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Technical Paper

A Method to Evaluate the Compression Ratio in IC Engines with Porous Thermal Barrier Coatings

2018-09-10
2018-01-1778
The compression ratio is an important engine design parameter. It determines to a large extend engine properties like the achievable efficiency, the heat losses from the combustion chamber and the exhaust losses. The same properties are affected by insulation of the combustion chamber. It is therefore especially important to know the compression ratio when doing experiments with thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In case of porous TBCs, the standard methods to measure the compression ratio can give wrong results. When measuring the compression ratio by volume, using a liquid, it is uncertain if the liquid fills the total porous volume of the coating. And for a thermodynamic compression ratio estimation, a model for the heat losses is needed, which is not available when doing experiments with insulation. The subject of this paper is the evaluation of an alternative method to assess the compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Measurements of HNCO Hydrolysis over SCR Catalyst

2018-09-10
2018-01-1764
To meet the strict emission regulations for diesel engines, an advanced processing device such as a Urea-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system is used to reduce NOx emissions. The Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test, which is implemented in the European Union, will expand the range of conditions under which the engine has to operate [1], which will lead to the construction of a Urea-SCR system capable of reducing NOx emissions at lower and higher temperature conditions, and at higher space velocity conditions than existing systems. Simulations are useful in improving the performance of the urea-SCR system. However, it is necessary to construct a reliable NOx reduction model to use for system design, which covers the expanded engine operation conditions. In the urea-SCR system, the mechanism of ammonia (NH3) formation from injected aqueous urea solution is not clear. Thus, it is important to clarify this mechanism to improve the NOx reduction model.
Technical Paper

Supervisory Controller for a Light Duty Diesel Engine with an LNT-SCR After-Treatment System

2018-09-10
2018-01-1767
Look ahead information can be used to improve the powertrain’s fuel consumption while efficiently controlling exhaust emissions. A passenger car propelled by a Euro 6d capable diesel engine is studied. In the conventional approach, the diesel powertrain subsystem control is rule based. It uses no information of future load requests but is operated with the objective of low engine out exhaust emission species until the Exhaust After-Treatment System (EATS) light off has occurred, even if fuel economy is compromised greatly. Upon EATS light off, the engine is operated more fuel efficiently since the EATS system is able to treat emissions effectively. This paper presents a supervisory control structure with the intended purpose to operate the complete powertrain using a minimum of fuel while improving the robustness of exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

POD-Based Analysis of In-Cylinder Flow Data from Molecular Tagging Velocimetry in a Spark-Ignition Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1770
The fluid motion inside the engine cylinder is transient, three-dimensional and highly turbulent. It is also well known that cycle-to-cycle flow variations have a considerable influence on cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. Laser-based diagnostic techniques, for example, particle image velocimetry (PIV) or molecular tagging velocimetry, can be used to measure two or three components of the velocity field simultaneously at multiple locations over a plane. The use of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) allows quantification of cycle-to-cycle flow variations, as demonstrated using PIV data [1]. In the present work, POD is used to explore the cycle-to-cycle flow variations utilizing molecular tagging velocimetry data. The instantaneous velocity fields were obtained over a swirl measurement plane when engine was operated at 1500 rpm and 2500 rpm.
Technical Paper

