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Technical Paper

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion and Elastic Modulus of SICP/AL2O3 Ceramic Matrix Composites Prepared by Directed Metal Oxidation Process

2018-07-09
2018-28-0047
Abstract The present paper, it is aimed to prepare SiCp/Al2O3 ceramic matrix composites using Directed Metal Oxidation process large enough dimension specimens for the measurement of physical properties. Continuous oxidation of an Aluminum alloy with suitable dopant along with a preform of SiC has lead to the formation of alumina matrix surrounding silicon carbide particulates. SiCp/Al2O3 ceramic matrix composites fabricated by the Directed Metal Oxidation process, possess required physical properties such as coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and elastic modulus, all at an affordable cost of fabrication. Al2O3 matrix composites reinforced with different volume fractions of SiC particulates were investigated for physical properties such as coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and elastic modulus. The composites with SiC volume fraction of 0.43 were found to possess a CTE as of as 5.0 x 10−6/K and an elastic modulus of 262 GPa.
Technical Paper

Tribological Effects of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) on Cu Based Hybrid Composite Brake Friction Material for Medium Duty Automotive Applications

2018-07-09
2018-28-0048
Abstract The aim of this work is to investigate the synergistic effect of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) in a Cu/SiC hybrid composite brake friction material. The brake hybrid composite materials were prepared using copper as a matrix, silicon carbide as a reinforcing fibre, graphite as a solid lubricant and barium sulphate as a filler combined with varying volume percentage (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) by conventional powder metallurgy technique. The prepared brake friction materials are characterized for compression strength, density and hardness to analyze their mechanical properties. The friction and wear behaviour of the composite were carried out using a fully instrumented pin-on-disc (PoD) test rig with linear variable differential transducer for wear rate and strain gauge for friction measurement under dry condition for medium duty applications.
Technical Paper

Evaluation on Properties of Industrial Workers Safety Helmet Using Natural Hybrid Composite

2018-07-09
2018-28-0049
Abstract In this project work, composites were prepared by using matrix method in which good adhesion was generated by a combination of hand layup method. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the suitability of natural fiber composites using luffa fiber, palm fiber and bamboo fiber and to fabricate the safety helmet by combining these three fibers. Initially these fibers were treated in sodium hydroxide solution in order to improve fiber interfacial bonding. Generally, composites that contain treated fiber have a higher tensile modulus and greater flexural modulus than do untreated fiber composites. Here using 40% fibers and 60% matrix for fabricating natural composites and to investigate its tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength and hardness strength. It was observed that the effects of reinforcing epoxy resin matrix with the fibers caused the composites to be more flexible and easily deform due to high strain values and reduction of high resonant amplitude.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Study of Buckling Behavior of Nanocomposite Beams

2018-07-09
2018-28-0050
Abstract The structural members like beams are often subjected a mode of sudden failure due to high compressive load which is characterised as buckling. The buckling behaviour is one of the most important parameters needs to be considered while designing the structural members like beams. The polymer composites are the one of the most emerging materials used in air craft structural applications. This paper studies the buckling behaviour of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) reinforced polymer composite beams by using Classical Laminate Plate Theory (CLPT) approach. The elastic constants obtained for the CNT reinforced polymer composite by applying Mori-Tanaka method are further used to analyse the effect of stacking sequence, CNT Volume fraction in the composite, and CNT radii on the critical buckling loads of an eight layered nanocomposite beam. The Numerical results are also presented and compared for various boundary conditions of beams like clamped-clamped and hinged-hinged.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Turning Characteristics and Optimization of MOS2p and SiCp-Reinforced Al-Si10Mg Metal Matrix Composites

2018-07-09
2018-28-0043
Abstract In the fabrication of parts in auto and aero segments, the use of ceramic (SiCp, Al2O3p) reinforces aluminum alloy found to be increased than that of steel and cast iron. This matrix-reinforced alloy has a high strength to weight ratio along with higher modulus and hardness, the lower thermal coefficient of expansion, and improved tribological properties. To this extent, this paper investigates the turning characteristics and optimization study of newly developed metal matrix composites by the addition of both hard ceramic SiCp and soft stable lubricant molybdenum disulfide (MoS2p). The samples such as Sample 1: AlSi10Mg/3SiCp, Sample 2: AlSi10Mg/2MoS2p and Sample 3: AlSi10Mg/3SiCp /2MoS2p are prepared using the automated stir-casting machine. The particles are observed to be uniformly distributed in the composite. After density and hardness measurement, the samples are subjected to machining, and the responses are optimized by using response surface method.
Technical Paper

