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Viewing 61 to 90 of 85301
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2428
Peilin Dai, Ying Huang, Donghao Hao, Ting Zhang
Abstract The vehicle driveline suffers low frequency torsional vibration due to the abrupt change of input torque and torque fluctuation under variable frequency. This problem can be solved by model based control, so building a control oriented driveline model is extremely important. In this paper, an on-line recursive identification method is proposed for control oriented model and validated based on an electric car. First of all, the control oriented driveline model is simplified into a six-parameter model with double inertia. Secondly, based on stability analysis, motor torque and motor speed are chosen as input signal for on-line model identification. A recursive identification algorithm is designed and implemented based on Simulink. Meanwhile a detail model of the vehicle which considering driveline parameter variation is built based on ADAMS. Thirdly, on-line identification is conducted by using co-simulation of ADAMS and Simulink.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2429
Felix Leach, Martin Davy, Adam Weall, Brian Cooper
Abstract Diesel engine designers often use swirl flaps to increase air motion in cylinder at low engine speeds, where lower piston velocities reduce natural in-cylinder swirl. Such in-cylinder motion reduces smoke and CO emissions by improved fuel-air mixing. However, swirl flaps, acting like a throttle on a gasoline engine, create an additional pressure drop in the inlet manifold and thereby increase pumping work and fuel consumption. In addition, by increasing the fuel-air mixing in cylinder the combustion duration is shortened and the combustion temperature is increased; this has the effect of increasing NOx emissions. Typically, EGR rates are correspondingly increased to mitigate this effect. Late inlet valve closure, which reduces an engine’s effective compression ratio, has been shown to provide an alternative method of reducing NOx emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2420
Bertrand Kerres, Andreas Cronhjort, Mihai Mihaescu, Ola Stenlaas
Abstract On-engine surge detection could help in reducing the safety margin towards surge, thus allowing higher boost pressures and ultimately low-end torque. In this paper, experimental data from a truck turbocharger compressor mounted on the engine is investigated. A short period of compressor surge is provoked through a sudden, large drop in engine load. The compressor housing is equipped with knock accelerometers. Different signal treatments are evaluated for their suitability with respect to on-engine surge detection: the signal root mean square, the power spectral density in the surge frequency band, the recently proposed Hurst exponent, and a closely related concept optimized to detect changes in the underlying scaling behavior of the signal. For validation purposes, a judgement by the test cell operator by visual observation of the air filter vibrations and audible noises, as well as inlet temperature increase, are also used to diagnose surge.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2430
Yingmin Wang, Tao Cui, Fujun Zhang, Sufei Wang, Hongli Gao
Abstract Considering the randomness and instability of the oil pressure in the lubrication system, a new approach for fault detection and diagnosis of diesel engine lubrication system based on support vector machine optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO-SVM) model and centroid location algorithm has been proposed. Firstly, PSO algorithm is chosen to determine the optimum parameters of SVM, to avoid the blindness of choosing parameters. It can improve the prediction accuracy of the model. The results show that the classify accuracy of PSO-SVM is improved compared with SVM in which parameters are set according to experience. Then, the support vector machine classification interface is fitted to a curve, and the boundary conditions of fault diagnosis are obtained. Finally, diagnose algorithm is achieved through analyzing the centroid movement of features. According to Performance degradation data, degenerate trajectory model is established based on centroid location.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2425
Ramit Verma, Ramdas R Ugale
Abstract On two wheelers, magneto/alternator generates either single/three phase AC power and Regulator Rectifier Unit (RRU) does regulated rectification to charge the battery. In order to face the requirements of 2-wheeler engine with respect to upcoming stringent regulations like electronic fuel injection (EFI), anti-lock braking system (ABS), automatic headlamp on (AHO) in emerging markets like India; vehicles demand more electrical power from batteries. This demands higher power from alternator and consequently from RRU. Requirement of higher output power presents challenges on regulator rectifier unit in terms of size, power dissipation management and reliability. In this paper, improved performance of MOSFET based RRU is discussed in comparison to Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) based RRU. The motivation/benefits of MOSFET based design is described along with the thermal behavior and temperature coefficient performance of RRU with test results.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2406
Wu Yang, Xiuting Yin, Zhang Song Zhan, Huixian Shen, Huibin Qing, Qingqiang Zeng, Liyun Kang