Combined CFD - PIV Methodology for the Characterization of Air Flow in a Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1769
It is known that in-cylinder airflow structures during intake and compression strokes deeply affects the combustion process in compression ignition (CI) engines. This work presents a methodology for the analysis of the swirling structures by means of the CFD proprietary code Converge 2.3. The methodology is based on the CFD modelling and the comparison of results with in-cylinder velocity fields measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Furthermore, the analysis is extended to the accuracy evaluation of other methods available to define the flow in the cylinder of internal combustion engines, such as experiments in steady flow rigs. These methods, in junction with simple phenomenological models, have been traditionally used to determine some of the fundamental variables that define the in-cylinder flow in ICE engines. The CFD analysis is focused in the flow structures around top dead centre (TDC) at the end of the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Effects of Combustion Chamber Structure and Oxygen Enriched Air on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Marine Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1786
In order to improve the combustion and emissions for high-speed marine diesel engines, numerical investigations on effects of different combustion chamber structures combined with oxygen enriched air have to be conducted. The study uses AVL Fire code to establish three-dimensional combustion model and simulate the in-cylinder flow, air-fuel mixing and combustion process with the flow dynamics metrics such as swirl number and uniformity index, analyze the interactional effects of combustion chamber structures and oxygen enriched air against the experimental data for a part load operation at 1350 r/min, find the optimized way to improve engine performance as well as decrease the NOx and soot emissions. The novelty is that this study is to combine different oxygen concentration with different combustion chamber structures including the re-entrant chamber, the straight chamber and the open chamber.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Roller Follower Hydraulic Lash Adjustor to Eliminate Lash Adjustment and Reduce Noise in a Serial Production Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1766
Commercial vehicles require continual improvements in order to meet fuel emission standards, improve diesel aftertreatment system performance and optimize vehicle fuel economy. Aftertreatment systems require significant space claim which makes vehicle packaging a challenge. Today’s diesel engines require valvetrain lash adjustment settings at distinct intervals to ensure proper valvetrain performance. This requires removing the engine rocker cover to access the valvetrain rocker arms for setting lash. Setting lash for compact vehicle applications sometimes requires removing the aftertreatment system to provide access to the rocker cover prior to setting lash. Then, the rocker cover is reinstalled followed by the aftertreatment system making the lash setting process time consuming and complex.
Technical Paper

Effects of the Differences in Driving Behavior on Fuel Economy and Emission Characteristics during Vehicle Simulator Execution

2018-09-10
2018-01-1768
Around the world, fuel economy and emission regulations for vehicles have become increasingly stringent year by year. In Europe, the real driving emission (RDE) testing was introduced for evaluating the emission at driving the road-going vehicles after September 2017. In order to effiency produce the actual vehicles, Each automobile manufacturer introduce the “Hardware In the Loop Simulator” (HILS) and “Engine In the Loop Simulator” (which is called the EILS or the extended HILS [1, 2]), which is combined with HILS and an actual engine. However, if the driver model used in the vehicle simulation (HILS, extended HILS) does not correctly simulate actual human driving behaviors, the model vehicle performances will differ from the actual vehicle performance. The fuel economy and emission characteristics are affected by the differences of the driver model control logic during the execution of vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Late Stage Conventional Diesel Combustion - Effect of Additives

2018-09-10
2018-01-1787
The accepted model of conventional diesel combustion [1] assumes a rich premixed flame slightly downstream of the maximum liquid penetration. The soot generated by this rich premixed flame is burnt out by a subsequent diffusion flame at the head of the jet. Even in situations in which the centre of combustion (CA50) is phased optimally to maximize efficiency, slow late stage combustion can still have a significant detrimental impact on thermal efficiency. Data is presented on potential late-stage combustion improvers in a EURO VI compliant HD engine at a range of speed and load points. The operating conditions (e.g. injection timings, EGR levels) were based on a EURO VI calibration which targets 3 g/kWh of engine-out NOx. Rates of heat release were determined from the pressure sensor data. To investigate late stage combustion, focus was made on the position in the cycle at which 90% of the fuel had combusted (CA90). An EN590 compliant fuel was tested.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Effects of Oxygen-Enriched Air and Intake Air Humidification on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Marine Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1788
In order to meet the increasingly stringent emissions restriction, it is indispensable to improve the combustion and emissions technology of high-speed marine diesel engines. Oxygen-enriched combustion and intake air humidification are effective ways to control pollution from diesel engines and improve combustion of diesel engines. In this study, the combustion and emission characteristics of supercharged intercooled marine diesel engine with humidity ratio and intake oxygen concentration were investigated by using multi-dimensional CFD model. The combustion model was established by AVL Fire code. The combination strategy of intake air humidification and oxygen-enriched combustion were optimized under partial load at 1350 rpm.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Thermal Efficiency in a Diesel Engine with High-Pressure Split Main Injection

