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Technical Paper

In-Vehicle Occupant Head Tracking Using aLow-Cost Depth Camera

2018-04-03
2018-01-1172
Abstract Analyzing dynamic postures of vehicle occupants in various situations is valuable for improving occupant accommodation and safety. Accurate tracking of an occupant’s head is of particular importance because the head has a large range of motion, controls gaze, and may require special protection in dynamic events including crashes. Previous vehicle occupant posture studies have primarily used marker-based optical motion capture systems or multiple video cameras for tracking facial features or markers on the head. However, the former approach has limitations for collecting on-road data, and the latter is limited by requiring intensive manual postprocessing to obtain suitable accuracy. This paper presents an automated on-road head tracking method using a single Microsoft Kinect V2 sensor, which uses a time-of-flight measurement principle to obtain a 3D point cloud representing objects in the scene at approximately 30 Hz.
Technical Paper

Study on the Key Preload Performance Parameters of an Active Reversible Preload Seatbelt (ARPS)

2018-04-03
2018-01-1175
Abstract In order to provide an improved countermeasure for occupant protection, a new type of active reversible preload seatbelt (ARPS) is presented in this paper. The ARPS is capable of protecting occupants by reducing injuries during frontal collisions. ARPS retracts seatbelt webbing by activating an electric motor attached to the seatbelt retractor. FCW (Forward Collision Warning) and LDW (Lane Departure Warning) provide signals as a trigger to activate the electric motor to retract the seatbelt webbing, thus making the occupant restraint system work more effectively in a crash. It also helps reduce occupant’s forward movement during impact process via braking. Four important factors such as preload force, preload velocity and the length and timing of webbing retraction play influential roles in performance of the ARPS. This paper focuses on studying preload performance of ARPS under various test conditions to investigate effects of the aforementioned factors.
Technical Paper

A Non-contact and Non-destructive Method to Determine Process Induced Fiber Orientation of Compression Molded SMC

2018-04-03
2018-01-1176
Abstract Understanding process induced fiber orientation distribution of composite body panels using nondestructive techniques is of prime interest. A compression molded sheet molding compound (SMC) panel is a good example of composite panels which are heavily affected by the molding process. Determination of the directionally dependent local coefficient of linear thermal expansion by digital image correlation yields information that is utilized to determine the local fiber misorientation and calculate the local SMC tensile modulus. In our current study, this methodology is utilized to determine the directional CLTE, permitting evaluation of the SMC properties in a multitude of directions not possible in destructive testing techniques. After obtaining the directionally dependent CLTE, a micromechanical approach is utilized to calculate the local SMC tensile modulus and glass fiber misorientation angle.
Technical Paper

Distributed Consensus-Based Cooperative Highway On-Ramp Merging Using V2X Communications

2018-04-03
2018-01-1177
Abstract Highway on-ramp merging is considered as one of the main factors that causes traffic congestion on highways. The drivers along the on-ramp need to adjust vehicle speeds and positions to enter the highway, while the drivers on the highway should also carefully accommodate vehicle speeds and positions to avoid collision with the merging vehicles from the on-ramp, which heavily affects upstream traffic flows. In congested traffic conditions, such maneuvers if inefficiently performed will lead to high risks of accidents and excessive energy consumption and pollutant emissions. In this work, we present an innovative approach to this scenario, where distributed consensus protocol is developed for Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAV) to cooperate with each other by using Vehicle-to-X (V2X) communications.
Technical Paper

Driver Identification Using Multivariate In-vehicle Time Series Data

2018-04-03
2018-01-1198
Abstract All drivers come with a driving signature during a driving. By aggregating adequate driving data of a driver via multiple driving sessions, which is already embedded with driving behaviors of a driver, driver identification task could be treated as a supervised machine learning classification problem. In this paper, we use a random forest classifier to implement the classification task. Therefore, we collected many time series signals from 60 driving sessions (4 sessions per driver and 15 drivers totally) via the Controller Area Network. To reduce the redundancy of information, we proposed a method for signal pre-selection. Besides, we proposed a strategy for parameters tuning, which includes signal refinement, interval feature extraction and selection, and the segmentation of a signal. We also explored the performance of different types of arrangement of features and samples.
Technical Paper

