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Viewing 451 to 480 of 86934
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0289
Le Zhao, Nitisha Ahuja, Xiucheng Zhu, Zhihao Zhao, Seong-Young Lee
This paper aims to provide the experimental and numerical investigation of a single fuel droplet impingement on the different wall conditions to understand the detailed impinging dynamic process. The experimental work was carried out at the room temperature and pressure except for the variation of the impinged wall temperature. A high-speed camera was employed to capture the silhouette of the droplet impinging on wall process against a collimated light. Water, diesel, and n-heptane were considered as three different droplets and injected from a precision syringe pump with the volume flow rate of 0.2 mL/min at various impact Weber numbers. The impingement outcomes after droplet impacting on the wall include stick, spread, rebound and splash, which depend on the controlling parameters of Weber number, Reynolds number, liquid and surface properties, etc.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0288
Sampath K. Rachakonda, Arman Paydarfar, David Schmidt
Sac-type nozzles, which are often used in the gasoline direct injection, induce asymmetry to the spray. The drill angle i.e., the angle between the axis of the nozzle and the axis of the injector, is one of the key causes of the asymmetric flow. Despite its significance, the influence of the drill angle on spray is poorly understood. In the current work, a parametric study has been carried out using single-hole sac-type nozzles by varying the drill angle. The drill angle was varied from a value of 0° to 45° in steps of 15°. Apart from the geometric variation, the ambient pressure and the fuel temperature were varied to achieve flash-boiling and non-flash-boiling spray conditions. Simulations were carried out using an in-house CFD solver that accounts for thermodynamic non-equilibrium coupled with a liquid-gas interface-area-density transport model to account for primary atomization of the fuel.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0287
Suya Gao, Junhao Yan, Chia-Fon Lee
An efficient multi-component fuel droplet vaporization model has been developed in this work using discrete approach. The precise modeling of droplet vaporization process is divided into two parts: vapor-phase and liquid-phase sub-models. Temporal evolution of flow inside the droplet is considered to describe the transient behavior introduced by the slow diffusion process. In order to account for the internal circulation motion, surface regression and finite diffusion without actually resolving the spatial governing equations within the liquid phase, a set of ordinary differential equations is applied to describe the evolution of the non-uniform distributions of universal diffusional variables, i.e. temperature and species mass fraction. The differences between the droplet surface and bulk mean states are modeled by constructing a quasi-1D frame; the effect of the internal circulations is taken into consideration by using the effective diffusivity rather than physical diffusivity.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0286
Armin Fischer, Marina Thelliez
With upcoming emission regulations particle emissions for GDI engines are challenging engine and injector developers. Despite the introduction of GPFs, engine-out emission should be optimized to avoid extra cost and exhaust backpressure. Engine tests with a state of the art Miller GDI engine showed up to 200% increased particle emissions over the test duration due to injector deposit related diffusion flames. No spray altering deposits have been found inside the injector nozzle. To optimize this tip sooting behavior a tool chain is presented which involves injector multiphase simulations, a spray simulation coupled with a wallfilm model and testing. First the flow inside the injector is analyzed based on a 3D-XRay model. The next step is a Lagrangian spray simulation coupled with a wallfilm module which is used to simulate the fuel impingement on the injector tip and counter-bores.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0261
Darko Kozarac, Ivan Taritas, Momir Sjeric, Josip Krajnovic, Mario Sremec
The paper presents the optimization of the injection parameters of directly injected fuel in the dual fuel engine operation. The optimization is performed numerically by using a cycle simulation model (0D/1D) of the considered engine. In the cycle simulation model the combustion is simulated by a newly developed quasi-dimensional “dual fuel” combustion model. The model is based on the modified Multi-Zone Combustion Model and Fractal Combustion Model. Modified Multi-Zone Combustion Model handles the part of the combustion process that is governed by the mixing-controlled combustion, while the modified Fractal Combustion Model handles the part that is governed by the flame propagation through the combustion chamber. The developed dual fuel combustion model features phenomenological description of the spray processes, i.e. liquid spray break-up, fresh charge entrainment, droplet heat-up and evaporation process.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0260
