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Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions Reduction from Neat Biodiesel Operated Diesel Engine Using Catalyst Coated Piston and Antioxidant Additive

2018-07-09
2018-28-0053
The limited work has been done so far using neat biodiesel in the diesel engine since it drastically reduces the brake thermal efficiency and emitting higher amount of oxides of nitrogen. Hence in the present investigation an attempt has been made to use neat biodiesels in DI diesel engine on par with diesel fuel with some alternate methods that have to be incorporated to improve the efficiency and to reduce oxides of nitrogen emission. The biodiesels used for the present investigation are nerium, mahua and calophyllum. The top of the piston is coated with ZrO2 catalyst in order to improve the performance of the engine. Further, 200 mg of L-ascorbic acid antioxidant additive is added to the neat biodiesels to improve the oxidation stability and to reduce the oxides of nitrogen emission. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine to find the performance and emission characteristics.
Technical Paper

Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum 6082

2018-07-09
2018-28-0051
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional joining techniques. F SW is a solid-state process which produces welds of high quality in difficult-to-weld materials such as aluminum and is fast becoming the process of choice for manufacturing lightweight transport structures such as boats, trains and aero planes. A rotating cylindrical tool with a profiled probe is fed in to a butt joint between two clamped workpieces, until the shoulder, which has a larger diameter than the pin, touches the surface of the workpieces. The probe is slightly shorter than the weld depth required, with the tool shoulder riding at the top of the work surface. In this dissertation two Aluminum 6082 plates were joined with friction stir welding technique. The primary objective of this work is to study the effect of root gap and variation in tool speed on the properties of base metal i.e. AL6082.
Technical Paper

Effect of Micro Texture on Tribological Performance of Piston Ring-Cylinder Liner System under Different Lubrication Regimes

2018-07-09
2018-28-0052
The main drawbacks of the IC engine are low thermal and mechanical efficiencies with a significant proportion of fuel energy is dissipated as heat, and about 12% fuel energy is lost due to friction. Many research works are going on to reduce these losses in IC engine, as, even if, reduction of 10% in total friction loss can be achieved it will result in 1.5% drop in fuel consumption, which will ultimately give huge economic benefit. It has been recently identified, that optimally texturing of a tribological surface reduces friction and wear at sliding contact interfaces, as it acts as a micro-reservoir for lubricant and entraps wear particles. In the present study, this theory is utilized to reduce friction in piston ring-cylinder liner (PRCL) contact by using micro textured piston ring. Tribological performance of micro textured PRCL system is investigated under medium passenger vehicle engine operating conditions using reciprocating tribometer test rig.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Model Validation of Experimental Results of SiCp/Al2O3 Ceramic Matrix Composites Prepared by Directed Metal Oxidation of an Al Alloy

2018-07-09
2018-28-0046
In this paper, SiCp/Al2O3 ceramic matrix composites are fabricated with specimen of dimensions measuring 70 × 70 × 20, in mm with varying volume fractions in the range of 0.35 to 0.43. The purpose of this paper is to compare experimental results namely physical properties of SiCp/Al2O3 composites with mathematical models. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data In the present paper, different mathematical models are used to comparison of physical properties such as coefficient of thermal expansion and modulus of elasticity of SiCp/Al2O3 composites with different volume fractions of SiC in the range of 0.35 to 0.43. The comparison experimental results with mathematical models provide detailed information about the results of these comparisons. The models were capable of predicting the data for some scenarios fairly well.
Technical Paper

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion and Elastic Modulus of SICP/AL2O3 Ceramic Matrix Composites Prepared by Directed Metal Oxidation Process

2018-07-09
2018-28-0047
The present paper, it is aimed to prepare SiCp/Al2O3 ceramic matrix composites using Directed Metal Oxidation process large enough dimension specimens for the measurement of physical properties. Continuous oxidation of an Aluminum alloy with suitable dopant along with a preform of SiC has lead to the formation of alumina matrix surrounding silicon carbide particulates. SiCp/Al2O3 ceramic matrix composites fabricated by the Directed Metal Oxidation process, possess required physical properties such as coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and elastic modulus, all at an affordable cost of fabrication. Al2O3 matrix composites reinforced with different volume fractions of SiC particulates were investigated for physical properties such as coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and elastic modulus. The composites with SiC volume fraction of 0.43 were found to possess a CTE as of as 5.0 x 10−6/K and an elastic modulus of 262 GPa.
Technical Paper

