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Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on the Mixture Preparation in a Small Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0014
Gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines have evolved as a solution to meet the current demands of the automotive industry. Benefits of a GDI engine include good fuel economy, good transient response, and low cold start emissions. However, they suffer from problems, like combustion instability, misfire, and impingement of fuel on in-cylinder surfaces. Therefore, to highlight the influence of fuel injection timing on in-cylinder flow, turbulence, mixture distribution and wall impingement, a computational study is conducted on a small-bore GDI engine. Results showed that air motion inside the engine cylinder is influenced by direct-injection of fuel, with considerable variation in turbulent kinetic energy at the time of injection. Due to charge cooling effect, mixture density and trapped mass were increased by about 10.8% and 9.5%, respectively.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis with Residual Gas as a Design Parameter for Two-Stroke Engines

2018-10-30
2018-32-0045
In a variety of applications, two-stroke engines assert their usage as a propulsion unit, for examples in off-road vehicles, scooters, hand-held power tools and others. The outstanding power to weight ratio is the key advantage for two-stroke engines. Furthermore, two-stroke engines convince with high durability and low maintenance demand. However, an increasing environmental awareness, the protection of health and the shortage of fossil resources are the driving factors to further enhance the internal combustion process of two-stroke engines. The reduction of emissions and fuel consumption with a constant power level is focused on. Developments deal with the optimization of the combustion process itself or the enhancement of the exhaust gas aftertreatment. Especially in very small two-stroke engines an exhaust gas aftertreatment system is rarely applied, due to disadvantages regarding component temperatures and product costs.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow and Stratified Mixture on HCCI Combustion in High Load

2018-10-30
2018-32-0016
The purpose of this paper is to find a way to extend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. This paper presents the effect of in-cylinder flow and stratified mixture on HCCI combustion by experiments and three-dimensional computer fluid dynamics coupled with a detailed chemical reaction calculation. The first study was conducted using a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) equipped with a flow generation plate to create in-cylinder turbulent flow and with a control unit of in-cylinder wall temperature to create in-cylinder temperature distribution. The study assesses the effect of the turbulent flow and the temperature distribution on HCCI combustion. In the second study, the numerical simulation of HCCI combustion was conducted using large eddy simulation coupled with a detailed chemical reaction calculation. The study analyzes the interaction between in-cylinder turbulent flow and mixture distribution and HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study on Accomplishing Lean Combustion by Multistage Pulse Discharge Ignition Using an Optically Accessible Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0007
Lean burn technology has a problem of greater combustion fluctuation due to unstable initial flame formation and slow combustion. It is generally known that generating a flow field in the cylinder is effective for reducing combustion fluctuation and shortening the combustion period. In this study, we investigated the influence of the discharge condition and in-cylinder swirl flow on initial flame formation and ignition performance between conventional spark ignition (SI) and multistage pulse discharge (MSPD) ignition. Visualized photographs were obtained near the spark plug with a high-speed camera in an optically accessible engine. In-cylinder pressure analysis was also performed in order to explicate the combustion phenomena. The results revealed that ignition performance of both SI and MSPD was improved under a swirl flow condition in the cylinder and that combustion fluctuation was effectively reduced.
Technical Paper

Diesel CAI Combustion in Uniflow Scavenging 2-Stroke Engine Provided with Port Fuel Injection Device

2018-10-30
2018-32-0015
We studied a simple and cost effective controlled auto ignition (CAI) combustion engine in order to achieve simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot, which are issues in diffusion combustion. The engine type was a uniflow scavenging 2-stroke engine, and the fuel used was diesel, as is common in diesel engines. We examined the position of the injector that effectively forms the premixture and realized stable operation with diesel fuel by the low pressure fuel injection device for port fuel injection (PFI), and it was found that the CAI combustion ignition timing can be controlled through setting the air/fuel ratio that obtains the optimal ignition timing per operation conditions.
Technical Paper