Arash Jamali, Youngchul Ra, Wonah Park, Gyubaek Cho
Recent development in internal combustion engines is aiming at efficient use of various fuels. Typical automotive fuels consist of many species that can affect engine combustion characteristics. Developing suitable chemical reaction mechanisms for the components of the fuel is one of the challenges in numerical simulations of engine combustion. In the present study, the reactivity adjustment model (ReAd model) is employed. In the model, a reduced reaction mechanism for a single chemical surrogate (n-heptane) is used to represent the oxidation process of a multi-component fuel by incorporating on-the-fly adjustment of reactivity of the reaction mechanism based on the reactivity difference of the components of the fuel and the composition of local mixtures.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0258
Aleš Srna, Gilles Bruneaux, Beat von Rotz, Rolf Bombach, Kai Herrmann, Konstantinos Boulouchos
The sooting propensity of dual-fuel combustion with n-dodecane pilot injection in a lean-premixed methane charge has been investigated using an optically accessible Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine to achieve engine relevant pressure and temperature conditions at the start of pilot injection. A Diesel injector with a 100 µm single-hole coaxial nozzle, mounted at the cylinder periphery, has been employed to admit the pilot fuel. The aim of this study is to enhance the fundamental understanding of the soot formation and oxidation process of n-dodecane in presence of methane in the air charge by parametric variation methane equivalence ratio, charge temperature and pilot-fuel injection duration. The influence of methane on the ignition delay and flame extent of the pilot-fuel jet has been determined by simultaneous OH* chemiluminescence and Schlieren imaging. The sooting behavior of the flame has been characterized using the 2D-DBI imaging methodology.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0259
Michael Saccullo, Timothy Benham PhD, Ingemar Denbratt
Laws concerning emissions from heavy duty (HD) internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent. New engine technologies are therefore needed to satisfy these new legal requirements and to reduce fossil fuel dependency. One way to achieve both goals is to partially replace fossil fuels with alternatives that are more sustainable with respect to emissions of greenhouse gas, particulates and NOx. Therefore a dual fuel direct injection HD engine using ethanol or methanol as the main fuel with a pilot diesel injection to facilitate ignition was studied. The objective of this investigation was to find practical ways of combining the established advantages of Diesel engines, such as high fuel efficiency, with the advantages of alcohol fuels such as lower particulate emissions, bypassing the NOx-soot-trade-off. Furthermore, this study serves as a proof-of-concept, demonstrating that methanol and ethanol can successfully be used in a high pressure Diesel injection system.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0264
Flavio Dal Forno Chuahy, Sage Kokjohn
Dual fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion is a promising method to achieve high efficiency with near zero NOx and soot emissions; however, the requirement to carry two fuels on-board limits practical application. Advancements in catalytic reforming have demonstrated the ability to generate syngas (a mixture of CO and hydrogen) from a single hydrocarbon stream. This syngas mixture can then be used as the low reactivity fuel stream to enable single fuel RCCI combustion. The present effort uses a combination of engine experiments and system level modeling to investigate reformed fuel RCCI combustion. The impact of reformer composition is investigated by varying the syngas composition from 10% H2 to approximately 80% H2. A system level and second law analysis are performed on the highest efficiency operating points and comparisons are made between partial oxidation reforming and steam reforming.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0265
Shui Yu, Shouvik Dev, Zhenyi Yang, Simon Leblanc, Xiao Yu, Xiaoye Han, Tie Li, Ming Zheng
Dual-fuel low temperature combustion (LTC) uses direct injection of diesel to set off a pilot flame for burning a premixed background fuel mixture that is prepared by port injection of a volatile fuel. The port injection fuel typically has a relatively lower reactivity, such as gasoline, n-butanol and ethanol. To ignite the premixed background mixture, diesel direct injections can be deployed at close to top dead center (TDC) timings for sensitive control of ignition and combustion phasing. The diesel fuel can also be injected at very early timings, such as at early or mid of compression stroke, to realize the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion mode. Owing to the prolonged ignition delay, the combustion phasing is lesser coupled with the injection timing, while the charge reactivity plays a dominant role in ignition and combustion control.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0262