Smart Interoperable Logistics and Additive Manufacturing - Modern Technologies for Digital Transformation and Industry 4.0

2018-04-03
2018-01-1203
Abstract As a result of new challenges such as flexible, adaptable manufacturing systems and customized products, the complexity of new technologies for digital transformation and Industry 4.0 [36] is increasing. In this context, logistics and additive manufacturing are seen as two out of nine future technologies for modern production industries. For future developments it is crucial to find effective and flexible approaches for the connection of heterogeneous systems and, above all, data structures. A promising approach is concerned with the interoperable connection of these complex structures. The first approach to be described in the paper deals with the smart interoperable connection of systems in the domain of logistics.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristics Analysis and Fatigue Damage Estimation of a Compressor Blade under Fluid-Structure Interaction

2018-04-03
2018-01-1206
Abstract During the aero-engine operation, the compressor blades are subjected to periodic inertial force and aerodynamic excitation caused by blade rotation and airflow disturbance, respectively. Under the coupling alternating loads, the blade is prone to high cycle fatigue failure. In this paper, a time domain calculation model of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is established to study the vibration characteristics of the blade and its failure modes are analyzed. Then, the fatigue damage of the blade under multi-level loading is evaluated by the nonlinear damage accumulation model. Considering the coupling effect of the airflow and the blade, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to calculate the aerodynamic parameters on the blade surface under different working conditions, which is imported to the finite element (FE) model to analyze the dynamic characteristics.
Technical Paper

Logistics Planning and Its Applications for Engine Plant under ‘Industry 4.0’

2018-04-03
2018-01-1205
Abstract With the arrival of Industry 4.0 era, traditional manufacturing industries will convert to intelligent systems. In addition to the computerization of manufacturing systems, logistics system will require automatic and IT-controlled processes integrated with Industry 4.0. This paper presents an analysis of the scope, hierarchy, and principles of logistics planning with emphasis on the concepts required to achieve intelligent logistic system. Integrated logistics system will directly connect and manage the entire distribution chain visually from the material source to the end customer upwards and at the same time, connect to the warehouse of suppliers downwards. The logistics planning processes can be optimized by setting up mathematical models and logical relationship with virtual simulation and verification tools. Relying on big data and cloud computing for sales forecasts permits better adjustment of inventory levels across the entire supply chain.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Durability Analysis of Automotive Lower Control Arm Using Self Transducer Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-1208
Abstract A competitive market and shrinking product development cycle have forced automotive companies to move from conventional testing methods to virtual simulation techniques. Virtual durability simulation of any component requires determination of loads acting on the structure when tested on the proving ground. In conventional method wheel force transducers are used to extract loads at wheel center. Extracted wheel center forces are used to derive component loads through multi-body simulation. Another conventional approach is to use force transducers mounted directly on the component joineries where load needs to be extracted. Both the methods are costly and time-consuming. Sometimes it is not feasible to place a load cell in the system to measure hard point loads because of its complexities.
Technical Paper

A Multiscale Study of Single Crystal Copper Plate with Octal Orientation Struck by a Nickel Projectile

2018-04-03
2018-01-1210
Abstract A common interaction between a penetrator and a target has been the use of copper and nickel materials. However, a multiscale analysis has not been performed on such a system. Compared to steels, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys and other metallic materials, a description of the mechanical behavior of pure ductile metals such as Cu struck by a penetrator comprises nickel under the high strain rate at different multiscale still remains unknown. In this research, Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) Potential is utilized to study this system and the molecular dynamics simulation is employed in order to provide structure property evolution information for plasticity and shearing mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Electrical Energy Consumption of Various HVAC Systems in BEVs and Their Thermal Management and Assessment

