Otto and Diesel cycles engines are now approaching the practical limits of efficiency, requiring new approaches to deliver future improvements. Harnessing waste heat through a bottoming cycle delivers limited benefit due to the narrow temperature range at which heat is recovered and rejected. Integration of heat recovery directly to the main power cycle, via a ‘split engine cycle’ offers a novel approach to achieving significant improvements in efficiency. In the split engine cycle, compression and combustion strokes are performed in separate chambers.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0178
Katarzyna E. Matusik, Daniel J. Duke, Alan L. Kastengren, Christopher F. Powell
The present work is motivated by a need to understand the effects of the ambient environment on the sparking behavior in a spark ignition engine. Measurements of the projected density of the plasma formed by a conventional transistorized coil ignition system were conducted at the 7-BM beamline of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. A spark plug with a 1 mm gap was mounted in a grounded, pressurized chamber that was continually purged by a constant flow of gas. The x-ray radiography technique was used to obtain a 2D map of the projected density of the ambient gas during the transition and glow discharge phases of the spark plug at high temporal and spatial resolution. The projected density provides a measure of the amount of energy that is deposited into the environment by the sparking event. In order to examine the effects of the surrounding gas on the emitted thermal energy, experiments were conducted for a range of ambient densities and gas compositions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0179
Marco Tonetti, Giorgio Rustici, Massimo Buscema, Luca Ferraris
Final Euro6d emission legislation with the new homologation cycle and Real Driving Emission requirements has set a strong challenge for the ICE Passenger Car applications. Thanks to their well-known low fuel consumption characteristics, Diesel Engines can play a key role for the fulfillment of the European 2020 CO2 fleet target but need to confirm their capability to fully control noxious emissions even in extreme operating conditions, while restraining the overall engine costs and complexity. CO2 and NOx emissions reduction are considered the main drivers for diesel engine evolution. In this perspective, Exhaust Gas After-treatment and Combustion System have been identified as the two main technology aspects to be developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe the evolution paths of these two technologies and the results achieved so far in terms of noxious emissions reduction. A methodology has been developed to predict Diesel combustion evolution and its main characteristics.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0153
Sergey Shcherbanev, Alexandre De Martino, Andrey Khomenko, Svetlana Starikovskaia, Srinivas Padala, Yuji Ikeda
Requirements for reducing consumption of hydrocarbon fuels, as well as reducing emissions force the scientific community to develop new ignition systems. One of possible solutions is an extension of the lean ignition limit of stable combustion. With the decrease of the stoichiometry of combustible mixture the minimal size of the ignition kernel (necessary for development of combustion) increases. Therefore, it is necessary to use some special techniques to extend the ignition kernel region. Pulsed microwave discharge allows the formation of the ignition kernels of larger diameters. Although the microwave discharge igniter (MDI) was already tested for initiation of combustion and demonstrated quite promising results, the parameters of plasma was not yet studied before. Present work demonstrates the results of the dynamics of spatial structure of the MDI plasma with nanosecond time resolution.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0152
Mirko Baratta, Daniela Misul, Jiajie Xu, Alois Fuerhapter, Rene Heindl, Cesare Peletto, Jean Preuhs, Patrick Salemi
The present paper is the outcome of the research activity carried out by Centro Ricerche Fiat, Politecnico di Torino, Delphi and AVL within the Gason research project of the EC (H2020 program). The overall goal of the research project is to develop CNG-only SI engines which are able to comply with post-EuroVI emission regulations and 2020+ CO2 emission targets, with reference to the new homologation cycle and real driving conditions. The work presented in this paper aimed at developing a small displacement turbocharged engine, which combines the advanced VVA MultiAir system for the air metering with the direct injection of natural gas. The activity focused on the development and fluid-dynamic characterization of the gaseous-fuel injector. Moreover, the combined use of CFD analysis and optical-access PLIF experimental techniques allowed the design of the combustion chamber to be optimized from the mixture formation point of view.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0155
Marc Sens, Michael Guenther, Matthias Hunger, Jan Mueller, Sascha Nicklitzsch, Ulrich Walther, Steffen Zwahr