Evaluation on Properties of Industrial Workers Safety Helmet Using Natural Hybrid Composite

2018-07-09
2018-28-0049
In this project work, composites were prepared by using matrix method in which good adhesion was generated by a combination of hand layup method. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the suitability of natural fiber composites using luffa fiber, palm fiber and bamboo fiber and to fabricate the safety helmet by combining these three fibers. Initially these fibers were treated in sodium hydroxide solution in order to improve fiber interfacial bonding. Generally, composites that contain treated fiber have a higher tensile modulus and greater flexural modulus than do untreated fiber composites. Here using 40% fibers and 60% matrix for fabricating natural composites and to investigate its tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength and hardness strength. It was observed that the effects of reinforcing epoxy resin matrix with the fibers caused the composites to be more flexible and easily deform due to high strain values and reduction of high resonant amplitude.
Technical Paper

Tribological Effects of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) on Cu Based Hybrid Composite Brake Friction Material for Medium Duty Automotive Applications

2018-07-09
2018-28-0048
The aim of this work is to investigate the synergistic effect of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) in a Cu/SiC hybrid composite brake friction material. The brake hybrid composite materials were prepared using copper as a matrix, silicon carbide as a reinforcing fibre, graphite as a solid lubricant and barium sulphate as a filler combined with varying volume percentage (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) by conventional powder metallurgy technique. The prepared brake friction materials are characterized for compression strength, density and hardness to analyze their mechanical properties. The friction and wear behaviour of the composite were carried out using a fully instrumented pin-on-disc (PoD) test rig with linear variable differential transducer for wear rate and strain gauge for friction measurement under dry condition for medium duty applications.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Analysis Comparison of Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Based Mobility

2018-07-09
2018-28-0037
Policy makers, especially in the European Union, are pushing towards an early transition to electric mobility, with the internal combustion engine supposed to be phased out by 2030. With a world population projected to exceed 10 billion peoples by 2050, the electric car mobility still lacks the significant development needed to become a real alternative to the internal combustion engine based mobility. Resources availability, and environmental, energetic and economic downfalls, are currently largely underrated or simply unassessed. It is unclear how many will be able to afford to purchase and recharge an electric vehicle in this new world.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Turning Characteristics and Optimization of MOS2p and SiCp-Reinforced Al-Si10Mg Metal Matrix Composites

2018-07-09
2018-28-0043
In the fabrication of parts in auto and aero segments, the use of ceramic (SiCp, Al2O3p) reinforces aluminum alloy found to be increased than that of steel and cast iron. This matrix-reinforced alloy has a high strength to weight ratio along with higher modulus and hardness, the lower thermal coefficient of expansion, and improved tribological properties. To this extent, this paper investigates the turning characteristics and optimization study of newly developed metal matrix composites by the addition of both hard ceramic SiCp and soft stable lubricant molybdenum disulfide (MoS2p). The samples such as Sample 1: AlSi10Mg/3SiCp, Sample 2: AlSi10Mg/2MoS2p and Sample 3: AlSi10Mg/3SiCp /2MoS2p are prepared using the automated stir-casting machine. The particles are observed to be uniformly distributed in the composite. After density and hardness measurement, the samples are subjected to machining, and the responses are optimized by using response surface method.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Addition of Treated Waste Engine Oil into Diesel Ethanol Blends on the Performance in Compression Ignition Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0001
Diesel ethanol blends can be used as a fuel for CI engine to replace or reduce the usage of diesel as a fuel for compression ignition engine. This work is to investigate the addition of treated waste engine oil into diesel ethanol blends. The novelty in this work is the utilization of renewable fuel ethanol and treated waste engine oil which is a waste product from internal combustion engines. Experimentation was conducted in two stages: viz., first stage was treating the waste engine oil and followed by blending and testing the performance of diesel ethanol blends with various proportions of treated waste engine oil. Treatment of waste engine oil includes initial filtration, acid treatment by acetic acid, clay contraction by fullers` earth and neutralization cum decoloration along with final filtration of waste engine oil.
Technical Paper

