Refine Your Search

Search Results

Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach for Engine Performance Optimization

2018-10-30
2018-32-0082
Model-based approach for engine performance optimization How model-based testing and optimization can support the improvement of performance, drivability, durability and fuel consumption of motorcycle (race) engines //Abstract State-of-the-art motorcycle engines consist of numerous variable components and require a powerful motor management to meet the growing customer expectations and the legislative requirements (e.g. exhaust and noise emissions, fuel consumption) at the same time. These demands are often competing and raise the level of complexity in calibration. In the racing domain, the optimization requirements are usually higher and test efficiency is crucial. Whilst the number of variables to control are growing, the time to perform an engine optimization remains or is even shortened. Therefore, simulation is becoming an essential part of the engine calibration optimization.
Technical Paper

Preparing BMW Motorrad´s Boxer Engine for the Future: Improving Performance, Driveability and Efficiency while Fulfilling Future Emission Standards

2018-10-30
2018-32-0083
Engine development mostly revolves around the same competing goals. With the implementation of the EU4 and EU5 emission standards for motorcycles, this competition between increased performance, better driveability and efficiency, and fulfilling the Emission standards got even stronger. Though the automotive industry offers a variety of solutions for the named topics, their implementation in a high performance motorcycle engine with specific needs regarding packaging, a wide operating range and full load behaviour, represents a special challenge. This paper presents the approach of BMW Motorrad to meet these goals on the example of the boxer engine, focusing on the methodology throughout the development process. The gas exchange system of the engine was optimized using 1D gas dynamic simulations and 3D CFD analysis for a redesign of the valve train, ports and valves.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Comparison in Small, Fast Running Gasoline Engines for non-Automotive Applications

2018-10-30
2018-32-0077
Small engines for non-automotive applications include 2-stroke and 4-stroke gasoline engine concepts which have a reduced number of sensors due to cost and packaging constraints. In order to cope with future emission regulations, more sophisticated engine control and monitoring becomes mandatory. Therefore a cost-effective way has to be found to gain maximum information from the existing sensors and actuators. Due to an increasing bio-fuel share in the market, the detection of bio-fuel content is necessary to guarantee a stable combustion by adapting the injection and ignition control strategy. Meaningful information about the combustion can be retrieved from combustion chamber ion current measurements. This paper proposes a general overview of combustion process monitoring in different engines concepts by measuring the ion current during combustion.
Technical Paper

Development of Anti Lift Control for Motorcycle

2018-10-30
2018-32-0076
In Motorcycle market, customers demand the engine control for safe and fast riding. One of those, the Control for maximum acceleration performance without front tire lift(Anti lift control) is already on the market. We developed more accurate control. In order to maximize the acceleration performance, it is necessary to keep the front lift angle as close as possible to zero. So after the front lift angle increased, the engine torque has to be reduced to keep the front lift angle to zero. But the unduly engine torque reduction cause the worse acceleration performance. Front lift Feedback control is effective to optimize engine torque. But if the feedback gain is increased to keep the front lift angle as close as possible to zero, the engine torque will oscillate and it will deteriorate the ride comfort.
Technical Paper

Study of a Charged Engine for Motorbike Application

2018-10-30
2018-32-0079
Legislation bodies are increasingly pushing vehicles manufacturers all over the world towards the reduction of emissions and fuel consumption of new developed vehicles. These strict requirements applied to motorbikes manufacturers present them with a big challenge, since the efficiency improvement must be achieved without affecting the performance, in terms of torque and power first, and throttle response and drivability, which are significantly important to a motorbike owner. In order to meet the stringent consumption targets, in the recent years, the strategy of “downsizing” has become widespread in the automotive field. The reduction of engine displacement together with the adoption of turbocharging allows shifting the engine operating points in an area of higher efficiency with obvious advantages in terms of fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A Study of Friction Behavior of a Single Cylinder Gasoline Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0078
In order to improve the performance, fuel economy and future emission norms of a reciprocating engine, it is important to reduce the overall engine frictional losses. In this paper, author conducts an experimental study on the friction characteristics due to pumping loss, valve-train system, piston assembly, auxiliaries and transmission for a 110 cc, single cylinder 4 stroke gasoline engine using frictional strip down analysis. This paper deals with the friction performance results for the new concept piston skirt design called the unsymmetrical skirt for least piston skirt friction. Also, parameters like piston profile, oil film thickness optimized for least friction. The piston profile is arrived for optimum contact pattern with least piston slap noise. The modified engine reduced the engine friction by 9% in comparison to the base engine.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Thermal Fatigue Strength by the Addition of Calcium to Hypoeutectic Aluminum-Silicon Alloys