Nano-Fiber Filters for Automotive Applications

2018-07-09
2018-28-0041
Abstract Engines have well lubricated metallic moving parts protected by oil films. Microscopic airborne particles can easily break down the oil film and change the tight working tolerances of operating components of an engine. In addition to the above requirement, a modern diesel engine requires a highly precise injection system to meet stringent emission norms and it requires an average of 15,000 L of air per unit fuel consumed. Meticulous filtration is key to ensure purity of air and fuel available to engine. A Polyacrylonitrile based nanofiber synthesized using electro-spinning process is an alternative to conventional cellulose media filters. A Scanning Electron Microscope image is analyzed to obtain the fiber diameter and a 2-D modeling is done using this image data. The trend of developing miniaturized model in filtration application and analysis using computational fluid dynamics has limited research till now.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Optimization of Mechanical Properties of Sustainable Moringa Oleifera Fruit Husk Fiber for Polymer Composite Applications

2018-07-09
2018-28-0045
Abstract Natural fiber reinforced composites are playing a vital role in the polymer industry due to its low cost, light weight, renewable, biodegradable and eco-friendly properties. However, conventional E-glass fibers are hazardous for human health and causes cancer. Hence, currently the research on exploring the promising and novel sustainable natural fibers as a bio-reinforcement in polymer composites for different applications are of great demand. Huge amount of Moringa Oleifera fruit husk (MOFH), which is rich in fiber are being wasted from commercial industries after yielding its economic value. In the present work, MOFH fiber is tested comprehensively for ensuring its potentiality as a reinforcement in polymer matrix and to optimize the mechanical properties. The optimum fiber content is found to be 20 wt.%, whereas beyond that the fiber pull out and debonding occurred due to poor compatibility between the fiber and the matrix.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Model Validation of Experimental Results of SiCp/Al2O3 Ceramic Matrix Composites Prepared by Directed Metal Oxidation of an Al Alloy

2018-07-09
2018-28-0046
Abstract In this paper, SiCp/Al2O3 ceramic matrix composites are fabricated with specimen of dimensions measuring 70 × 70 × 20, in mm with varying volume fractions in the range of 0.35 to 0.43. The purpose of this paper is to compare experimental results namely physical properties of SiCp/Al2O3 composites with mathematical models. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data In the present paper, different mathematical models are used to comparison of physical properties such as coefficient of thermal expansion and modulus of elasticity of SiCp/Al2O3 composites with different volume fractions of SiC in the range of 0.35 to 0.43. The comparison experimental results with mathematical models provide detailed information about the results of these comparisons. The models were capable of predicting the data for some scenarios fairly well.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston Bowl Geometry on Performance and Emissions with Mahua Biodiesel Blend

2018-07-09
2018-28-0057
Abstract The depletion of fossil fuels and environmental degradation with its emissions motivated the researchers to search for alternatives. Vegetable oils are considered as one of the productive alternative for internal combustion engines because of good combustion properties. Currently, very few commercial devices that utilize bio-diesel combustion for the production of heat, due to the economic viability and limited availability. To attain effective combustion, an effort is made in investigating the effect of change of piston geometry on the Performance & Emission characteristics of bio-diesel of mahua oil. Experiments are conducted to study the effect of varied piston bowl geometry on the performance and emission characteristics of mahua oil biodiesel on four stroke single cylinder diesel engine at constant speed of 1500 rpm for different loads.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a CRAIL TCIC Diesel Engine Piston Ring Parameters for Better Performance

2018-07-09
2018-28-0059
Abstract The usage of the Turbocharged Intercooled Diesel Engine automobiles for domestic transport is common due to its High Torque output and better Thermal Efficiency. The Piston Rings are one of the most critical components in any reciprocating Internal Combustion engines. A Diesel Engine Piston Ring Pack’s design is considered wherein the engine itself is a New Product Development. With high Power density & higher operating pressures, The Engine called for higher Endurance of the Piston Ring Parts with lower blow by & lower Oil Consumption performance throughout its life. Based on the Benchmark, the Piston Rings are designed with Chromium Nitride (CrN), Gas Nitride (GN) & GN coating protection over the base materials of the Top, 2nd & Oil Rings respectively for withstanding the aggressive operating conditions. The parts are developed and validated. The Combustion Gas Blow By Performance results are not within the targeted limits when tested with initial set of samples.
Technical Paper