Sustainability and Production Economics of Titanium for Engine Valve: India Perspective

2018-07-09
2018-28-0002
Automotive industry is looking to have breakthrough for utilization of titanium in vehicles with cost effective solution. This is due to the relative cost factor and for titanium it is 20 and 2.9 times greater than steel and aluminium respectively. Looking at Today’s scenario of multi material vehicle, it weighs approximately 221 kg on usage of conventional materials i.e. aluminium 37%, steel 42% and composites 21%. also Indian government has taken bold decision to meet BS VI norms directly by 2020 and to achieve the same it is required to meet NOx level of 0.06 g/km for gasoline vehicles and 0.080 g/km for diesel vehicle along with EGR rates of 35% at full load at which conventional materials like steel, aluminium has to withstand for high temperature cycles and high compressed air pressure at outlet.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine Fueled with Blends of Thevetia Peruviana Seed Oil under 8-Mode Testing Cycle

2018-07-09
2018-28-0006
In the present work, bio-diesel produced from Thevatia Peruviana seed oil which is commonly called as Yellow oleander is blended with diesel to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of a naturally aspirated diesel engine. The testing is carried out under 8-mode testing cycle used for off-road vehicles. The extracted bio-oil is subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer to obtain its fatty acid profile. It is then converted into bio-diesel by transesterification process. The properties of bio-diesel produced are conforming to EN14214 standards except for a slightly lower density. Two blends of B10, B15 with diesel are used for experiments. The reduction in power and torque is observed to be proportional to increasing blend ratio. Results show that there is a reduction of 15.71% of CO and 32.30% reduction in HC for B15 blend compared to base line diesel. However, CO2 and NOX emissions are found to be increased for blends as compared to baseline engine.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Sliding Wear Simulation of 2D Steel-on-Steel Pin-on-Disc Tribometer

2018-07-09
2018-28-0011
Wear of components is a critical factor influencing the service life of a product. Thus wear prediction and simulation has become an important part of engineering. One of the most common forms of wear in mechanical components is sliding wear. Factors affecting dry sliding wear include normal load, relative speed, geometry (both macroscopic and microscopic), temperature, material properties and environmental conditions. Sliding wear experiments are done using tribometers. However, such experiments are expensive and time consuming. In the past few decades, a Finite Element Method (FEM) based wear simulation approach has gained popularity. The objective of the present work is the numerical wear prediction of 2D steel-on-steel pin-on-disc dry sliding contact using Finite Element Method (FEM). Initially, the 2D elastic contact problem is solved using non linear finite element method to obtain the pressure at the contact nodes.
Technical Paper

Super-Turbocharging the Gasoline Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0007
In this paper, the concept of super-turbocharging is applied, in simulation, to a four-cylinder direct injection jet ignition gasoline engine. Turbocharging improves the power density of internal combustion engines, both the compression ignition and the spark ignition. However, a standalone turbocharger suffers from transient and steady state performance and efficiency degradation where the energy to turbine is either smaller or larger than what would be needed to optimize the engine operation in a specific point. Hence a concept is proposed to use a super-turbocharger, where the turbocharger shaft is connected to the crankshaft through a continuously variable transmission (CVT) and a gears pair. Energy is drawn from the crankshaft or delivered to the crankshaft to better work in every operating point. The concept was originally proposed for a diesel engine. Here it is applied to a gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Design of a Ballistic Composite Cover Plate for Armoured Fighting Vehicles

2018-07-09
2018-28-0008
Armoured fighting vehicles such as Main Battle Tank (MBT) operate in a variety of theatres right starting from desert, marshes to high altitude areas. To deploy and operate such platforms, strategic, tactical and battlefield mobility have to be higher, for which combat mass of the platform is a critical parameter. To keep this parameter within optimum limits, overall mass reduction of the platform is crucial, which is also challenging as the structure has to offer not only strength and rigidity but also ballistic protection. This challenge is further complicated if the panel or component is exposed to high temperature. This paper tries to address these design challenges through a case study, wherein a composite cover plate made of Ceramic tiles, Kevlar, Foam with stainless steel sheets as backings in a sandwich construction is presented. The complete design and iteration methodology is first explained in detail along with constraints.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on CO2 Reduction in Exhaust Gases of CI Engine Fuelled with Blend of Cotton Seed Oil Methyl Ester and Diesel