Jeffrey T. Hwang, Seamus P. Kane, William F. Northrop
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) using a diesel fuel alone was realized in a diesel engine using a thermally integrated reformed exhaust gas recirculation (R-EGR) reactor. Achieving RCCI requires a premixed low reactivity fuel combined with a directly injected diesel fuel. Partially reforming diesel fuel into less reactive products could potentially allow RCCI to be implemented with a single stored fuel, a practical disadvantage of traditional dual fuel operation. Though most previous research regarding on-board fuel reforming has been focused on producing significant quantities of hydrogen, this work sought to show that the reactivity of partial reforming products is sufficiently low to achieve RCCI combustion modes. In the experimental work described in this paper, a R-EGR reactor was integrated into a custom exhaust manifold on a light-duty passenger car diesel engine.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0269
Arjun Prakash, Jan-Hendrik Redmann, Karl Giles, Roger Cracknell, Niall Turner, Allen A. Aradi, Andrew Lewis
Stringent regulations on fuel economy have driven major innovative changes in the internal combustion engine design. (e.g. CAFE fuel economy standards of 54.5 mpg by 2025 in the U.S) Vehicle manufacturers have implemented engine infrastructure changes such as downsizing, direct injection and turbocharging to achieve higher engine efficiencies. Fuel properties therefore, have to align with these engine changes and perform strongly to provide fuel related benefits. Fuel octane quality is a key metric that enables high fuel efficiency in an engine. Greater resistance to auto-ignition (knock) of the fuel/air mixture allows engines to be operated at a higher compression ratio for a given level of boosting of the intake charge without severely retarding the spark timing resulting in a greater torque per mass of fuel burnt. This attribute makes a high octane fuel a favorable hydrocarbon choice for modern high efficiency engines that aim for higher fuel economy.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0268
Zenghui yin
Through adding nitro-based fuel additive into diesel fuel,the influences of additive on engin performance, gaseous emission, particle number concentration and exhaust smoke were studied on a test bench.Meanwhile,the combustion characteristics and the functioning mechanism were conducted based on the constant volume combustion vessel.The results show that both engine exhaust temperature and exhaust smoke decrease after adding the fuel additive for ESC test circle. The fuel additive improved the engine’s power slightly and expanded the economic fuel consumption working area. Meanwhile, varying decreases of the THC,CO,NOx,opacity and PM emissions can be achieved simultaneously. The particle number concentration slightly increased. After mixing with nitro-based fuel additive,a longer ignition delay and flame lift-off length were observed for the combustion process,and the combustion duration got shorter,which are consistant with the chemical reaction kinetics analysis.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0267
Flavio Dal Forno Chuahy, Jamen Olk, Sage Kokjohn
Advancements in catalytic reforming have demonstrated the ability to generate syngas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) from a single hydrocarbon stream. This syngas mixture can then be used to substitute diesel fuel and enable dual-fuel combustion strategies. The role of port-fuel injected syngas, comprised of equal parts hydrogen and carbon monoxide by volume was investigated experimentally for soot reduction benefits under a transient load change at constant speed. The syngas used for the experiments was presumed to be formed via a partial oxidation on-board fuel reforming process and delivered through gaseous injectors using a custom gas rail supplied with bottle gas, mounted in the swirl runner of the intake manifold. Time-based ramping of direct injected fuel with constant syngas fuel mass delivery from 2 to 8 bar BMEP was performed on a multi-cylinder, turbocharged, light-duty engine to determine the effects of syngas on transient soot emissions.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0272
Xinyan Wang, Hua Zhao
The outward-opening piezoelectric injector can achieve stable fuel/air mixture distribution and multiple injections in a single cycle, having attracted great attentions in direct injection gasoline engines. In order to realise accurate predictions of the gasoline spray with the outward-opening piezoelectric injector, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of the gasoline spray with different droplet breakup models were performed in the commercial CFD software STAR-CD and validated by the corresponding measurements. The injection pressure was fixed at 180 bar, while two different backpressures (1 and 10 bar) were used to evaluate the robustness of the breakup models. The effects of the mesh quality, simulation timestep, breakup model parameters were investigated to clarify the overall performance of different breakup model in modeling the gasoline sprays.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0273