Abstract This work addresses the problem of fatigue strength prediction of crankshaft fillet rolling processes to improve its accuracy. It is empirical to usually consider the effect of fillet rolling process on crankshaft fatigue performance. The fatigue performance of rolling process is mainly determined by induced compressive residual stresses, increased hardness and reduced roughness. Because the first two factors are difficult to measure the arc surface of fillet rolled cranks, it is difficult to predict the enhanced rate of crankshaft rolled performance to baseline unrolled’s. In this work a prediction method of fatigue strength for ductile cast iron crankshafts rolling process is presented. This method indirectly predicts the effect of the increased hardness on fatigue performance by the resonant bending fatigue test and modelling of crankshaft fillet rolling dynamic for the induced compressive residual stress.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2405
Christophe Chaillou, Alexandre Bouet, Arnaud Frobert, Florence Duffour
Abstract Fuels from crude oil are the main energy vector used in the worldwide transport sector. But conventional fuel and engine technologies are often criticized, especially Diesel engines with the recent “Diesel gate”. Engine and fuel co-research is one of the main leverage to reduce both CO2 footprint and criteria pollutants in the transport sector. Compression ignition engines with gasoline-like fuels are a promising way for both NOx and particulate emissions abatement while keeping lower tailpipe CO2 emissions from both combustion process, physical and chemical properties of the low RON gasoline. To introduce a new fuel/engine technology, investigation of pollutants and After-Treatment Systems (ATS) is mandatory. Previous work [1] already studied soot behavior to define the rules for the design of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) when used with a low RON gasoline in a compression ignition engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2409
Erbao Zhang, Yinchun Gong, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Chuanqian Jiang, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li
Abstract The work of this paper aimed at investigating the cyclic variations of argon power cycle engine with fuel of hydrogen at lean burn operating conditions. The engine had been modified based on a 0.402 L, single-cylinder diesel engine into spark ignition engine with a port fuel injection system. The influencing factors on the cyclic variations, such as ignition timing, engine speed and compression ratio, were tested in this study. In all tests, the throttle opened at 0%, and the excess oxygen coefficient was maintained at 2.3. The results showed that as the ignition timing retards, CoVPmax and CoV(dp/dφ)max of argon power cycle engine increased, while CoVIMEP decreased firstly and increased afterward. And there is an ignition timing to make the lowest CoVIMEP, which is not consistent with MBT.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2407
Michael Bardon, Greg Pucher, David Gardiner, Javier Ariztegui, Roger Cracknell, Heather Hamje, Leonardo Pellegrini, David Rickeard
Abstract Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this, but a practical concern is the flammability of the headspace vapours in the vehicle fuel tank. Gasoline is much more volatile than diesel so, at most ambient temperatures, the headspace vapours in the tank are too rich to burn. A gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank therefore can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model is presented that predicts the flammability of the headspace vapours in a tank containing mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel. Fourteen hydrocarbons and ethanol represent the volatile components. Heavier components are treated as non-volatile diluents in the liquid phase.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2411
Henry Guo, Wenchuan Jia, DeDong Xie
Abstract A smart waste gate (WG) turbocharger controls boost by bypassing turbine flow through the WG port which allows optimizing both low and high speed engine performance. However, the WG port in the turbine housing involves much complex geometry which leads to potentially higher thermal stress and plastic strain if design is improper. This paper first presents the common thermal cracking problems at port zone and then shows finite element analysis (FEA) results for one design. The predicted location correlates well with the observed failure port location. A design study with key parameters for the port is conducted under same boundary conditions. Key parameters include height H, inner diameter D and inner diameter fillet r of the port. Totally 13 designs are analyzed under packaging and performance limitation. Accumulated plastic strain (APS) from FEA is used to evaluate different designs. Curves are plotted to show the relationship between APS and design parameters.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2410
Ji Gao, Tie Wang, Dandan Sun, Jing Qiao, Yizhuo Feng
Abstract As the explosion proof diesel engine (EPD) of underground trackless tyred vehicle dynamic mechanical device, due to its good dynamic and economic performance, the diesel has been widely applied. The flame arrester can prevent the exhaust system from tempering, but the increased resistance will seriously affect the performance of diesel. Through the comparison of the CFD-FLUENT fluid simulation on flow and pressure field, the results show that the corrugated flame arrester performs better on reducing the exhaust back pressure than flat flame arrester and ensures the explosion-proof effect. The bench test of explosion proof diesel engine on intake and exhaust system is conducted, analysing the effect of the exhaust resistance under different speeds of diesel engine on the power, economy and emission of TY4100QFB type diesel engines with equivalent flow area , different specifications of flat versus corrugated flame-arrester in the course of external characteristics.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2412
Dojoong Kim, Dong Hyeong Lee, Jong Wung Park, Soo Hyun Hwang, Wan Jae Jeon