2018-07-09
2018-28-0035
Global warming and climate change problems resulting from the greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), have paved the way for the need of research in minimizing the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. Though various CO2 capture technologies have been proposed for post combustion processes, Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) by the absorbent is a simple and better method for CO2 emission reduction. In the present study experimental investigation has been carried out in a single cylinder, 4-stroke, computerized water-cooled, diesel engine of 5.2 kW rated power, fuelled with diesel, a blend of 20% methyl ester of cotton seed oil and 80% diesel (B20) with and without integration of CCS using wooden charcoal and activated carbon to absorb CO2 from the exhaust gas. The analysis includes the performance and emission characteristics of the engine and the carbon capture potential of CCS.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Optimization of Mechanical Properties of Sustainable Moringa Oleifera Fruit Husk Fiber for Polymer Composite Applications

2018-07-09
2018-28-0045
Natural fiber reinforced composites are playing a vital role in the polymer industry due to its low cost, light weight, renewable, biodegradable and eco-friendly properties. However, conventional E-glass fibers are hazardous for human health and causes cancer. Hence, currently the research on exploring the promising and novel sustainable natural fibers as a bio-reinforcement in polymer composites for different applications are of great demand. Huge amount of Moringa Oleifera fruit husk (MOFH), which is rich in fiber are being wasted from commercial industries after yielding its economic value. In the present work, MOFH fiber is tested comprehensively for ensuring its potentiality as a reinforcement in polymer matrix and to optimize the mechanical properties. The optimum fiber content is found to be 20 wt.%, whereas beyond that the fiber pull out and debonding occurred due to poor compatibility between the fiber and the matrix.
Technical Paper

Super-Turbocharging the Dual Fuel Diesel Injection Ignition Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0036
Turbocharging dramatically improves the power density of internal combustion engines both in the compression ignition and the spark ignition cases. However, a standalone turbocharger suffers from transient and steady state downfalls where the energy to turbine is either smaller or larger than what would be needed to optimize the engine operation in a specific steady state or transient point. Hence a concept was proposed of a super-turbocharger where the turbocharger shaft is connected to the crankshaft through a continuously variable transmission and a gear. Energy is drawn from the crankshaft or delivered to the crankshaft to improve the work in every operating point of the steady map. In this paper, the concept of super-turbocharger is applied to a six-cylinder, dual fuel diesel injection ignition engine. The system is modelled using state-of-the-art automotive software and simulations of the steady-state operation are presented.
Technical Paper

BIW Resistance Spot Weld Parameter Standardization through Parameter Optimization across Various Sheet Metal Panel Combinations

2018-07-09
2018-28-0034
Body in White (BIW) is one of the critical aggregates of an automobile. Establishing the quality parameters during body manufacturing is essential to achieve robust BIW structure. Spot weld integrity and dimensional accuracy are the two major quality parameters of a BIW. Weld integrity plays an important role in achieving dimensional accuracy and structural stability. Various combinations of sheet metals are joined together to form a BIW structure. Spot weld parameter selection is one of the critical activity and needs to be programmed for the various combinations of sheet metals. Weld parameter for the various combinations are calculated with the resistance of the joining sheet metals thicknesses. The calculated parameters are validated with the coupon test (or) peel test and it requires several iterations to establish weld integrity of the different combinations and the selected parameters get registered in the weld controller.
Technical Paper

A Hardware Model for Vehicular Network to Control Air Pollution Leading to Big Data Analytics

2018-07-09
2018-28-0038
The foremost emphasis of this paper is to project the need for collecting the outlet pollutant gases from the individual vehicle which is on fleet and the need to maintain the vehicle to make the surveillance of vehicle in the fleet. The data that is collected from the vehicle was stored in the cloud and provided to the vehicle user mobile application that displays the level of pollutant. With the help of pollutant level the user may be aware of the maintenance or the change in vehicle filling station, which will reduce the overall level of pollutant of the vehicle. The data that is uploaded in the cloud will be used by the regional transport office to keep track of the vehicle user.
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