Aldo Mendieta, Plamen Dragomirov, Florian Schulz, Frank Beyrau, Wolfgang Samenfink, Erik Schuenemann
In the following years, more stringent emission constraints for gasoline direct injection engines, in particular regarding particulate matter emissions, are to be expected. A major source for soot particle formation in these engines are fuel-rich zones near walls as a result of wall wetting during injection. In order to avoid or minimize this effect, a thorough understanding of the wall film formation and evaporation processes is necessary. The wall temperature before, during and after the film formation is an important parameter in this respect, but is not easily measured using conventional methods. In this work, we demonstrate the use of a laser-based, spatially and temporally resolved method for planar surface temperature measurements, which is not affected by the fuel film present on the wall. For the measurements, the wall is coated with a chemical binder containing thermographic phosphor particles.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0270
Tom Tzanetakis, Alexander Voice, Michael L. Traver
Based on preliminary experimental and modeling work, the use of gasoline-like fuels in compression ignition engines shows promise in simultaneously achieving high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. Proving that existing hardware systems are tolerant to these alternative fuels is a key step towards implementing a low cost, drop-in replacement for diesel in heavy duty applications. In this study, a 400 hour NATO test cycle was used to assess the overall robustness of a Cummins XPI common rail injection system operating with gasoline-like fuel. The cycle is designed to accelerate wear and identify any significant failure modes that could persist under normal operating conditions. Although prior work has investigated injection system durability with alternative fuels, this study uniquely focuses on a high volatility, low viscosity, gasoline-like fuel that has been additized to meet the current lubricity specification of market diesel.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0271
Lucio Postrioti, Andrea Cavicchi, Gabriele Brizi, Fabio Berni, Stefano Fontanesi
In recent years, the GDI technology has significantly spread over the automotive market following the continuous push toward the adoption of combustion systems featuring high thermodynamic conversion efficiency and moderate pollutant emission levels. Following this path, the injection pressure level has been progressively increased from the initial 5-15 MPa level nowadays approaching 35 MPa. The main reason behind the progressive injection pressure increase in GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engines is the improved spay atomization, ensuring a better combustion process control and lower soot emissions. On the other hand, increasing the injection pressure implies more power absorbed from the powertrain. Therefore, the right trade-off has to be found between soot formation tendency reduction thanks to improved atomization and the energetic cost of the high pressure fuel injection system.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0290
Zhengxing Liang, Junhao Yan, Gang Li, Timothy Lee, Chia-Fon Lee
Fuel film was formed in the intake port or on the surface of the piston crown in the internal combustion engine because of the fuel spray impinges. The formation of the film affects the mixing process of the air and the fuel, and the process of the combustion propagation. These problems lead to the increase of the pollutant emissions and the reduction of the engine performance. So, it is meaningful to improve the understanding of the combustion and evaporation behavior of the film. Some models have been developed to predict the evaporation behavior of the film, but rare experimental results have been reported, especially when the temperature is high. In this study, the evaporation behavior of the film of different species of oil and their blends at different temperature have been observed. The films of isooctane, 1-propyl alcohol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and their blends were placed on a quartz glass substrate in the closed temperature-controlled chamber.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0089
Shree Jaisimha, Meena Rajan, Padhu Kanagaraj, Shantha Kumari Rajendran
Managing Product Development through Feature Modeling Meena Rajan, Shree Jaisimha, Shantha Rajendran, Padhu Kanagaraj Panasonic Automotive Systems of America Personalized solutions are key to achieving customer satisfaction. Automotive industry uses process frameworks such as ASPICE to manage product life cycle phases involving requirements, change request management, software development, systems testing and quality assurance. ASPICE however does not provide a framework that enables management of complexity arising from product variation at the Systems, Hardware and Software Level, in order to meet customer expectations. Customer expectations involves functional features and non-functional features. Adding to this complexity is the scope of Variant Management whereby a feature is enabled or disabled for a specific market based on the region, cost, vehicle architecture, customer needs etc. Also, nuances within a feature can exist in certain variants.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0090