2018-09-10
2018-01-1791
This study aims to utilize high-pressure split-main injection for improving the thermal efficiency of diesel engines. A series of experiments was conducted using a single-cylinder diesel engine under conditions of an engine speed of 2,250 rpm and a gross indicated mean effective pressure of 1.43 MPa. The injection pressure was varied in the range of 160–270 MPa. Split-main injection was applied to reduce cooling loss under the condition of high injection pressure, and the split ratio and the number of injection stages were varied. The dwell of the split main injection was set to near-zero in order to minimize the elongation of the total injection duration. As a result, thermal efficiency was improved owing to the combined increase in injection pressure, advanced injection timing, and split-main injection. According to the analysis of heat balance, a larger amount of the second part of the main injection decreased the cooling loss and increased the exhaust loss.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostics of Inversed-Delta Rate Shaping Diesel Spray Flame towards Reduction of Late Combustion

2018-09-10
2018-01-1793
In our previous work, diesel late combustion heat release is suspected to originate from rich fuel mixture cloud stagnating at the spray tip. Injection rate shaping is gaining attention as an attractive strategy to control diesel spray combustion characteristics where it could be an effective approach in reducing the late combustion. Progressive ramp-down injection rate as in “inversed-delta” shape is achieved by using a novel rate shaping injector called TAIZAC (TAndem Injectors Zapping Activation); rate shaping can be realized by controlling the actuation timing of two directly-connected commercially available injectors. To investigate the potential of inversed-delta rate shaping for reduction of diesel late combustion, simultaneous high-speed UV laser diffuse back illumination (DBI), UV emissions and soot luminosity imaging of inversed-delta and conventional rectangle-injected spray flames conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber are compared.
Technical Paper

Bowl Geometry Effects on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1794
Diesel piston bowl geometry can affect turbulent mixing and therefore it impacts heat-release rates, thermal efficiency, and soot emissions. The focus of this work is on the effects of bowl geometry and injection timing on turbulent flow structure. This computational study compares engine behavior with two pistons representing competing approaches to combustion chamber design: a conventional, re-entrant piston bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for a part-load, conventional diesel combustion operating point with a pilot-main injection strategy under non-combusting conditions. Two injection timings are simulated based on experimental findings: an injection timing for which the stepped-lip piston enables significant efficiency and emissions benefits, and an injection timing with diminished benefits compared to the conventional, re-entrant piston.
Technical Paper

Effect of Butanol Addition on Performance, Combustion Stability and Nano-Particle Emissions of a Conventional Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1795
This study presents the experimental investigation of performance, combustion, gaseous and nano-particle emission characteristics of conventional compression ignition (CI) engine fueled with neat diesel and butanol/diesel blends. The experiments were conducted for neat diesel, 10%, 20% and 30% butanol/diesel blend on the volume basis at different engine loads. Combustion characteristics were investigated on the basis of in-cylinder pressure measurement and heat release analysis. The in-cylinder combustion pressure traces were recorded for 2000 consecutive engine combustion cycles for computation of heat release and different combustion parameters. Combustion stability analysis is conducted by analyzing the coefficient of variation of in indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and total heat release (THR). Wavelet analysis is also used for analyzing the temporal variations in IMEP data series.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the Optimized Heat Release Rate and Corresponding Variation of In-Cylinder Specific Heat Ratio for the Improvement in Thermal Efficiency by Utilizing Two-Zone Combustion Model Analysis

2018-09-10
2018-01-1796
Improvement in heat loss could be an important factor to increase the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of an internal combustion engine; however, the heat energy saved isn’t all converted to brake work. Theoretically, to increase the conversion efficiency of heat energy into indicated work, the compression (or expansion) ratio and specific heat ratio (γ) are important. Nevertheless, γ has not been well-studied thus far, since it can’t be easily controlled. This study utilized a two-zone model to calculate the time-resolved γ and local excess air ratio of the burned gas (λb), which varied with the heat release rate. The two-zone combustion model, in which the cylinder volume is simply separated into burned and unburned zones to simulate the overall diesel combustion phenomena, was developed to investigate the current status of heterogeneous (diesel) combustion compared to ideal homogeneous combustion.
Technical Paper

Analyzing Factors Affecting Gross Indicated Efficiency When Inlet Temperature Is Changed