2018-04-03
2018-01-1190
Abstract Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are equipped with Mobile Air Conditioning systems (MACs) to ensure a comfortable cabin temperature in all climates and ambient conditions as well as the optional conditioning of the traction battery. An assessment of the global electrical energy consumption of various MACs has been derived, where the basis of the assessment procedure is the climate data GREEN-MAC-LCCP 2007 (Global Refrigerants Energy & Environmental - Mobile Air Condition - Life Cycle Climate Performance) and the improved LCCP2013 (Life Cycle Climate Performance. The percentage driving time during 6 AM and 24 PM is divided into six different temperature bins with the solar radiation and relative humidity for 211 cities distributed over Europe, North, Central, and South America, Asia, South West Pacific, and Africa. The energy consumption of the MACs is determined by a thermal vehicle simulation. In this work, four different MACs are simulated and compared.
Technical Paper

Cooling Capable Vehicle Front End Concepts Development: Response Surface Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-1194
Abstract The paper describes a process for rapid development of cooling capable front-end concepts for a vehicle based on an architecture, and a tool (Vehicle Parametric Model for Cooling) developed to execute the process. The process involves upfront definition of allowable ranges of several parameters related to the vehicle front end that affect cooling. The tool is based on characterizing airflow through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and engine coolant temperature through one-dimensional (1D) thermal balance methods over the architectural domain in the form of a multi-parameter Response Surface using the Approximation Model provided by Isight. The number of sampling points needed for the Approximation is minimized by employing Design of Experiments (DOE) methods, while ensuring sufficient accuracy consistent with the goals of intended use of the Tool.
Technical Paper

Temperature Control Characteristics of Automotive Power Battery Based on R-1233zd(E)’s Flowing Phase Change Heat Transfer

2018-04-03
2018-01-1191
Abstract Li-ion power battery is the core component of the electric vehicle power system, and the battery temperature will increase because of the electrochemical reaction of the Li-ion battery. The heat accumulates inside of the battery, which can degrade the working performance of the power battery and shorten the battery cycle life. At present, the wind cooling technology is relatively mature. However, it cannot achieve ideal heat dissipation effect under the working conditions of the high-power or high ambient temperature. In this research, the battery thermal management is carried out by the characteristics of the working fluid’s flowing phase change heat transfer. The phase change working fluid is R-1233zd(E) which is a kind of environmentally friendly liquid with nonconductive and nonflammable. It can achieve the purpose of controlling the battery’s temperature using the characteristics of isothermal heat absorption under different gas phase rate of phase change working fluid.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Reinforcement Learning on Air Source Heat Pump Defrost Control for Full Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1193
Abstract Air source heat pumps as the heating system for full electric vehicles are drawing more and more attention in recent years. Despite the high energy efficiency, frost accumulation on the heat pump evaporator is one of the major challenges associated with air source heat pumps. The evaporator needs to be actively defrosted periodically and heat pump heating will be interrupted during defrosting process. Proper defrost control is needed to obtain high average heat pump energy efficiency. In this paper, a new method for generating air source heat pump defrost control policy using reinforcement learning is introduced. This model-free method has several advantages. It can automatically generate optimal defrost control policy instead of requiring manually determination of the control policy parameters and logics.
Technical Paper

Transient Numerical Simulation and Experimental Evaluation of Vehicle Under-Hood and Underbody Component Temperatures

2018-04-03
2018-01-1197
Abstract In this paper, a transient vehicle under-hood/underbody component temperature simulation system is applied to a mass production vehicle of ChangAn, and a wind tunnel experiment is conducted for comparison and validation. The effects of heat radiation from exhaust, heat conduction through the components and heat convection by air flow are included in the simulation system. Three types of modeling method are coupled in the simulation: the 1D modeling of exhaust flow/coolant flow, the 2D/3D modeling of heat radiation/heat conduction and the 3D modeling of heat convection by external air flow. The energy loss of exhaust through the turbocharger and the energy generation from the catalyst are also modeled in the system. The detailed structure of the muffler is taken into consideration. Various vehicle driving conditions are considered both in simulation and in the wind tunnel experiment, including high speed driving、uphill climbing、traffic jam condition and soak.
Technical Paper