Guangchun Quan, Xijia Wu, Luc Lafleur, Zhong zhang
Some selected steel sheets for exhaust applications were tested under thermos-mechanical fatigue (TMF) condition within 400-800oC with partial constraint. Straight welded tubes were used as coupons to enable large compression without buckling and understanding the effect of weld as well. Repeated tests confirmed the observed failure scenario for each material type. The hysteresis loop behaviours were also simulated using the mechanism-based integrated creep and fatigue theory (ICFT) model. Although more development is needed, for quick material screening purpose, this type of testing could be a very cost effective solution for materials and tube weld development for exhaust applications.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0091
AMINREZA KARAMOOZIAN, liangmo Wang
Automotive disc brake squeal has been investigated as the constant source of worry in warranty and assurance issues in many years. Despite the fact that the brake works completely safe and reliable, it may causes the car manufacturer considerable profits loss from warranty claims depended to the characteristic of noise produced by the brake. Many researches have recorded that overheating of brake system and deterioration of friction coefficient can cause dynamic instabilities. herefore, performance of braking mechanism obtain by adequate cooling properties of braking components and especially for high performance passenger vehicles is critical. Periodic cellular metals (PCMs) are effective heat exchange media with open cell topologies, which has high potential heat dissipation with small spaces and light weight relatively.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0093
Sharath D H, Sivaprasad Nandyala, Mithun Manalikandy
Now a days the quantities of data available are very large in data science. The inner analysis of big-data leads to better decisions, but the big data itself cannot be processed as such because of its huge size. Hence the optimization of the big data is the most required and the challenging aspect in any industry. For big-data, the traditional optimization algorithms will fail because of the huge processing time and they start with some initial assumptions, so in order to optimize the big-data we need some special algorithms to do the job. The nature inspired Meta-heuristic algorithms can be used to solve problems of varying complexity from simple polynomial complexity to complex non-polynomial hard problems. Currently there is no single toolbox is available, which uses more than 20 different meta-heuristic algorithms to solve the optimization problem.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0092
Hua Zhu, Qingyuan Tan, Divyanshu Purohit, Shui Yu, Ming Zheng, Xiang Chen, Xiaohong Xu
The ever-growing stringent exhaust emission regulations have driven the development of modern gasoline engines to apply lean combustion strategies and downsize its displacement volumes to achieve the reduction of exhaust emission and fuel consumption. Currently, the inductive ignition system is still the dominant ignition system applied in spark ignited engines. It is popular for its simplicity in design, low in cost and robustness in performance. The new development in spark ignition engines demand higher spark energy to be delivered by the inductive ignition system to overcome the unfavorable ignition conditions caused by increased and diluted in-cylinder charge. To meet this challenge, the design optimization of the inductive ignition system is required. The appropriate use of simulations can help system design. In this paper, an empirical model is proposed to emulate the relation between the spark current and the spark plug gap voltage during the glow phase of a spark discharge.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0095
Arved Esser, Martin Zeller, Stéphane Foulard, Stephan Rinderknecht
Driving cycles play a fundamental role in the design of components, in the optimization of control strategies for drivetrain topologies and the identification of vehicle properties. The focus on a single or a few test cycles results in a risk of non-optimal or even poor design regarding the real usage profiles. Ideally, multiple different driving cycles that are representative of the real and scattering operating conditions are used. Therefore, tools for the stochastic generation of representative driving cycles are needed and many works have addressed this issue with different approaches. Until now, the stochastic generation of representative testing cycles has been limited to low dimensionality and only a few works have addressed higher dimensionality using markov chain theory. But it is mandatory to create tools, that can stochastically generate multidimensional cycles incorporating all relevant operating conditions and keeping the signal dependency at the same time.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0094