Effect of Micro Texture on Tribological Performance of Piston Ring-Cylinder Liner System under Different Lubrication Regimes

2018-07-09
2018-28-0052
Abstract The main drawbacks of the IC engine are low thermal and mechanical efficiencies with a significant proportion of fuel energy is dissipated as heat, and about 12% fuel energy is lost due to friction. Many research works are going on to reduce these losses in IC engine, as, even if, reduction of 10% in total friction loss can be achieved it will result in 1.5% drop in fuel consumption, which will ultimately give huge economic benefit. It has been recently identified, that optimally texturing of a tribological surface reduces friction and wear at sliding contact interfaces, as it acts as a micro-reservoir for lubricant and entraps wear particles. In the present study, this theory is utilized to reduce friction in piston ring-cylinder liner (PRCL) contact by using micro textured piston ring. Tribological performance of micro textured PRCL system is investigated under medium passenger vehicle engine operating conditions using reciprocating tribometer test rig.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Restricted Intake Manifold for a Naturally Aspirated Four Cylinder SI Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0056
Abstract Intake manifold is one of the principal components of the engine system in the vehicle. The air intake manifold is the passage for air into the engine and thus affects the amount of air quantity. The objective of the present work is to design and development of a strong, reliable and light weight intake manifold for a multi cylinder spark ignition engine. The developed manifold will improve the airflow intake and provide equal mass flow rate in all runners to create better performance. In the present work, combinations of 1-D modeling using Ricardo Wave and CFD simulations on Star CCM+ were employed to substantiate the modeling. The designed manifold is ensured to have a throat velocity of the restrictor close of Mach 1and the plenum was simulated to have a zero velocity creating maximum pressure close to atmospheric pressure. The necessary structural strength to the intake manifold was ensured by performing FEA simulations using ANSYS software.
Technical Paper

Limbs Related Handicap Drivable Non-Commercial Electric Shuttle Vehicle

2018-07-09
2018-28-0055
Abstract The main objectives of this work are to develop an Electric Vehicle to empower physically challenged drivers to some extent and women motorist. The vehicle was designed to be driven by people with orthopaedic limps related problem by using Autodesk Inventor software. Many features were provided to support the physically challenged person such as a ramp for the driver to board the vehicle and steering, acceleration and braking control was also provided for a single hand to manoeuvre the car. The vehicle has the capacity to seat up to six passengers and is propelled with 1200 watts (BLDC) motor which was aided by four 12 V and 100 Amps DC battery. The car exhibited a mileage of 72 kilometres per complete charge on trial run with the driver alone riding the vehicle. This work is mainly dedicated to movement disabled in our society.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on CO2 Reduction in Exhaust Gases of CI Engine Fuelled with Blend of Cotton Seed Oil Methyl Ester and Diesel

2018-07-09
2018-28-0035
Abstract Global warming and climate change problems resulting from the greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), have paved the way for the need of research in minimizing the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. Though various CO2 capture technologies have been proposed for post combustion processes, Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) by the absorbent is a simple and better method for CO2 emission reduction. In the present study experimental investigation has been carried out in a single cylinder, 4-stroke, computerized water-cooled, diesel engine of 5.2 kW rated power, fuelled with diesel, a blend of 20% methyl ester of cotton seed oil and 80% diesel (B20) with and without integration of CCS using wooden charcoal and activated carbon to absorb CO2 from the exhaust gas. The analysis includes the performance and emission characteristics of the engine and the carbon capture potential of CCS.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Cost FEAD System with Stretch Fit Belt

2018-07-09
2018-28-0064
Abstract In Current scenario all Vehicle Manufacturer are looking towards cost effectiveness in their product development without compromising product quality and performance. With this reference, development of low cost FEAD (Front End Accessory Drive) system with stretch fit belt & idlers for multiple accessories has emerged as one of the alternative smart engineering solution against the FEAD with auto tensioner. The beauty of this low cost FEAD system is not only the cost saving but also the long lasting performance without affecting component life. In the current work, development of a low cost FEAD for 3 cylinder 1.5 litre diesel engine has been presented. It was one of the challenges to introduce stretch fit belt for 3 cylinder engine considering the high torsional vibration. The performance of this FEAD system was evaluated in terms of accessories pulley slip and belt flapping. The component durability was assessed both at engine as well as at vehicle level.
Technical Paper

