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Technical Paper

Reduction of Human Effort in Shifting and Selection Forces in Manual Transmission System

2019-01-19
2019-26-0366
Transmission system is important part of automobile. In the current era of automobile, there are two types of gear shifting mechanism: manual and automatic. Manual gear shifting mechanism is complex and require much effort for shifting and selection of gear so to surmount much effort by Kinematic analysis of linkages, joints ergonomically. By changing these parameters in gear shifting mechanism it gives flexibility and less effort for shifting and selection of gear. It also reduce feasibility of error of shifting and selection of gear. Transmission system is modeled in CREO 2.0 and measuring forces for shifting and selection of gear in LABVIEW. The final cause of this technical paper is to decrease physical effort by driver for shifting and selection of gear.
Technical Paper

Development of a Innovative Transmission system for Two-Wheelers Using TRIZ Methodology

2019-01-19
2019-26-0369
In a developing country like India, Two-wheelers dominate the automotive market with around 80% market shares. In Indian city traffic conditions, driving a two wheeler is a tiresome job. Manual transmission makes this task even further uncomfortable. So an automatic transmission is a better solution. A new automatic transmission system is developed which can reduce fatigue of drivers. Steps of ARIZ (Algorithm for Inventive Problem Solving) were followed. Ideas or concepts for the design were proposed from various fields and were compared for various parameters like size, weight, complexity, manufacturability, feasibility, efficiency and cost . They were also compared with the existing transmission systems. Based upon the results of the comparison, 5 designs were selected and they were analyzed thoroughly. Finally one design was selected.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Effect of the Tire Inflation Pressure, Inflation Fluids, Load and Speed on Tire Performance

2019-01-19
2019-26-0368
There are various losses associated with passenger vehicle that affect its fuel economy as it is being operated. These losses include engine, driveline, aerodynamic and rolling losses. While engine, driveline and aerodynamic losses are inherent with the vehicle due to large number of parts that go into assembling, rolling loss is associated with the vehicle tires and it is the only part of the vehicle that comes in contact with the road. The rolling resistance of inflated tires is an important component of rolling resistance to vehicle motion and contributes to vehicle fuel consumption. Hence the effect of tire parameters such as inflation pressure, speed and load are the subject of much current interest. Also effect of type of inflation fluid on tire performance is a need of investigation.
Technical Paper

Determination of Principal Variables for Prediction of Fuel Economy Using Principal Component Analysis

2019-01-19
2019-26-0359
The complexity of Urban driving conditions and the human behaviour introduces undesired variabilities while establishing of Fuel economy for a vehicle. These variabilities pose a great challenge while trying to determine that single figure for assessment of vehicle’s fuel efficiency on an urban driving cycle. This becomes even more challenging when two or more vehicles are simultaneously evaluated with respect to a reference vehicle. The attempt to fit a generalized linear model, between Fuel Economy as predicted variable and components of a driving cycle as predictor variables produced oxymoronic and counter-institutive results. This is primarily due to existence of multi-collinearity among the predictor variables. The context of the study is to consider the event of driving on a particular cycle as a random sampling experiment. The outcome of a driving cycle is summarized into a list of predictor variables or components.
Technical Paper

Achieving Compliance to RDE – How Does This Development Target Impact the Development Process, Testing Methodologies and Tools

2019-01-19
2019-26-0358
• Background - RDE and CO2 Fleet consumption reduction • issues to be solve – are existing testbeds capable to efficiently develop towards RDE and CO2 reduction • Solution - focusing on operating points caused by RDE specific testbed hardware is used as well as software tools to enable efficient development. At first glance RDE seems to be a road testing topic only, mistakenly. While Type approval test must be performed at the Road and Chassis Dyno, development work beforehand delivers solutions fulfilling the demanded legislation limits. Making the right development steps and decisions will lead to a technical solution within economy of scales. Much of this work done happens on engine testbeds and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) according to UN-ECE legislation or the new test cycle for the chassis dyno according WLTP (Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Test Procedure) will not change that. The question is, are engine test beds fit for this new challenge or are changes required?
Technical Paper