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Adam Kotrba
Many engineering, natural, human, and social phenomena are dominated by extreme events, which might not always be conveniently characterized by the extreme value theory. There are methods such as the generalized Pareto and extreme distribution function theories are derived from the extreme value theory that can be used to describe most extreme events. However, recent researches show that the extreme value theories do not work well for some extreme events especially at the tails of the events, which can be rather well described by the Dragon Kings theories. Furthermore, there are other extreme cases which intrinsically lay at the very tails of the events in the regions of <<1e-6 probabilities. These extreme events, might be defined in practices as virtually unpredictable and simply known as 'Black Swan' events.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0365
Savvas Savvakis, Vasilis Gkoutzamanis, Zissis Samaras
The confluence of market demand for lower fuel burn with the increasingly stringent legislations on pollutant emissions allows for the in-depth research of environmental friendlier configurations. The present work comprehensively reviews the research and development of a new concept rotary engine, discovering its future prospect and providing insights into the implementation of this technology into the energy sector. The principal focus of this work is to provide a theoretical description of the engine and its differentiation from the state-of-the-art technologies. its innovative principle consists of a concentric operation with two pistons of different rotation radius and the addition of a third intermediate chamber between the compression and combustion chamber. A description of the engine’s physical model is thoroughly provided, followed by an analysis that explains the selection of particular geometrical features.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0364
Sangjae Park, Jinyoung Jung, Sanguk Lee, Choongsik Bae
Under lean stratified combustion, differed from the stoichiometric homogeneous charge combustion, flame could propagate through extremely rich air-fuel mixture. The rich mixture causes considerable amount of particulate matter, but, due to large effect of efficiency improvement, the attractive point is on fuel economy compare to homogeneous charge SI combustion. The easiest way to reduce particulate matter is changing fuel to gaseous hydrocarbon, to minimize evaporating and mixing period. In this study, to reduce the particulate emission and to develop the way to mitigation of emission, the emission data of particulate under low and medium-low load conditions from normal butane fueled research engine are dealt to optimize combustion strategies, with respect to injection and ignition. Especially, particulate number density were collected in the research engine, and the causes of particulate formation were speculated with visualized combustion data.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0363
Jan Czerwinski, Pierre Comte, Danilo Engelmann, Norbert Heeb, Peter Bonsack, Maria Muñoz, Volker Hensel, Andreas Mayer
In the present paper, some results of investigations of nanoparticles from four MPI gasoline cars are represented. The measurements were performed at vehicle tailpipe and in CVS-tunnel. Moreover, two variants of GPF were investigated on a high-emitting modern vehicle, including analytics of PAH. The modern MPI vehicles can emit a considerable amount of PN, which in some cases attains the level of Diesel exhaust gas without DPF and can pass over the actual limit value for GDI (6.0 x 1011 #/km). The GPF-technology offers in this respect further potentials to reduce the PN-emissions of traffic.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0369
Yong Sun, Michael Fischer, Michael Bradford, Adam Kotrba, Eric Randolph
Water Injection (WI) can improve gasoline engine performance and efficiency, and on-board water recovery technology could eliminate the need for customers to refill an on-board water reservoir. In this regard, the technical feasibility of Exhaust Water Recovery (EWR) is described in this paper. Using water injection, fuel enrichment was reduced at a full load condition (5000rpm/18.1bar BMEP) on a turbocharged gasoline direction injection (GTDI) engine, yielding a 13% fuel economy improvement. Engine testing at a high load (3000rpm/14.0bar BMEP) condition showed that WI had a negligible effect on three-way catalyst (TWC) conversion efficiency under stoichiometric conditions. Water recovery testing was conducted at high load, as well as part load (2080rpm/6.8bar BMEP) conditions, at temperatures ca. 10-15 °C below the dew point of the flow stream. EWR was shown to be effective both post exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler and post charge air cooler (CAC).
Viewing 451 to 480 of 86934