2018-09-10
2018-01-1780
Observations from engine experiments indicates that the gross indicated efficiency (GIE) increases when the inlet temperature (Tinlet) is lowered. The change in Tinlet affects several important factors, such as the heat release profile (affecting heat and exhaust losses), working fluid properties, combustion efficiency and heat transfer losses. These factors all individually contributes to the resulting change in GIE. However, due to their strong dependency to temperature it is not possible to quantify the contribution from each of these parameters individually. Therefore, a simulation model in GT-power has been created and calibrated to the performed engine experiments. With simulations the temperature dependency can be separated and it becomes possible to evaluate the contribution to GIE from each factor individually. The simulation results indicate that the specific heats of the working medium are the largest contributor.
Technical Paper

Natural Flame Luminosity and Emission Spectra of Diesel Spray Flame under Oxygen-Enriched Condition in an Optical Constant Volume Vessel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1781
The application of oxygen-enriched or oxy-fuel combustion coupled with carbon capture and storage technology has zero carbon dioxide emission potential in the boiler and gas turbine of the power plant. However, the oxygen-enriched combustion with high oxygen level has few studies in internal combustion engines. The fundamental issues and challenges of high oxygen level are the great differences in the physical properties and chemical effects compared with the combustion in air condition. As a consequence, the diesel spray combustion characteristics at high oxygen level were investigated in an optical constant volume vessel. The oxygen volume fraction of tested gas was from 21% to 70%, buffered with argon. The high-speed color camera was used to record the natural flame luminosity.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Flame-Wall-Impingement and Near-Wall Combustion on the Piston Temperature of a Diesel Engine Using Instantaneous Surface Temperature Measurements

2018-09-10
2018-01-1782
The heat transfer process in a reciprocating engine is dominated by forced convection, which is drastically affected by mean flow, turbulence, flame propagation and its impingement on the combustion chamber walls. All these effects contribute to a transient heat flux, resulting in a fast-changing temporal and spatial temperature distribution at the surface of the combustion chamber walls. To quantify these changes in combustion chamber surface temperature, surface temperature measurements on the piston of a single cylinder diesel engine were taken. Therefore, thirteen fast-response thermocouples were installed in the piston surface. A wireless microwave telemetry system was used for data transmission out of the moving piston. A wide range of parameter studies were performed to determine the varying influences on the surface temperature of the piston.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Spray Mixing and Combustion Characteristics for Spray C/D Nozzles in a Constant Pressure Vessel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1783
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is a coordinate effort from research partners from all over the world which aims at creating a large experimental database to validate CFD calculations. Two injectors from ECN, namely Spray C and D, have been compared in a constant pressure flow vessel, which enables a field of view of more than 100 mm. Both nozzles have been designed with similar flow metrics, with Spray D having a convergent hole shape and Spray C a cylindrical one, the latter being therefore more prone to cavitation. Although the focus of the study is on reacting conditions, some inert cases have also been measured. High speed schlieren imaging, OH* chemiluminescence visualization and head-on broadband luminosity have been used as combustion diagnostics to evaluate ignition delay, lift off length and reacting tip penetration. Parametric variations include ambient temperature, oxygen content and injection pressure variations.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study on the Influence of Aromatic Fluorescence Tracers on Compression Ignition Engine Operation

2018-09-10
2018-01-1784
Aromatic substances, which are added to the fuel as fluorescing tracers, are in widespread use as a means of investigating mixing and reaction processes in IC engines by laser-based visualization techniques. The fuel/tracer/air mixture may differ from the pure fuel/air mixture in its chemical and its physical properties, and both aspects can be equally relevant for engine operation. They may, furthermore, interact due to the dependence of chemical reaction on physical conditions. In this paper, we study the overall influence of toluene as an exemplary aromatic tracer on engine performance by numerical modeling. The used model features a semi-detailed treatment of chemical reactions for both the fuel and the tracer, as well as their mutual chemical kinetics interactions. The dependence of engine performance parameters like auto-ignition timing and maximum pressures on these parameters is investigated by performing a large set of parametric simulations.
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