Lubricating Oil Droplets in Cylinder on Abnormal Combustion in Supercharged SI Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0008
The supercharged spark ignition engine has a problem of abnormal combustion at low speed and high load operating condition. This paper focuses on the sauce and mechanism of the abnormal combustion, namely, the behavior of lubricating oil droplets in cylinder, ring crevice, piston crown and ring gap. The experimental approach and the numerical analysis have been carried out. The two experimental approaches namely direct photography by high speed camera and measurement of scattering oil quantity at low speed condition have been tried. The photographs which is in engine operation show, 1st The oil droplets from ring crevice scatter every reciprocating motion and the diameter of oil droplets is between 0.10mm and 0.30mm. 2nd The oil droplets from piston crown has three steps as follows, firstly, the lubricating oil which reaches piston crown continues to accumulate, secondly, the accumulated lubricating oil scatters by the reciprocating motion.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation and Combustion Evaluation of a Motorcycle Engine Concept Equipped with One Fuel Injector for Each Intake Valve

2018-10-30
2018-32-0009
In light of a more stringent emission legislation and in anticipation of possible future measures to further reduce the real environmental impact of motorcycles, it is necessary to develop engine concepts which are efficient and low on emissions in a wide range of operating points. This poses an important challenge on the development of high performance motorcycles engines as their focus on full load behaviour conflicts sharply with the emission and efficiency demands of the remaining engine load map. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the potential of a port fuel injection (PFI) concept consisting of one individual fuel injector for each intake valve to solve this trade-off. Previous research shows a positive effect of such a setup on mixture formation due to better targeting and atomization, reducing HC emissions and cyclic variations.
Technical Paper

Study on Realization of Dual Combustion Cycle by Lean Mixture and Direct Fuel Injection

2018-10-30
2018-32-0011
The purpose of this study is to realize dual-combustion cycle for gasoline engines. For the purpose, lean combustion and direct fuel injection were applied to small diesel engine. The lean gasoline-air mixture was provided and was ignited by small amount of pilot diesel fuel injection (constant volume combustion). Then, diesel fuel was injected by main injection and was burned with the remained oxygen after the lean combustion (diffusion combustion). The equivalence ratio 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 of mixture were used to avoid the spontaneous compression auto-ignition. The total equivalence ratio with supplied gasoline and diesel fuel was adjusted to 1.0. The base pilot injection timing was selected as the ignition of pre-mixture took place at T.D.C. and pilot injection timings were changed 2 degree before and behind of base timing. The main fuel injection timings were 50, 75 and 100% of the duration between pilot injection timing and T.D.C.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Thermal Fatigue Strength by the Addition of Calcium to Hypoeutectic Aluminum-Silicon Alloys

2018-10-30
2018-32-0027
Several elements affect the structure of eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic aluminum alloys [1, 2, 3, 4]. Among them, calcium has been investigated to a lesser extent compared to the typically used sodium and strontium. In order to enhance the thermal fatigue strength of a small engine, the morphology of eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys is controlled by the addition of calcium. In addition, the castability and mechanical properties are investigated. Hence, samples containing different amounts of calcium are prepared at different cooling rates during solidification. The results revealed that, with the increase in the calcium amount and the cooling rate, eutectic silicon exhibits a fine morphology in cross-sectional images. Particularly, with the addition of at least 62 mass ppm of calcium in a specific range of cooling rates, refined eutectic silicon is obtained.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network Based Predictive Real Drive Emission and Fuel Economy Simulation of Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0030
As the number of different engine and vehicle concepts for powered-two wheelers is very high and will even rise with hybridization, the simulation of emissions and fuel consumption is indispensable for further development towards more environmentally friendly mobility. In this work, an adaptive artificial neural network based predictive model for emission and fuel consumption simulation of motorcycles operated in real world conditions is presented. The model is developed in Matlab and Simulink and is integrated into a longitudinal vehicle dynamic simulation whereby it is possible to simulate various and not yet measured test cycles. Subsequently, it is possible to predict real drive emissions RDE and on-road fuel consumption by a minimum of previous measurement effort.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Quasi-Steady State Heat Transfer Phenomena with the Consideration of Backflow Gas Effect at Intake Manifold of IC Engines and Its Numerical Analyses on 1-D Engine Simulation