2018-10-30
2018-32-0027
The small engine is used under the severe environment of a large temperature change. Furthermore, it is required to enhance the thermal fatigue strength since the usage environment become more severe for satisfying emission regulations and the demands for high engine power. Hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys are usually utilized for the material of the small engine due to their well-balanced properties such as density, castability and mechanical characteristics. In these alloys, the ductility, which strongly affects the thermal fatigue strength, differs depending on the morphology of the eutectic silicon. Herein, we controlled the morphology of the eutectic silicon by the addition of calcium and investigated castability and the mechanical properties. The sample with different calcium amount and cooling rate in cast was prepared. From cross-section images, it was revealed that the morphology of the eutectic silicon became fine with increasing the calcium amount and the cooling rate.
Technical Paper

Development of Joint Sheet Gasket with Reduced Amount of Aramid Fibers

2018-10-30
2018-32-0026
Gasket made of joint sheet is widely used for mating surfaces of an engine and a transmission. Ahead of the law enforcement of banning of asbestos usage, Honda had already started to apply non-asbestos gasket using aramid fibers as the substitute material for asbestos all over the world. However, aramid fiber is very expensive while the sealing performance of a joint sheet largely depends on the added amount of aramid fibers. Therefore, when it is adopted, the resulting cost increase becomes an issue. Accordingly, we designed a material aiming at the cost reduction while maintaining the required reliabilities for a joint sheet in real applications mainly by reducing the amount of aramid fibers. According to the required characteristics for a joint sheet, the constituent materials of the middle layer were optimized by combining glass fibers with coarse-grained silica as a reinforcement substance into highly fibrillated aramid fibers as the base material.
Technical Paper

Devolopment of a Riding Simulator for Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0031
We developed the motorcycles based on RIDEOLOGY (Ride + Ideology) concept. In the past, the “Ride” was studied by a sensory evaluation with actual driving. However, the recent progress in numerical analysis, there have been developed driving simulators. It allows more qualitative measurement in a sensory evaluation. Therefore, we also developed a riding simulator specialized for motorcycles. In order to develop such riding simulator, there are some technical issues for motorcycles. First, we need to reproduce roll motion of motocycles. Compared to four-wheeled vehicles, motorcycles have a larger operating roll angle and higher center of rotation. Second, we need to reproduce vehicle control by rider’s changing body position. A rider controls vehicle’s lean by shifting his center of gravity. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a measurement system of rider’s body position. Third, we need to improve senses of speed and immersion.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Quasi-Steady State Heat Transfer Phenomena with the Consideration of Backflow Gas Effect at Intake Manifold of IC Engines and its Numerical Analyses on 1-D Engine Simulation

2018-10-30
2018-32-0029
As of early 21st century, automotive industry is genuinely involved with hybrid and electrical vehicles. However, it is safe to say that these new trends are considered to be available solely for developed countries. In a wider perspective, effect and importance of diesel engines still account an important role in the developing countries such as China, Indonesia and so forth. Thus, its performance and efficiency measures still play a crucial aspect both for economy and environment. In order to improve the thermal efficiency and performance of internal combustion engines, it is necessary to model the heat transfer phenomenon at the intake system and predict intake air mass flow rate into the engine cylinder. In the previous studies, the heat transfer phenomenon at the intake system was modeled as quasi-steady assumptions, based on Colburn analogy. Authors developed an empirical equation with the introduction of Graetz and Strouhal numbers, using a port model experimental setup.
Technical Paper

Development of Coaxial Thin Film Temperature Sensor with Improved Measurement Accuracy Based on Principle of Thermoelectromotive Force