Effect Of Ambient Temperature And Inflation Pressure On Tire Temperature

2019-01-19
2019-26-0360
Tire failure is identified as a major cause of accidents on highways around the world in the recent past. A tire burst leads to loss of control of the vehicle which ends up in a catastrophe. There are various factors which are accounted for a tire burst. Heat buildup, ageing of tire and cracks on tires are the major ones which are identified. A superior ability of the tire to dissipate the heat generated during operation is a major factor which prevents a tire failure. Other factors such as ambient temperature, inflation pressure etc. contributes to heat buildup which may ultimately result in tire failure. A combination of these factors might manifest as a tire failure at high speeds, the latter being an immediate cause of heat buildup. A dormant crack in the tire might develop if the temperature and pressure conditions are favorable, thus giving away at the weakest point. With regard to the temperature conditions, road conditions, inflation pressure checks etc.
Technical Paper

1D Tire Model Parameter Synthesis for Vehicle Handling Targets Assessment “A Strategy of Optimization and Evaluation of Tire Math’s”

2019-01-19
2019-26-0361
Handling performance of a vehicle is a key characteristic determining the response of vehicle under different operating scenarios. An insight into these vehicle handling characteristics at early stage can be extremely useful in the design and development process. Tire characterization and tuning is important and mandatory to scrutinize each functional and individual parameter of tire. Tire force and moment data is having a significant effect in vehicle handling. Segregation of tire parameter, which is contributing vehicle-handling performance, helps to identify and perform optimization for improvisation. The main objective of this study is development and integration optimized 1D tire model into multibody dynamics model of the vehicle to observe various vehicle compliances towards its handling performance target.
Technical Paper

Aero-Acoustics Noise Prediction of 3D Treaded Tyre Using CFD

2019-01-19
2019-26-0362
Tyre exterior noise legislation (pass-by) is becoming more stringent with time. To cater to these requirements, it is very important to understand the tyre noise generation and enhancing mechanisms such as air pumping, air turbulence, pipe resonance, horn effect in high frequency region from 500Hz to 4000Hz. These phenomena are affected by air flow around and within the tyre pattern hence, CFD based approach is chosen for tyre exterior noise. The CFD based methodology helps in finetuning the thread pattern to reduce aero acoustic noise level and also to reduce the product design cycle time. In present study, 3d transient CFD aero-acoustic modelling approach results were validated against the anechoic tyre rolling noise test data which captures the air-born noise mechanisms for frequency range of 1kHz to 4kHz.
Technical Paper

Securing Inter-Processor Communication in Automotive ECUs

2019-01-19
2019-26-0363
Modern cars now comes with sophisticated telemetry which often involved connecting to the internet over mobile telephone networks or WiFi. The telemetry or cloud functions of the car is typically handled by Telematics Control Unit or the Infotainment System. The microcontrollers (Host Processor) powering the ECUs are very powerful and often have operating systems such as Linux or QNX to drive the large displays or perform modem functionalities. These powerful microcontrollers takes several seconds to startup and does not offer hard real-time performance both of which are critical to handle the vehicle CAN network. Hence, it is common to include a less powerful microcontroller to the ECU to perform the management of the vehicle CAN network. These smaller microcontroller (Vehicle Processor) can startup fast and provide hard real-time performance. The Host Processor and the Vehicle Processor are connected by the Inter-Processor Communication Link (IPCL) to exchange messages between them.
Technical Paper

Framework Standard & Guidelines for Prognosis

2019-01-19
2019-26-0364
Abstract Prognosis is used to improve system availability. This is achieved by minimizing system downtime with the help of mechanisms that senses the degradation in the system health to predict the ‘time-to-failure’ of the system. Degradation in the system’s health is measured by sensing the early signs of aging and wear and tear of the system components. This requires knowledge of all the failure modes of the system along with patterns of behavioral changes in the individual components of the system while it continues to age. Prognosis methods and mechanisms are still evolving. So, no comprehensive guidelines or framework standards exist as of today that can provide reliable and standardized prognosis solutions to the end user customers. The intent of devising such a framework and guidelines is to improve and standardize the implementation of prognosis solutions so that; it will be more effective to all stakeholders from the perspective of safety, cost and convenience.
Technical Paper

