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Viewing 301 to 330 of 86934
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1315
Seon Chae Na, Jong moon Yoo, Chanho Jeong, Doo ri KIM, Moo young KIM, Jun yeol heo
While the need for rear seat comfort and convenience of consumers with a mid-sized sedan is increased, seat specifications for those are limited to luxury and large-sized vehicles. Rear seat reclining is one of those expensive specifications. This paper is a research of the mechanism of seat back reclining linked to cushion which upgraded the rear seat comfort compared to current reclining system of sedan. The mechanism has been optimized as well to reduce weight and cost, thus allowing application for mid-sized sedans.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1313
Yongping hou, Yanwei Huang
Fuel cell vehicle commercialization and mass production are challenged by the durability of fuel cells. In order to research the durability of fuel cell stack, it is necessary to carry out the related durability test. The performance prediction of fuel cell stack can be based on a short time durability test result to accurately predict the performance of the fuel cell stack, so it can ensure the timeliness of the test results and reduce the cost of test. In this paper, genetic algorithm-BP neural network (GA-BPNN) is proposed to modeling automotive fuel cell stack to predict the performance of it. Based on the strong global searching ability of genetic algorithm, the initial weights and threshold selection of neural networks are optimized to solve the shortcoming that the random selection of the initial weights and thresholds of BP neural network which can easily lead to the local optimal value.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1318
Johnell O. Brooks, Lauren Mims, Casey Jenkins, Damian Lucaciu, Pete Denman
Autonomous vehicles have the potential to provide mobility to individuals who experience transportation disadvantages due to the inability to drive as a result of physical, cognitive or visual limitations as well as able-bodied individuals with no/limited desire to drive. Individuals who do not have easy access to transportation have social, academic, health and career disadvantages in comparison to their peers. Fully autonomous vehicles have the potential to offer mobility solutions to these individuals. A user-center design approach was utilized by a multidisciplinary team representing engineering, human factors and design to develop future vehicle concepts for a broad range of users.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1310
Yongping hou, Lin Liu
In the assembling process of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, the clamping load is known to have direct effect on the contact pressure of interfaces. Compression on the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) results in change in gas diffusion layer (GDL), porosity and electrical resistance, thus affecting the performance, durability and reliability of the PEMFC stack. In this paper, the relation between clamping load and performance of PEMFC stack was obtained by experimental study, and the influence of clamping load on the contact pressure of MEAs was analyzed by finite element analysis. The performance test rig was established and the approach of polarization curve testing was introduced. Both the effect of magnitude and distribution of the bolt torques on the performance were taken into account. The finite element model was adopted to figure out the magnitude and uniformity of contact pressure of MEAs, which provides a new angle to understand the experimental results.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0121
Carl Caruana, Gilbert Sammut, Mario Farrugia
Several methods are nowadays used by OEM’s in order to determine engine friction through experiments to help them develop friction correlations to be used in 1D simulation models. Some of the friction measurement methods used are; Willan’s Line, Morse test, Teardown test and Indicated Method. Each of these methods have their own disadvantages, with some reliant on heavy assumptions. In this paper a friction measurement method is discussed which requires a conventional motoring dynamometer cell by which the engine can be motored at different speeds. The exhaust manifold of the 2 litre, 4 cylinder diesel engine was shorted to the intake manifold with an unrestrictive ‘shunt’ pipe which reroutes the exhausted air to the intake. The shunt pipe was pressurised by an external source of compressed air to make up for blow-by losses. It is noted that the compressed air supply is thus a small fraction of what would be required if no recirculation is used.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0122
Kenji Matsumoto, Yuji Mihara, Hiroyoshi Taniguchi, Hideharu Koga
We have reported that operating a continuously variable transmission (CVT) metal belt over a long time results in formation of austenite (Gamma phase) at the topmost surface of pulleys. In general, martensite arising from heat treatment forms at the surface of pulleys and gears. Therefore, the sliding surface has a body-centered cubic (BCC) metal structure, and transformation to and existence of austenite (Gamma phase) is difficult unless there is a thermal history exceeding the eutectoid point. We have made attempts to accurately measure the sliding surface temperature for verification, but many parts rotate inside an operating CVT and measurement of the pulley surface temperature was difficult. To overcome this issue, we newly developed a non-contact temperature measurement system and reported on measurement near the actual contact portion to predict the temperature of the actual contact portion using the heat equation.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0124