2018-10-30
2018-32-0032
In recent years, improvement of fuel consumption and thermal efficiency is strongly required in the internal combustion engine to promote environmental. It is important to clarify the mechanism and reduce of cooling loss, however it is very difficult to measure cooling loss (heat transfer coefficient) from the working gas to combustion chamber wall. Measuring experimentally heat flux from chamber surface to coolant is one of evaluation methods of the cooling losses in the combustion chamber and has been widely used for R&D process in IC engines. Although this method has capability to measure detail of cooling process instantaneously and accurately including local phenomena, but it is necessary to improve the S/N ratio and responsiveness and durability.
Technical Paper

A Study of Cycle-to-Cycle Flow Variations in a Small Spark-Ignition Engine at Low Throttle Opening

2018-10-30
2018-32-0035
Cycle-to-cycle flow variations significantly influence the combustion variations from one cycle to the next, particularly at low operating loads in small spark-ignition engines. Hence in the present work, cycle-to-cycle flow variations are analyzed at low throttle opening in a small spark-ignition engine using particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Experiments are conducted in an optically accessible single-cylinder port-fuel-injection engine (volume: 110 cm3) at 1200 rpm with throttle opening of 25%. Images are captured at different crank angle positions during both intake and compression strokes over a tumble measurement plane bisecting the intake and exhaust valves, and processed using cross-correlation method to obtain the instantaneous velocity fields considering 200 image pairs at each crank angle position considered.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-cylinder Flow and Stratified Mixture on HCCI Combustion in High Load

2018-10-30
2018-32-0016
The purpose of this paper is to find a way to extend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. This paper presents the effect of in-cylinder flow and stratified mixture on HCCI combustion by experiments and three-dimensional computer fluid dynamics coupled with a detailed chemical reaction calculation. The first study was conducted using a rapid compression and expansion machine equipped with a plate to create in-cylinder turbulent flow and with a control unit of in-cylinder wall temperature to create in-cylinder temperature distribution. The study assesses the effect of the turbulent flow and the temperature distribution on HCCI combustion.In the second study, the numerical simulation of HCCI combustion was conducted using large eddy simulation coupled with a detailed chemical reaction calculation. The study analyzes the interaction between in-cylinder turbulent flow and mixture distribution and HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Static Stress and Thermal Analysis of Connecting Rod using FE-Analysis

2018-10-30
2018-32-0034
In series of automobile engine, in running conditions, different components of engine undergoes static and dynamic loadings. While one of the main component known as connecting rod is used to convert linear motion of the piston to reciprocating motion of the crankshaft. In this paper, a comparison study on connecting rods made up of 42CrMo4 Alloy Steel(Forged steel) and 7075-T6(SN) Aluminium Alloy is conducted to analyse the static and thermal stress, using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The main advantage of FEA is Virtual testing, it saves time and money. After measuring the dimension of connecting rod, the CAD model is developed in Solidworks software and imported to Solidworks Simulation software. Static stress analysis is done by fixing the crank end and the load is applied at the piston end of connecting rod and vice-versa. Maximum stress point and section prone to failure is found out by this analysis.
Technical Paper

Diesel CAI Combustion in Uniflow Scavenging 2-Stroke Engine Provided with Port Fuel Injection Device

2018-10-30
2018-32-0015
We studied a simple and inexpensive environmental engine using CAI combustion of diesel fuel. In order to realize CAI combustion with a simple structure, the engine type was a uniflow scavenging 2-stroke engine, aiming at simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM by premixed combustion of diesel fuel. As a result of the test in the prototype engine, it was confirmed to be able to achieve the exhaust gas regulation level required to jointly use CRS, EGR, DPF, DOC, etc. in the diesel engine by low pressure fuel injection by the PFI injector and post processing by DOC. By promoting the vaporization of fuel utilizing the high residual gas characteristics of the 2-stroke engine and promoting the mixing of the air-fuel mixture by the in-cylinder flow, clean diesel fuel CAI combustion was realized with a simple system.
Technical Paper