Management of RAM Fault for Safety Applications

2019-01-19
2019-26-0365
Introduction As safety compliance (ISO 26262) has become a norm for automotive embedded software development, the OEMs and Tier1s are pushed to follow the safety guidelines during hardware and software development process. This demands for microcontroller/software not only to detect internal faults but also to find the exact root cause of the failure and have a self-healing mechanism. In this article, the injection, detection and safety action of RAM fault will be addressed using specific microcontroller and Vehicle Application. This article will focus on: 1. RAM fault injection, detection and safety action which will cover ISO-26262 functional safety from QM to ASIL-D. 2. RAM test implementation using AUTOSAR Complex Device Driver which contains the complete RAM faults detection and their test manager implementation in accordance with ISO-26262. 3.
Technical Paper

Increased 2-Wheeler Development Efficiency by Using a New Dedicated Test System Solution

2019-01-19
2019-26-0348
Fuel consumption is the most important contributor to the total cost of ownership for mass produced motorcycles. Therefore, best fuel economy is one of the most important influencing criteria for a decision to purchase motorcycles. Furthermore, increasingly stringent emission legislations limits and additional OBD requirements must be fulfilled. A new combined test approach has been developed that minimizes accuracy losses in the development process which compensates for the variability of driving behavior in the chassis dyno environment. An engine testbed combined with a belt drive transmission enables operation in single engine or in Powerpack (i.e. internal combustion engine including transmission) configuration and under steady state or dynamic operating mode. Since the belt drive transmission is integrated in the test rig, realistic inertia situation for the single engine operating test configuration is ensured.
Technical Paper

Evaluation through Realistic Validation. Correlation of CAE with Rig Testing and Field testing for Automotive Wheel by Strain Measurement Method.

2019-01-19
2019-26-0351
Wheel is one of the safety critical components which is being subjected to constant weight reduction but not at the expense of its reliability and durability. The Indian automobiles are subjected to overloading and at the same time endure severe shock loads due to poor road conditions. This forces the vehicle manufacturers to increase the factor of safety on the wheel and also test under severe loading conditions apart from the regulatory requirements and international standard norms. This makes the wheel manufacturers to design not only for the rated or standard load provided by the vehicle manufacturers but also considering the road conditions and OEM torture track testing requirements. Hence, along with the conventional fatigue tests according to the customer requirement, realistic loading conditions needs to be brought in to testing and virtual simulation.
Technical Paper

Tests with a Dynamometer Related to the Determination of Energy Consumption, Dynamic Behaviour, and Slippage of Vehicles

2019-01-19
2019-26-0352
At the University of Applied Sciences Konstanz, Germany, a modern electronically controlled dynamometer and several cars are available for tests. Numerous studies have been carried out, and the latest results will be presented. The paper is intended to explain different tests under load. One focus is the driving cycle WLTC (Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle) and the requirements for the proper conduct of investigation with this driving cycle. Two and three wheelers have a great importance for mobility in various Asian countries. But also in other countries, this segment is very important for the so-called First or Last Mile Vehicles. Because of this, a short explanation of the driving cycle WMTC (Worldwide harmonized Motorcycle Emissions Certification/Test Procedure) is given. The various possibilities for the operation of the dynamometer and for carrying out various experiments are shown.
Technical Paper

Failure Analysis and Multi Frequency Swept Sine Testing of Automotive Engine Oil Sump

2019-01-19
2019-26-0354
Automotive business is more focused towards delivering a highly durable and reliable product at an optimum cost. Anything falls short of customer expectation will ruin the manufacturer’s reputation. To exterminate this, all automotive components shall undergo stringent testing protocol during the design validation process. Nevertheless, there are certain factors in the field which cannot be captured during design validation. This paper aims at developing a validation methodology for engine oil sump by simulating field failure. In few of our vehicles, field failure was observed in engine oil sump near the drain plug location. Preliminary analysis was carried out to find the potential causes for failure. Based on the engine test bed results, multi frequency swept sine testing was carried out in laboratory. Field failure was simulated in the lab test and the root causes for failure were found out.
Technical Paper