Guojun Wang, Weiwen Deng, Sumin Zhang, Jinsong Wang, Shun Yang
With the development of autonomous driving, performance testing and evaluation are considered as an increasingly important role for autonomous vehicle development. At the initial stage of test technology development of autonomous vehicle, most of the test technologies only involved test method research and test environment design for single or several functions. With the maturity of single technology and integrated system, single evaluation is becoming the complex comprehensive evaluation. However, most of them are based on specific tasks or scenarios which cannot effectively guide the development of autonomous driving. According to the hierarchical function architecture of autonomous vehicle, combining scenario-based testing with functionality-based testing, this paper proposes a three-axis model for evaluating the performance level of autonomous vehicle. Each axis refers to a metric group, which can be environment perception level, decision-making level, and execution level.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0125
Manthiramoorthy G, Deepak Anand Subramanian, Natarajan Siva Kumar
In the emerging commercial vehicle sector, it is very essential to give a product to customer, which is very reliable and less prone to the failures to make the product successful in the market. In order to make it possible, the product is to be validated to replicate the exact field conditions in which it is going to be operated. Lab testing plays a vital role in reproducing the field conditions which helps to reduce the lead time in overall product life cycle development process. This project deals with the design and fabrication of the steering column slip endurance test rig which is capable of generating wear on the steering column splines coating which predominantly leads to failure on steering wheel slip at the customer end. The data acquired from proving ground was analyzed and block cycles were generated with help of data analyzing tools.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0126
Emilio Banuelos, Luis Carlos Navarro H., Nandan A. Sawkar, Surendra Gaikwad
In an Internal Combustion (IC) Engine, the exhaust manifold has the primary function of channeling unburned fuel and residual hot gases from cylinder head runners to the emissions system through a collector. Exhaust manifolds must endure severe thermal loads caused by channeling extremely hot gases, and high strain due to fastener loads. The combination of these two loads can lead to Thermomechanical Fatigue (TMF) failures after repeated operational cycles if they are not assessed and addressed adequately during the design process. Therefore, it is vital to have a methodology in place to evaluate the life of an engine component (such as the exhaust manifold) using a TMF damage prediction model. To accomplish so, spatial temperature prediction and maximum value attained, as well as temporal distribution, are the most important input conditions.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0113
Hua-Chu Shih, Guofei Chen
Edge fracture of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) can occur in both stamping process and crash event. Fracture in sheared edges during stamping has been reduced using a recently developed optimal shearing process for AHSS. However, the edge fracture improvement resulting from the optimal shearing process on the energy absorption during crash under different loading conditions has not been closely verified. In this study, a miniature component of AHSS and a three-point bending test were designed and built to investigate the influence of the sheared edge conditions on the energy absorption in crash. AHSS including DP600, TRIP 780, DP980 and DP1180 selected and a small channel component was fabricated to simulate key features of the B-pillar. The exposed non-constrained as-sheared edge was subjected to stretch bending in three-dimensional space during the three-point bending test.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0114
John R. Brink, Ravi Kodwani, Rogerio Nakano
In 2016 the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) approached Altair with a desire to establish the current state-of-the-art of the explicit finite element software, RADIOSS, for predicting the crash behavior of composite laminates as it relates to application in the automotive industry. Coupon and component level test data were supplied to help with the development of material modeling. Final correlation was to a series of “blind” sled tests completed on a composite bumper and crush cans. The data from these tests was shared only after Altair submitted the RADIOSS predictions to USAMP
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0116
Chien-Po Huang, Wei-Ning Chen, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan
Effects of impact velocity on the compressive behavior of representative volume element (RVE) specimens of lithium-ion battery modules are investigated by experiments and computations. An impact test machine using pressurized nitrogen was designed to perform impact tests of module RVE specimens. The experimental results show the effects of impact velocity on the compressive behavior of module RVE specimens. The experimental results also show the physical mechanisms of module RVE specimens under dynamic loading conditions. Computational models are also developed for simulations of module RVE specimens under dynamic loading conditions. The computational results show that the computational models can be used to simulate the load-displacement curves of module RVE specimens under dynamic loading conditions.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0117