The combination of geometrically variable compression (VCR) and early intake valve closure (EIVC) proved to offer high potential for increasing efficiency of gasoline engines. While early intake valve closure reduces pumping losses, it is detrimental to combustion quality and residual gas tolerance due to a loss of temperature and turbulence. Large geometric compression ratio at part load compensates for the negative temperature effect of EIVC with further improving efficiency. By optimizing the stroke/bore ratio, the reduction in valve cross section at part load can result in greater charge motion and therefore in turbulence. Turbocharging means the basis to enable an increase in stroke/bore ratio, because the drawbacks at full load resulting from smaller valves can be only compensated by additional charge pressure.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0154
Ruud Eichhorn, Michael Boot, David Smeulders, Michel Cuijpers
The Free Space Parameter (FSP) is evaluated as a predictor for the efficiency of a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT). Experiments show an optimum value at 2 times the vane height. However, the optimum was found to be dependent on the pressure ratio, yielding an optimum closer to 2.5 at pressures of 2 and 2.5 bar. After this validation the FSP of a conventional VGT is evaluated and an attempt is made to improve the efficiency of this turbine using the FSP. A new geometry is proposed which yields more favorable FSP values. Experiments show that at the original design point the efficiency is unchanged. However, at both larger and smaller nozzle area’s the turbine efficiency improves as predicted by the FSP values. A relative efficiency improvement of 3 to 28 % is attained.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0149
Fabian Hoppe, Matthias Thewes, Joerg Seibel, Andreas Balazs, Johannes Scharf
Gasoline engine powertrain development for 2025 and beyond is focusing on finding cost optimal solutions by balancing electrification and combustion engine efficiency measures. Besides Miller cycle application, cooled exhaust gas recirculation and variable compression ratio, the injection of water has recently gained increased attention as a promising technology for significant CO2 reduction. This paper gives deep insight into the fuel consumption reduction potential of direct water injection. Single cylinder investigations were performed in order to investigate the influence of water injection in the entire engine map. In addition, different engine configurations were tested to evaluate the influence of the altering compression ratios and Miller timings on the fuel consumption reduction potential with water injection.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0148
Srinivas Padala, Shashank Nagaraja, Yuji Ikeda, Minh Khoi Le
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has proven to be very beneficial for fuel economy improvement as well as knock and emissions reduction. Combining with lean burning, it can help modern gasoline engines to become cleaner, more efficient and meeting the stringent emissions limit. However, there is a practical limit for lean mixture and EGR percentage for current engine due to many constraints, one of which being the ignition source. The Microwave Discharge Igniter (MDI), which generates, enhances and sustains plasma discharge using microwave (MW) resonance was tested to assess its ability in extending these limits. A combination of high-speed Schlieren imaging and pressure measurements were performed for propane-air mixture combustion inside a constant volume chamber to compare the dilution and lean limit between MDI and traditional spark plug. Nitrogen addition was carried out during mixture preparation to simulate the dilution condition of EGR.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0151
Matteo De Cesare, Nicolo Cavina, Luigi Paiano
New gasoline engine design is highly influenced by CO2 and emission limits defined by legislations, the demand for real-conditions fuel economy, higher torque, higher specific power and lower costs. Downsizing concepts, including turbocharging in combination with direct injection, have contributed significantly to the recent improvement of gasoline engines. However, other technologies are under evaluation to allow further steps of enhancement for the even more challenging requirements. The main issues of gasoline engines in terms of efficiency and performance are knocking, part-load losses, and thermal stress at high power conditions. This work presents a comparison at concept level between the main technologies that are currently being developed, considering not only the technical benefits, but also their cost-effectiveness.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0150
Srinivas Padala, Minh Khoi Le, Atsushi Nishiyama, Yuji Ikeda
Recent trend in gasoline-powered automobiles focuses heavily on reducing the CO2 emissions and improving fuel efficiency. Part of the solutions involve changes in combustion chamber geometry to allow for higher turbulence, higher compression ratio which can greatly improve efficiencies. However, the changes are limited by the ignition-source and its location constraint, especially in the case of direct injection SI engines where mixture stratification is important. A new compact microwave plasma igniter based on the principle of microwave resonance was developed and tested for propane combustion inside a constant volume chamber. The igniter is constructed from a thin ceramic panel with metal inlay tuned to the corresponding resonance frequency. The discharge is initiated by microwave coming from an antenna that was connected to a semiconductor microwave oscillator.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0160
Mario Marchetti, Riccardo Russo, Salvatore Strano, Mario Terzo
Magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) appear particularly functional for automatic clutch applications due to their capability of rapidly increasing their shear strength when subjected to a magnetic field, and being a viscous fluids when the magnetic field is turned off. They have been investigated since the late 1940s and are employed in different operating modes: in particular, the shear mode is adopted in clutches and brakes. In addition to the controllable property, they have the advantage, with respect to conventional clutches, of not requiring axial loading and the absence of wear. The activity described in this paper has been carried out in the framework of a funded project aimed at evaluating the feasibility of a controllable water pump based on an integrated MRF clutch.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0163
Apostolos Pesiridis, Angelo Saccomanno, Raffaele Tuccillo, Alfredo Capobianco
The automotive industry is under increasing pressure to reduce emissions in order to comply with regulations emanating from the Kyoto Protocol, a universally acknowledged treaty aiming at reducing exhaust gas emissions. In order to achieve the required future emission reduction targets, further developments on gasoline engines are required. One of the principal technologies being implemented to achieve this goal is engine downsizing. Engine downsizing by definition requires some form of boosting and turbocharging is widely adopted as it is a cost effective method to achieve the downsizing an engine whilst reducing exhaust gas emissions, reducing fuel consumption and practically maintaining prior performance targets. For these reasons, turbocharging is becoming an increasingly popular technology with automotive engine manufacturers. Despite the wide spread of this technology, there are still drawbacks present in current turbocharging systems.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0162
Harald Stoffels, Jens Dunstheimer, Christian Hofmann
The application of a turbocharger, having an electric motor/generator on the rotor was studied focusing on the electric energy recuperation on a downsized gasoline internal combustion engine, using 1D-calculation approaches. Using state-of-the art optimization techniques, the settings of the valve timing was optimized to cater for a targeted pre-turbine pressure and certain level of residual gases in the combustion chamber to avoid abnormal combustion events. Subsequently, a steady-state map of the potential of electric energy recuperation was performed while considering in parallel different efficiency maps of the potential generator and a certain wastegate actuation strategy. Moreover, the results were taken as input to a WLTP cycle simulation in order to identify any synergies with regard to fuel economy.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0157
Wolfgang Gross, Ahmad Rabanizada, Konstantin Markstädter, Harald Stoffels, Michael Bargende, Adrian Rienäcker
High combustion pressure in combination with high pressure gradient, as they e.g. can be evoked by high efficient combustion systems and e.g. by alternative fuels, acts as broadband excitation force which stimulates natural vibrations of piston, conrod and crankshaft during engine operation. Starting from the combustion chamber the assembly of piston, conrod and crankshaft and the main bearings represent the system of internal vibration transfer. To generate exact input and validation values for simulation models of structural dynamic and elastohydrodynamic coupled multi-body systems, experimental investigations are done. These are carried out on a 1.5-l inline four cylinder Euro 6 Diesel engine. The modal behavior of the system was examined in detail in simulation and test as a basis for the investigations. In an anechoic test bench combustion pressure, airborne and structure-borne noises are measured to identify the engine´s vibrational behaviour.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0156
Minh Khoi Le, Srinivas Padala, Atsushi Nishiyama, Yuji Ikeda
The Microwave Discharge Igniter (MDI) was developed to create microwave plasma for the improvement of ignition inside combustion engines. The MDI plasma discharge is generated using the principle of microwave resonance with microwave (MW) originating from a 2.45 GHz semiconductor oscillator; it is then further enhanced and sustained using MW from the same source. The flexibility in the control of semiconductors allows multiple variations of MW parameters for MDI, which in turn, affects the resonating plasma characteristics and subsequently the combustion performance. In this study, a wide range of different controlling parameters of MDI and MW signal were selected for a parametric study of the generated Microwave Plasma. Schlieren imaging of the MDI-ignited propane flame were carried out to assess the impact on combustion quality of different MW parameters combinations.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0159
Davide Di Battista, Marco Di Bartolomeo, Carlo Villante, Roberto Cipollone