Optimized Braking System Sizing by Means of a Parametric 1D Brake Model

2019-01-19
2019-26-0355
This paper presents a methodology that incorporates a 1D (non-geometric) brake model, together with conventional vehicle tests, into the solution of problems associated with the sizing of a braking system. The 1D tool is aimed at predicting the main braking attributes,such as pedal feel or thermal capacity under repeated snubs, and the fulfilment of the legislative requirements —service, emergency and parking brake performance. The model recreates a parametric brake system, and thus allows engineers to understand the impact a parameter (e.g. a specification) might have on the overall performance when it is altered. This calculation provides valuable assistance when sizing a braking system. The vehicle under study, an off-road car, suffered from unacceptable pedal feel —deemed as spongy— and, most importantly, did not satisfy the requirements laid down in AIS 150 for the secondary braking system. The methodology presented is divided into three phases.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Performance of Oxygen Storage Component (OSC) for NO Reduction in Three Way Catalysts to Achieve BS VI Emission Norms

2019-01-19
2019-26-0133
Three way catalysts used in Gasoline / CNG operated vehicles contains oxygen storage component (OSC) as a key component and source for supplying oxygen in rich mode of operation and the oxygen concentration release rate is function of gas concentration and air to fuel ratio (A/F) or lambda (λ). Conventionally, the vehicles (two wheelers) operated using mechanical method such as carburettor, having lambda range is of wider window (0.95 ~ 1.06) and to cover this window, catalyst usually requires a large amount of OSC resulting in to a significant drop in NO conversion as a function of temperature, reductant concentration while switching from rich to lean to regenerate CeO2 sites. Moving from BS IV to BS VI, the NOx conversion requirement is over 90% including deterioration factor limit and thus requires a tight control in terms of lambda as well as OSC optimization.
Technical Paper

Thermally Durable Zeolite Based SCR Catalysts for Controlling NOx Emissions in Diesel Exhaust to Meet BS VI Norms

2019-01-19
2019-26-0130
From the recent past, automotive exhaust emission management strategies are progressing towards an alternative for vanadia based selective catalytic reduction (V-SCR) of NOx in diesel powered vehicles. Some of the major inadequacies of existing V-SCR technology are as follows: • Poisoning tendency of V-SCR • Poor thermal endurance (deteriorates at 550°-600°C) • Volatilization of harmful vanadium into environment • Inadequate NO2 conversion. Metal incorporated zeolite systems, (the metals being preferably selected from transition metal elements), has gained momentum for commercial DeNOx applications. However, the major challenge with this zeolite SCR (Z-SCR) is its low thermal /hydrothermal stability. In the current study, it has been attempted to overcome this by various synthetic combinations. In present study, various combinations of mono metallic & bimetallic Z-SCR were extensively studied for their low and high temperature activities.
Technical Paper

Optimized Electrification Solution for App-Based Taxi’s in Indian Cities

2019-01-19
2019-26-0129
: The emission legislations are becoming more stringent across the globe. The Indian government has also announced the implementation of BS6 emission legislation by 2020 all across Indian cities. App based taxi’s are becoming a lifeline for all major Indian cities, which are predominantly diesel powered compact car applications. The urban growth will lead to pockets of high emission zones. Electrification will be a good idea to improve local air quality in the cities. On one side, upgradation of internal combustion engines will add costs due to expensive exhaust after-treatment system, controls and sensors. On the other side, electric motor driven taxi’s can be ideal solution for emission reduction, but the current available electric vehicles are expensive than its internal combustion engine powered counterparts.
Technical Paper

Catalyst-Based BS VI Stage 2 Emission Control Solutions for Light Duty Diesel

2019-01-19
2019-26-0141
Catalyst-based emission control systems continue to provide major environmental benefits, delivering very high reductions of criteria pollutants (CO, HC, NOx, Particulate Matter (PM) and Particle Number (PN)), as well as enabling enhanced fuel efficiency (and therefore reduced CO2 emissions) from Light Duty Diesel (LDD) engines. Today, these systems typically comprise a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Selective Catalytic Reduction Filter (SCRF®), an SCR flow through catalyst, and an Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC), and deliver substantial real-world reductions in criteria pollutants. This presentation will summarise the current and future LDD emission regulations and outline the catalyst technologies used to meet today’s legislation, as well as those expected to be required to meet future, incoming regulations in the most effective way. Specific topics will include the development of systems to maximise real world NOx conversion.
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