Paul McKune, Alex Khutorsky, Kapil Butala
Press hardenable ultra high strength steel (UHSS) is commonly used for automotive components to meet crash requirements with minimal mass addition to the vehicle. Press hardenable steel (PHS) is capable of forming complex geometry with deep sections since the forming takes place at elevated temperatures up to 900 degrees C (in the Austenitic phase). This forming process is known as hot-stamping. The most commonly used PHS grade is often referred to as PHS1500. After hot-stamping, it is typically required to have a yield strength greater than 950 MPa and a tensile strength greater than 1300 MPa. Most automotive design and material engineers are familiar with PHS, the hot-stamping process, and their capabilities. What is less known is the capability of 3rd generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) which are cold stamped, also capable of forming complex geometry, and are now in the process of, or have recently completed, qualification at most automotive manufacturers.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0118
Qiang Gao, Yuanlong wang, Zheng-Dong Ma, Hong Zhong
The double-V honeycombs (DVH) are a type of auxetic materials showing the negative Poisson’s ratio which can contract under compression different from the conventional materials. Due to the unique properties, it can have higher stiffness and better impact resistance with light weight. In this paper, a cylindrical honeycomb tube based on the double-V unit structure is proposed. First, the nominal Poisson’s ration, Young’s module in the longitudinal and circumferential directions and radial compliance are derived analytically. Also, the thickness in radial direction of the DVH honeycomb tube on these mechanical properties are analyzed. Second, the finite element(FE) method is utilized to obtain the numerical solutions and verify the accuracy of the analytical solutions. The results show that there is a good agreement between the results obtained by the two methods.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0119
xian Wu, Shuxian Zhang, Jianwang Shao
The metallic NPR metamaterials designed in this study are based on re-entrant lattice structures. Re-entrant structures are known to be one main class of auxetic structures that display negative Possion’s ratio, which can be manufactured by 3D printing technology. This kind of metamaterial has good designability. We can change its overall mechanical properties by changing its geometric parameters. In order to achieve better impact performance, the structure can be designed into some gradient types. The mechanical properties of different gradient structures under the same impact conditions were compared to find the proper gradient structures. On the other hand, the impact performance can also be changed by the impact conditions. The initial impact velocity was changed to study the effect of impact conditions on the mechanical properties of the gradient structure. Based on the studies, we applied the lattice structure to the automobile energy absorbing box.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0105
Victor Li, Yulong Ge, Sai Guo, Zhengliang Su, Yong Xia
In recent years, structural adhesives have rapidly become the preferred alternative to resistance spot welding in fabricating stronger, lighter aluminum connections. These joints inevitably undergo and must withstand complex quasi-static and/or dynamic loads during their operating lifetime. Therefore, understanding how loading conditions affect the mechanical behavior of adhesive joints is vital to the advancement of structural safety and is worthy of thorough study. Quasi-static and dynamic tests are performed to analyze both the strength and failure mode of aluminum 6062 substrates bonded by adhesives (Darbond EP-1506) at different loading conditions. An Arcan test device, which allows for the application of mixed mode loads ranging from pure peel (Mode I) to pure shear (Mode II) to the adhesive layer, is employed in quasi-static testing. A self-designed, servo-hydraulic medium speed test machine is utilized to perform dynamic testing.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0107
Xiaoming Chen, Guofei Chen, Lu Huang
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS), due to their significantly higher strength than the conventional high strength steels, are increasingly used in the automotive industry to meet future safety and fuel economy requirements. Unlike conventional steels, the properties of AHSS can vary significantly due to the different steel making processes and their fracture behaviors should be characterized. In the crash analysis, a fracture model is often integrated in the crash simulations to predict fracture during crash events. In this paper, crash simulations including a fracture criterion are conducted for a third generation AHSS i.e., 980GEN3. A generalized incremental stress state dependent damage model (GISSMO) in LS-Dyna is employed to evaluate the fracture predictability in the crash simulation.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0106
Saurabh Sharma