2018-10-30
2018-32-0029
An empirical equation was developed for modeling the heat transfer phenomena taking place in an intake manifold which included the backflow gas effect. In literature, heat transfer phenomenon at intake system is modeled based on steady flow assumptions by Colburn analogy. Previously, authors developed an equation with the introduction of Graetz and Strouhal numbers, using a port model experimental setup. In this study, to further improve the empirical equation, real engine experiments were conducted where pressure ratio between the intake manifold and engine cylinder were added along with Reynolds number to characterize the backflow gas effect on intake air temperature. Compared to the experimental data, maximum and average errors of intake air temperature estimated from the new empirical equation were found to be 2.9% and 0.9%, respectively.
Technical Paper

Development of Joint Sheet Gasket with Reduced Amount of Aramid Fibers

2018-10-30
2018-32-0026
Gaskets made of joint sheet are widely used for mating surfaces in engines and transmissions. Before the regulation was issued for restrictions of asbestos usage as a hazardous substance, Honda had already developed non-asbestos joint sheets using aramid fibers substituting for asbestos and started applying them to the products sold worldwide. However, aramid fiber is significantly expensive but, on the other hand, the amount of aramid fiber mixed in a joint sheet will largely influence the sealing performance. Thus, when aramid fiber is applied, cost increase becomes a concern. With this background, a gasket material was designed for reducing the cost without sacrificing the required reliability as a joint sheet assuming the actual applications. The cost was reduced mainly by reducing the amount of aramid fibers used.
Technical Paper

Developing Efficient Motorcycle Oils

2018-10-30
2018-32-0021
Motorcycle OEMs faced with stringent global fuel economy and emission regulations are being forced to develop new hardware and emissions control technologies to remain compliant. Motorcycle oils have become an enabling technology for the development of smaller, more efficient engines operating at higher power density. Many OEMs have therefore become reliant on lubricants to not only provide enhanced durability under more extreme operating conditions, but to also provide fuel economy benefits through reduced energy losses. Unlike passenger car oils that only lubricate the engine, motorcycle oils must lubricate both the engine and the drive train. These additional requirements place different performance demands versus a crankcase lubricant. The drive train includes highly loaded gears that are exposed to high pressures, in turn requiring higher levels of oil film strength and antiwear system durability.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of the Effect of Injection Strategy and Compression Ratio on Gasoline/Diesel Fueled RCCI Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0017
RCCI engine is proven to have better combustion control and to produce very low NOx and soot emissions. However, its operations is limited by HRR and PPRR as well as weak combustion efficiency which results in high levels of HC and CO emissions. Engine geometry and operation parameter such as injection strategy and compression ratio can affect the reactivity of fuels in cylinders as well as the gas temperature increase rate which are the important factors in controlling RCCI combustion. Injection strategies such as single and double injections have been previously studied but the effects are still unpredictable and the effects of compression ratio towards combustion characteristic and emissions require further analysis. This work deploys a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) combustion model to study the effects on combustion characteristic and emissions with respect to single injection, double injection strategy and compression ratio.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Friction Modifiers in Fully Formulated Motorcycle Engine Oils

2018-10-30
2018-32-0024
Globally, emissions legislation placed on motorcycles is becoming ever more stringent [1]. One way of meeting these new regulations is to use friction modifiers (FMs) in the engine oil to reduce frictional losses in the engine. This is, however, complicated by the fact that many motorcycles use a common oil sump for both the engine and a lubricated clutch. It is often the case that if a FM reduces friction in a steel/steel contact it will also reduce friction in a steel/friction material contact. Therefore, it is usually viewed that there will be a necessary compromise between maximizing engine efficiency and maintaining efficient clutch performance. In this paper we examine the effect of a range of organic FMs on commercial fully formulated motorcycle engine oils (MCOs) using benchtop tribotests and full-scale rig tests (SAE #2 clutch test machine).
Technical Paper