Development of Variable Stiffness Suspension System Considering Handling, Comfort and Structural Fatigue

2018-07-09
2018-28-0061
Abstract This paper describes the development of a varying stiffness suspension system to have better control over handling, comfort and structural fatigue of automobiles. Earlier approaches resulted in cumbersome designs and resulted in higher lateral forces on coil springs and structural fatigue. In this work, an initiative has been taken considering all these factors and optimizing the design at every stage of development to achieve lightweight and economical suspension system to meet the objectives. The variable stiffness is achieved through the relative travel of spring with respect to the wheel travel for different configurations. For this purpose, a stepper motor drive is employed to move the hinge point in the angular arch. The developed design is also examined through mathematical modeling and the MBD simulations.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Oil Separation Unit for Two Stage Turbocharged Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0066
Abstract In addition to performance target, recent stringent emission legislation and reduction in oil consumption are the major driving force for engine design and development. In this reference importance of crankcase ventilation has increased immensely and the manufacturers are bound to develop most efficient system with high oil trap efficiency. In crankcase ventilation system, the blow-by gases from the crankcase are routed to the intake manifold through Oil separator system. The oil separator task is to retain the oil part from the blow by gas and send it back to sump. Developing an oil separator for the engine studied here was very challenging considering double stage turbocharger which produces very fine mist of oil and is difficult to separate. The study shows that oil mist coming in blow by is of size 0.3 micron and lesser than it. The major contribution of these fine mists was from turbocharger.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Behaviour Study of Non-Edible Vegetable Biofuel as Sole Fuel in Diesel Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0072
Abstract The growth of the industries is the indicators of a growing country and in parallel, surface transport also grows rapidly, which is inevitable. All countries are much worried about the degradation of the quality of life due to pollution from industries and automobiles in particular. Rapid growth in mobility leads to violent exploration and exploitation of petroleum resources. The high demand consequences instability in fuel prices. The higher energy content of vegetable oils is nearly 80% -90% of the diesel fuel and high Cetane number of the vegetable oils are the more suitable for the diesel engine. However, the viscosity is the main problem and it is eradicated by trans -esterification. The use of vegetable oil as fuel helps the agriculturist, and hence dependability of fossil fuel reduced. The biofuels increase employability, rural economy and reduce the rural migration to metro cities further, increasing the GDP of the rural.
Technical Paper

NOx Control Using Porous Medium Combustion in DI Diesel Engine - An Attempt through Simulation Study

2018-07-09
2018-28-0077
Abstract At present, the emissions from an internal combustion engine exhaust is reduced by exhaust after treatment devices. However, after treatment devices like SCR which is used to control NOx, results in additional weight, high costs and rejects toxic gases like ammonia etc. To overcome this problem, a new combustion technique should be developed to improve the primary combustion processes inside the combustion chamber itself to reduce these exhaust gas emissions. This work presents the results of such a technique that is applicable to direct injection, Diesel engines. The technique is based on the porous medium combustion (PMC) technology, which is developed for steady state household and industrial combustion processes. Based on the adiabatic combustion in porous medium (PM), a porous medium in engine piston as a concept is proposed here to achieve improved combustion efficiency and low emissions. Using a commercial code CONVERGE the entire cycle is simulated and presented here.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Throttle Opening Angle Estimation Strategy by Considering Torque Demands from SI Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0079
Abstract Electronic throttle control is extensively preferred to vary the air intake in the engine manifold for regulating the torque in order to obtain the better vehicle response, high performance in terms of improving the fuel economy and trim down the emissions of the spark ignition engines. For such type of the engine control systems the throttle angle is estimation is accomplished either by pedal follower or torque based method. This work aims to develop a throttle opening angle estimation strategy in a closed loop manner using fuzzy logic approach by considering real time internal system and driver torque demands for controlling the SI engine. In present work the torque demand from internal system such as catalyst heating, cold start assist and battery voltage compensation is estimated using fuzzy logic strategy. Such intelligent system aims to replace the lookup tables associated with those systems and reduces the calibration effort.
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