Improved infrastructure is creating a demand of more trucks on road . On the other hand drivers and owners are becoming demanding and quality conscious. Exteriors are the face of any commercial vehicle which makes the first impression. Robustness is an important criterion in defining exteriors as truck is prone to different accidents and dashes in construction sites. Exterior with metal parts is the basic need which a customer always demands. Tooling of metal parts is too costly and it is always viable goes with high volumes for OEM’s. An alternative which is popular for the same is SMC composite but it is feasible in low volumes and not a durable composite during hitting and cracks are generated which leads to a huge part cost to customer. There are drawback of metal also as it is more in weight and also a good amount of money spent by customer in repairing metal parts.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0109
Nao Sugimoto, Naoki Takaki, Kenji Takada
Demands are increasing for the reduction of vehicle weight to enhance automobile fuel efficiency and driving performance, with the use of aluminum alloys expected to help. High-strength aluminum alloys (6xxx series, 7xxx series) are called for to enhance crash safety performance, and the prediction of material fracture is a key factor in the application of these alloys. This research presents a FEM model that can predict both tensile fracture and bending fracture when large deformations occur in the extrusion direction of high-strength aluminum alloy extrusion. The fracture characteristics of high-strength aluminum alloy extrusion were obtained by tensile and bending tests, and the factors governing ductile performance were clarified. Fracture was defined in the FEM model using the Cockcroft-Latham ductile fracture model.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0111
Tim Reaburn
An Ultralight Weight Door (ULWD) has been developed that is 40% lighter than a baseline 2016 mid-size vehicle’s driver side door. The ULWD scope encompasses the entire door, including the door-in-white (DIW), interior trim, glazing, hardware, wiring, etc. To achieve such a substantial mass reduction while still meeting the baseline vehicle’s performance metrics (including safety, durability, NVH, appearance, etc.) at a minimal cost increase, the door design relies on a comprehensive full system approach that includes a unique architecture in addition to lightweight materials and components. To optimize the strength and weight of the ULWD, a new aluminum intensive DIW architecture construction was developed. The new structure features 5000 series and 6000 series aluminum stamped panels, aluminum vacuum die cast, and warm formed 7000 series aluminum door beam.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0108
Zhexin Pan, Puying Zhao, Xinqi Wei, Huili YU
Metal foil is a widely-used material in the automobile industry, of which the honeycomb barriers is made, and used as current collectors in Li-ion batteries. Plenty of studies proved that the metal foil is quite different from the metal sheet because of the size effect on microscopic scale, as the metal foil shows a larger fracture stress and a lower ductility than the metal sheet. While, the fracture behavior and accurate constitutive model of metal foil with the consideration of the strain rate effect are widely concerned in further studies of battery safety and the honeycomb. This paper has conducted experiments on 3 aluminum foil of different thickness, exploring the quasi-static and dynamic micro-tensile testing method and the anisotropy mechanical behavior for the very thin foil. Two metal foil dog-bone specimens and a bunch of notched specimens are tested fulfilling the range of strain rates from 2×〖10〗^(-4)/s to 40/s and various stress states.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0097
Henry Guo, Wenchuan Jia, Farid Ahdad
Rotor failure in housings at high rotational speed is a critical event in the automotive and aerospace industry. The design of the containment housing that encloses the rotor burst is important to ensure the safety of the surrounding area. It is essential to perform rotor containment testing and numerical simulation study. This paper first presents the results of a series of regular disk with same geometry and tube with different thickness containment testing. The disk is made of nickel base alloy and the tube is made of high silicon molybdenum (HiSiMo) ductile iron. The regular disk is released at certain rotating speed which subsequently impacts the inner wall of the tube with uniform thickness. Three groups of tests are conducted at the high speed rotor spin testing facility in the laboratory with different disk rotating speed and tube thickness. Then numerical simulations are carried out using nonlinear finite element method to repeat and study the impact process.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0110
Stephen Roper, Daozhong Li, Vlad Florea, Christopher Woischwill, Il Yong Kim
The automotive industry is facing significant challenges for next-generation vehicle design as fuel economy regulations and tailpipe emission standards continue to strive for greater efficiency. In order to ensure vehicle design reaches these sustainability targets, lightweighting through multi-material design and topology optimization (TO) has been suggested as the leading method to reduce weight from conventional component and small assembly structures. More effective tools, techniques, and methodologies are now required to advance the development of multi-phase optimization tools beyond current commercial capability, and help automotive designers achieve critical efficiency improvements without sacrificing performance. Presented here is a unique tool description and practical application of multi-material topology optimization (MMTO), a direct extension of the classical single-material problem statement (SMTO).