Internal combustion engines is actually one of the most important source of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions. In particular, on-the-road transportation sector has taken this environmental challenge and worldwide governments set up regulations in order to limit the emissions and fuel consumption from vehicles. Among the several technologies under development, an ORC unit bottomed exhaust gas seems to be very promising, but it still has several complications when it is applied on board of a vehicle (weight, encumbrances, backpressure effect on the engine, safety, reliability). In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model of an ORC unit bottomed a heavy duty engine, used for commercial vehicle, has been developed. The model is completed with the sizing of the two exchangers involved in the ORC plant: the heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) and the condenser.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0158
Teresa Castiglione, Giuseppe Franzè, Angelo Algieri, Pietropaolo Morrone, Sergio Bova
The paper shows how specific requirements of the cooling system of an ICE can be met by actuating the coolant flow rate independently of engine speed, by means of an electric pump and of an ad-hoc developed control system. Given that the proposed methodology is valid for each condition, in the present paper the focus is on the engine operating under fully warmed conditions, with the aim to keep the wall temperature into the prescribed limits, with the lowest possible coolant flow rates. This goal is achieved by properly defining the controller parameters. The developed controller is based on the Robust Model Predictive Control approach, which makes use of a lumped parameter model of the engine cooling system. The model also includes the radiator-thermostatic valve-fan block and incorporates the nucleate boiling heat transfer regime.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0132
Martin Großbichler, Zhen Zhang, Philipp Polterauer, Harald Waschl
To meet current legislation limits, modern diesel engines already achieve very low raw emission levels and utilize additional components for aftertreatment. However, during fast transients still undesired emission peaks can occur for both soot and NOx. These are caused by differences in the in-cylinder conditions between the quasi steady state engine calibration and the transient engine operation, e.g. during tip-ins. These effects become more and more important in view of future RDE emission test cycles. In this work a case study is performed to analyze the potential reduction of transient soot emissions during a specified engine maneuver. An additional target is to investigate potential benefits of a novel in-situ soot sensor based on the Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) principle which offers a high temporal resolution.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0133
Jelica Pavlovic, Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras, Biagio Ciuffo, Marcos Garcia Otura, Germana Trentadue, Ricardo Suarez Bertoa, Federico Millo
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are one of the main options for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and helping vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) to meet the CO2 targets imposed by different Governments from all around the world. In Europe OEMs have introduced a significant number of PHEV models to meet their CO2 target of 95 g/km for passenger cars set for 2021. Fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from PHEVs, however, strongly depend on the way they are used and on the frequency with which their battery is charged by the user. Studies have indeed revealed that in real life, with poor charging behavior from users, PHEV fuel consumption is equivalent to that of conventional vehicles, and in some cases higher, due to the increased mass and the need to keep the battery at a certain charging level.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0130
Antonio Paolo Carlucci, Marco Benegiamo, Sergio Camporeale, Daniela Ingrosso
Nowadays, In-Cylinder Pressure Sensors (ICPS) have become a mainstream technology that promises to change the way the engine control is performed. Among all the possible applications, the prediction of raw (engine-out) NOx emissions would allow to eliminate the NOx sensor currently used to manage the after-treatment systems. In the current study, a semi-physical model already existing in literature for the prediction of engine-out nitric ox-ide emissions based on in-cylinder pressure measurement has been improved; in particular, the main focus has been to improve nitric oxide prediction accuracy when injection timing is varied. The main modification introduced in the model lies in taking into account the turbu-lence induced by fuel spray and enhanced by in-cylinder bulk motion.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0131
Sergio Mario Camporeale, Patrizia D. Ciliberti, Antonio Carlucci, Daniela Ingrosso
The incoming PostEuro6 regulation and the on-board diagnostics -OBD- pushes the research activity towards the set-up of even more efficient after treatment systems. Nowadays, the most common after treatment system for NOx reduction is the selective catalytic reactor –SCR- . This system requires as an input the value of engine out NOx emission –raw- in order to control the Urea dosing strategy. In this work, a grey box NOx raw emission model based on in-cylinder pressure signal (ICPS) is validated on two standard cycles: MNEDC and WLTC using an EU6 engine at the test bench. The overall results show a maximum relative error of the integrated cumulate value integral of 12.8% and 17.4% for MNEDC and WLTC respectively. In particular, the instantaneous value of relative error is included in the range of ± 10% in the steady state conditions while during transient conditions is less than 20% mainly.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 84902