A Development of Measurement System for Piston Ring Sliding Surface Pressure

2018-10-30
2018-32-0022
The piston rings, the engine sliding parts, are required to further contribute on mechanical loss reduction in order to improve fuel efficiency. However, many cases of the abnormal combustion due to oil upward flow, as well as the increase in oil consumption have been reported. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanism of those phenomena is still an urgent task. It is widely known that the distribution of the sliding face pressure in between the piston ring and the cylinder bore largely influence the oil flow via the sliding face of the piston ring. However, there are many unknown aspects in this field. Therefore, verification of the sliding face pressure during the actual operation is necessary in order to elucidate the mechanism of oil consumption. The thin-film sensor, since it has little influence on shape, is widely used as a measurement method of the sliding face pressure between two different faces, however this method has never been applied to the piston ring in the past.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach for Engine Performance Optimization

2018-10-30
2018-32-0082
State-of-the-art motorcycle engines consist of numerous variable components and require a powerful motor management to meet the growing customer expectations and the legislative requirements (e.g. exhaust and noise emissions, fuel consumption) at the same time. These demands are often competing and raise the level of complexity in calibration. In the racing domain, the optimization requirements are usually higher and test efficiency is crucial. Whilst the number of variables to control is growing, the time to perform an engine optimization remains the same or is even shortened. Therefore, simulation is becoming an essential part of the engine calibration optimization. Considering the special circumstances in racing, involving valuable hardware, as well as extremely short development and calibration iteration loops, only transient testing is possible.
Technical Paper

Preparing BMW Motorrad’s Boxer Engine for the Future: Improving Performance, Driveability and Efficiency While Fulfilling Future Emission Standards

2018-10-30
2018-32-0083
Engine development mostly revolves around the same competing goals. With the implementation of the EU4 and EU5 emission standards for motorcycles, the difficulty of increasing performance and improving driveability and efficiency, while simultaneously fulfilling the Emission standards becomes even higher. Though the automotive industry offers a variety of solutions for the named topics, their implementation in a high performance motorcycle engine with specific needs regarding packaging, a wide operating range and full load behavior, represents a special challenge. This paper presents the approach of BMW Motorrad to meet these goals on the example of the boxer engine, focusing on the methodology throughout the development process. The gas exchange system of the engine was optimized using 1D gas dynamic simulations and 3D CFD analysis for a redesign of the valve train, ports and valves.
Technical Paper

A Study of Friction Behavior of a Single Cylinder Gasoline Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0078
In order to improve the performance, fuel economy and future emission norms of a reciprocating engine, it is important to reduce the overall engine frictional losses. In this paper, author conducts an experimental study on the friction characteristics due to pumping loss, valve-train system, piston assembly, auxiliaries and transmission for a 110cc, single cylinder 4-stroke gasoline engine using frictional strip-down analysis. This paper deals with the friction performance results for the new concept piston skirt design called the unsymmetrical skirt for least piston skirt friction. Also, parameters like piston profile, oil film thickness optimized for least friction. The piston profile is arrived for optimum contact pattern with least piston slap noise. The modified engine reduced the engine friction by 10% in comparison to the base engine.
Technical Paper

Study of a Turbocharged Engine for Motorbike Application

2018-10-30
2018-32-0079
Nowadays, the engine charging practice is widely adopted in the automotive field in relation to the “downsizing” technology: the reduction of the displacement and the adoption of a higher boost pressure, through a charging system, allow shifting the engine operating point in a zone of higher efficiency for a given engine torque. On the other hand, given a certain displacement, a supercharger can be adopted to increase the performance of the engine. The objective of this work is to provide a detailed analysis about the feasibility of the implementation of a charged engine to a motorbike, with main focus on the possibility to achieve a challenging performance target: in a first stage, several engine architectures (In-line, V-configuration, Boxer) together with different charging concepts (centrifugal or volumetric compressor, with mechanical or fluid-dynamic connection to the engine) have been analyzed from the point of view of packaging.
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