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0096
Guowei zhou, Qingping Sun, Danielle Zeng, Dayong Li, Xuming Su
Dynamic 3-point bending test and axial crush test are performed on carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite components. The energy absorptions of unidirectional (UD) and woven fabric composites with different layups are compared at various impact velocities. The experimental results show delamination is one of the key failure modes. Without considering delamination in simulation, the predicted results are away from the experimental ones both in loading curve and failure phenomenon. With simple assumption of delamination, the simulation with MAT 54 and 58 in Lsdyna shows good agreement with the experimental ones.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0099
Sujit Mohire, Pravin kathale, Mithun Chaskar, Vishveshvar Tendulkar
Drive components of live axle undergoes different loading conditions during field usage depending upon terrain conditions, vehicle loading and traffic conditions etc. Drive components experiences loading in terms of different torque levels while running on vehicle. Testing of these drive components of axle on test rig for endurance life is an imperative part of axle development, owing to limitations of vehicle testing on account of time and cost involved. Similarly, correlating field failures with rig testing is equally critical. In such situation, if a test cycle is derived correlating the field usage, rig testing can be effectively used for durability and reliability testing. To bridge this gap, an approach is presented in this paper wherein test cycle is derived based on the data collected on vehicle in the field under service road and loading conditions.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0098
Zhangxing Chen, Manlin Wang, Yimin Shao, Qingping Sun, Haibin Tang, Hongyi Xu, Katherine Avery, Danielle Zeng, Xuming Su
Chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound(SMC) material is a promising candidate for mass-production vehicle components. However, the experimental characterization of SMC material property is still a challenging task and needs to be further investigated. There now exists two ASTM standards (ASTM D7078/D7078M and ASTM D5379/D5379M) for characterizing the shear properties of composite materials. However, which standard is suitable for SMC material characterization is still unknown. To find out a suitable way for characterize the shear property of SMC material, Digital Image Correlation(DIC) shear tests according to two standards are conducted separately to make a comparison. The results show that none of the test samples according to ASTM are valid. Moreover, the failure mode of these samples indicate that the failure is caused by the additional moment raised by the improper design of the fixture.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0103
J.P. Weiler, G. Wang, R. Berkmortel
Historically, accelerated cyclic corrosion test protocols utilized by OEM’s have been developed based on a great knowledge and abundant vehicle field-data of primarily steel-containing vehicle components. Laboratory accelerated cyclic corrosion tests with repeated cycles of wet, dry, humid, and / or corrosive media application have been developed both separately, and in partnerships, such as in the case of SAE J2334, to simulate a severe corrosive field environment for evaluation of cosmetic corrosion performance of painted steel. With the interest in lightweight metals such as Aluminum and Magnesium in automotive applications, the validity and confidence of these accelerated test protocols with vehicle field data of lightweight metals is valuable to further increasing the usage of these metals. Over the last several years, Meridian has completed a long-term assessment of the corrosion performance of as-cast and powder coated die-cast magnesium in an underbody vehicular environment.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0102
Dong Young LEE, Seok Ha
As environmental problems such as global warming are emerging, regulations on automobile exhaust gas are strengthened and various exhaust gas reduction technologies are being developed in various countries in order to satisfy exhaust emission regulations. EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) technology is a very effective way to reduce nitrogen oxides at high combustion temperatures by using EGR coolers to lower the combustion temperature. This EGR cooler has been mass-produced in stainless steel, but it is expensive and heavy. Recently, high efficiency and compactness are required for the EGR cooler to meet the new emission regulation. If aluminum material is applied to the EGR cooler, heat transfer efficiency and light weight can be improved due to high heat transfer coefficient of aluminum compared to conventional stainless steel, but durability is insufficient. In order to obtain enhanced performance and durability of EGR cooler, 5-layer aluminum clad material is developed.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0154
Prashant kumar, Sameer Srivastava, Arnab Sandilya, Kapil Kumar Pandey, Pavan pabba
Increasing customer expectations of comfort and convenience inside the vehicle has resulted in OEMs working on various solutions to improve interior ergonomics and overall layout. One of the key areas of focus has been the ease of ingress into and egress from the vehicle. But with increased sharing of platforms in OEM Model Lineup, due to obvious benefits like cost and common tooling/parts, it is very difficult to achieve improved results in different vehicles(like Hatchback, Notchback, SUV etc.) but with same underpinnings. In such a scenario, one of the commonly used approaches is provision of false flooring for front / Rear Passengers for easy Egress-Ingress. Various materials like Synthetic felts, PU foam blocks, Rubber blocks, expanded polypropylene etc. are used to this end. Of the various requirements, any solution for this application, compressive strength is a key requirement.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0155
Max Sardou
SARDOU SAS has developed highly stressed composites parts for 36 years. SARDOU SAS and QUALITY INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT jointly invented and patented composite “C” springs in 1993. We have designed and tested ultra-performance “C” springs, giving an incredible energy density of 1350 joules per kilogram (compared to 300 for steel springs). This energy density means a potential 78% weight savings! But in the last century, weight savings was not a must and platform personnel were reluctant to use anything else than coil springs. So in 2002, in order to comply with the wishes of platform personnel, we have invented and developed composite coils springs. Composite coils springs are the best choice for McPherson suspensions. We have identified that the weak point, in composite coils springs, is its epoxy matrix. During heavy loading, the matrix undergoes micro cracking. Then, during repeated loadings, micro cracks propagate and merge, transforming the matrix into a fine powder.
Viewing 301 to 330 of 86934