Lumped Parameter Based Thermo-Physical Modeling of Electrified Vehicle Transmission System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1195
Abstract More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more efficient vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the heat produced from burning fuel and improve driveline efficiency. The greatest part of the effort is directed toward the hybridization of automotive transmission systems. The efficiency and durability of hybrid powertrain depends on the heat generation in electric motors and their interactions among each other, ambient condition, the cooling system and the transmission component configuration. These increase the complexity of motor temperature prediction as well as the computational cost of running a conjugate heat-transfer based CFD analysis. In this paper, 1D physics based thermal model is developed which allows rapid and accurate component-wise temperature estimation of the electric motor during both steady-state and transient driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation and Optimization of Computational Methods for High Pressure Fuel Pipe Brazed Joints

2018-04-03
2018-01-1222
Abstract A V-engine high pressure fuel pipe have experienced several failures during dyno engine validations at brazed joints due to combination of static and dynamic engine loads. The braze fillet experience high local stress concentration with large gradients and it was critical to capture strain contour at this spot to properly understand the failure. Strain gauges was used to measure strain but was incapable of capturing the braze fillet due to the small fillet radius and lack of real estate to install the gauge (braze fillet radius ~ 0.10 mm). A whole field optical experiment method Digital Image Correlation was utilized to successfully captured strain contour at area of interest and results fed back to computational model.
Technical Paper

Friction Coefficient Evaluation on Aluminum Alloy Sheet Metal Using Digital Image Correlation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1223
Abstract The coefficient of friction between surfaces is an important criterion for predicting metal behavior during sheet metal stamping processes. This research introduces an innovative technique to find the coefficient of friction on a lubricated aluminum sheet metal surface by simulating the industrial manufacturing stamping process while using 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC) to track the deformation. During testing, a 5000 series aluminum specimen is placed inside a Stretch-Bend-Draw Simulator (SBDS), which operates with a tensile machine to create a stretch and bend effect. The friction coefficient at the contact point between an alloy sheet metal and a punch tool is calculated using an empirical equation previously developed. In order to solve for the unknown friction coefficient, the load force and the drawback force are both required. The tensile machine software only provides the load force applied on the specimen by the load cell.
Technical Paper

Test of Inclined Double Beads on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1221
Abstract Draw beads are widely used in the binder of a draw die for regulating the restraining force and control the draw-in of a metal blank. Different sheet materials and local panel geometry request different local draw bead configurations. Even the majority of draw bead is single draw bead, the alternative double draw bead does have its advantages, such as less bending damage may be brought to the sheet material and more bead geometry features available to work on. In this paper, to measure the pulling force when a piece of sheet metal passing through a draw bead on an inclined binder, the AA5XXX and AA6XXX materials were tested and its strain were measured with a digital image correlation (DIC) system. Five different types of double bead configurations were tested. The beads are installed in a Stretch-Bend-Draw-System (SBDS) test device. The clearance between a male and a female bead is 10% thicker than the sheet material. A tensile machine was used to record the pulling force.
Technical Paper

Modelling of Power Losses of Transmission Synchronizers in Neutral Position

2018-04-03
2018-01-1228
Abstract Developing an energy-efficient powertrain system is a solution for environment-friendly vehicles. Furthermore, it also enhances the performance of vehicles. In powertrain system, transmission plays an important role in terms of vehicle dynamic performance and energy consumption. Therefore, a lot of researches have been conducted on modelling power losses inside the transmission. Basically, the power losses in transmission consist of bearing losses, drag torque losses on gear blank that is immersed in the oil and gear mesh losses due to the sliding frictional force on gear flank. According to some experiments in the latest literatures, power losses of synchronizers cannot be neglected, when its shift sleeve is in neutral position. Principally, power losses of synchronizers in neutral position mainly come from load independent drag torque.
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