Developing Efficient Motorcycles Oils

2018-10-30
2018-32-0021
Motorcycle OEMs faced with stringent global fuel economy and emission regulations (such as Euro-5 & BS-VI) are being forced to develop new hardware and emissions control technologies to remain compliant. Motorcycle lubricating oils have become an enabling technology for development of smaller, more efficient engines operating in higher power density regimes. OEMs have therefore become reliant on lubricants to not only provide enhanced durability under more extreme operating conditions, but to also provide fuel economy benefits through reduced frictional losses. Unlike passenger car oils that only lubricate the engine, motorcycle oils must lubricate both the engine and protect the drive train. These additional requirements place greater performance demands versus a conventional crankcase lubricant. The drive train includes highly loaded gears that are exposed to extreme pressures, in turn requiring higher levels of oil film strength and anti-wear system durability.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of the Effect of Injection Strategy and Compression Ratio on Gasoline/Diesel Fueled RCCI Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0017
RCCI engine is proven to have better combustion control and producing very low NOx and soot emissions. However, RCCI engines operations is limit by HRR and PPRR as well as weak combustion efficiency which results in high release of HC and CO. Engine management factors like injection strategy and compression ratio can affect the reactivity of fuels in cylinders as well as the gas temperature increase rate which are the important factors to control the RCCI combustion. Injection strategies such as single and double injections has been studied before but the effects are still unpredictable and the effects of compression ratio towards combustion characteristic and emissions need to be further analyzed. This study using a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) combustion model to study the effect of combustion characteristic and emissions of single, double injections strategy and compression ratio. The model is validated by comparing the simulation result with a previous research.
Technical Paper

A Development of Measurement System for Piston Ring Sliding Surface Pressure

2018-10-30
2018-32-0022
The piston rings, the engine sliding parts, are required to further contribute on mechanical loss reduction in order to improve fuel economy. However, many cases of the abnormal combustion due to the oil upward flow, as well as the increase in oil consumption are been reported. Engine Lubricating oil consumption causes particulate matter, a negative effect on engine after treatment devices, and an increase in users running cost. Furthermore, a negative effect on combustion is reported recently. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanism of those phenomena is still an urgent task. It is widely known that the cylinder bore shape during the actual operation, and the distribution of the sliding face pressure in between the piston ring and the cylinder bore largely influence the oil flow via the sliding face of the piston ring. However, there are many unclear points about the conformability of the piston ring to the cylinder bore and the behavior of the lubricating oil around the piston ring.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network Based Predictive Emission and Fuel Economy Simulation of Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0030
As the number of different engine and vehicle concepts for powered-two wheelers is very high and will even rise with hybridization, the simulation of emissions and fuel consumption is indispensable for further development towards more environmental friendly mobility. In this work, an adaptive artificial neural network based predictive model for emission and fuel consumption simulation of motorcycles is presented. The model is developed in Matlab and Simulink and is integrated to a longitudinal vehicle dynamic simulation whereby it is possible to simulate various and not yet measured test cycles. Subsequently it is possible to predict real drive emissions and on-road fuel consumption by a minimum of previous measurement effort. The modelling approach is adaptive in terms of usability for different engine and exhaust gas treatment systems as the model does not require specific knowledge about technical vehicle parameters, which can be unknown due to manufacturers’ concealment.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Low Viscosity Multi-Grade Engine Oils in 4-Stroke Engine Powered Motor Cycles on Chassis Dynamometer

2018-10-30
2018-32-0023
Indian Two-Wheeler Industry is the largest in the world with the annual growth rate more than 10 percent year after year. More than 60% of gasoline production in India is consumed by two wheeler segment. Ever rising fuel demand and global concern on climate change have focused to develop energy efficient and eco-friendly vehicles. Several techniques such as engine design, efficient transmission and use of better quality of fuels and lubricants are applied world over to improve the efficiency of the vehicles. Low viscosity engine lubricant is one of the approaches which can be easily applied for better fuel economy. The lubricant requirement of motorcycles differs from that of passenger cars. The motorcycle engine oil is subject to both engine as well as wet clutch transmission system which operate under severe conditions.
X