Abstract This paper introduces a two-step variable valve actuation (VVA) mechanism equipped with an electronic switching system, which can be applied to OHC valve trains with end pivot rocker arms. The electronic switching system is driven by a dedicated solenoid and is not affected by the temperature or pressure of the engine oil. Therefore, not only can the dynamic stability be secured at the time of mode switching but the operation delay time can also be kept short enough. Several models of two-step VVA mechanisms were fabricated and the operability of the mechanism and switching system was experimentally confirmed. The two-step VVA mechanism developed in this study can also be used as a cylinder deactivation (CDA) system by assigning the lift of the low-speed cam to be zero. By attaching a roller to the portion of the rocker arm that is in contact with the base cam, the problem of pad wear, which is often present in CDA mechanism, is also fundamentally solved.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2413
Peter King
Abstract A four-chamber Otto cycle rotary engine, the Szorenyi Rotary Engine, has been invented and developed by the Rotary Engine Development Agency (REDA) in Melbourne, Australia. The engine concept has been awarded a U.S. Patent (Number 6,718,938 B2). A prototype engine has been constructed and a successful proof-of-concept engine test was achieved in 2008. The stator of the Szorenyi engine is a similar shape to a Wankel engine. However, the geometric shape of the engine rotor is a rhombus, which deforms as it rotates inside the contour of the mathematically defined stator. This geometry translates to a rotary engine with four combustion chambers. Each revolution of the crankshaft produces one revolution of the rotor; a complete engine cycle in each of the four chambers; and therefore four power strokes. In contrast, the Wankel engine produces one power stroke per crankshaft revolution.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2441
Zhao Ding, Li Chen, Chengliang Yin, Jian Yao, Chunhao Lee, Farzad Samie
Rotating clutch play an important role in automatic transmission (AT), dual-clutch transmission (DCT) and hybrid transmission. Actuator simplification, cost reduction and control effects improvement is very important to improve the competitiveness of a transmission. An alternative concept of electrical motor driven actuation using a wedge mechanism, a wedge clutch, demonstrates potential benefits. This wedge clutch has the characteristics of good mechanical advantage, self-reinforcement, and faster and more precise controllability using electrical motor. In this paper, a new rotating wedge clutch is proposed. It presents a challenge since motor actuator has to be stationary while the clutch piston is rotating. A new mechanism to connect the motor to the wedge piston, including dual-plane bearings and two mechanical ramp linkages, is studied. The design and verification of the physical structure of the actuator are discussed in detail in the paper.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2466
Graham Arnold
This paper intends to explore improved vehicle efficiency through a control system optimizes the use of regenerative braking in a plug-in, series, hybrid electric vehicle. Currently, vehicles are equipped with a plethora of sensing technology to supply information to the vehicle’s advanced driver assistance system (ADAS). These systems can be leveraged to also help improve vehicle efficiency by providing real time information that can help improve control strategies to maximize the usage of regenerative braking to reduce wasted energy in conventional friction braking. Advanced sensing can allow the vehicle to react before the human driver responds, allowing for the vehicle to begin deceleration through regenerative braking preemptively. This papers aims to simulate the basic functionality of such a control system to explore the potential efficiency gains available. The proposed system is simulated using a longitudinal full-vehicle model developed in MATLAB and Simulink.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2464
Xinyou Lin, Chaoyu Wu, Qingxiang Zheng, Liping Mo, Hailin Li
The Range-extended electric vehicle (RE-EV) is a complex nonlinear system. The control strategy of REEV can be affected by numerous parameters. Firstly, the Multiple Operation Points (MOP) control strategy is proposed based on operation features of the RE-EV and combining with the optimal efficiency region of the engine. The switching logic rules of MOP strategy are designed for the desired operation mode transition, which makes the engine running at high efficiency region. Then,GA(Genetic algorithm) is implemented to search the optimal solution. The fuel consumption is defined as the target cost function. The demand power of engine is defined as optimal variable. The SOC (State of Charge) and speed are selected as the state variables. The dynamic performance of vehicle and cycling life of battery is set as the constraints. The optimal switching parameters combination is obtained based on this control strategy.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2455
Vikram Chopra
This paper reports on the design of a synchronizer brake based on permanent magnets, capable of braking with an active zero-slip load. Eddy-current brakes are widely used in automation and transportation applications; however, their use is limited by the rotor speed. For low-speed and high-torque applications, designs based on permanent magnets are better suited. Zero-slip braking torque is increased by the use of permanent magnets but, consequently, so is the cogging torque. At first, the synchronizer brake was designed with 16 surface magnets on the rotor. However, in order to reduce the permanent magnet mass, the rotor was re-designed with half the number of surface magnets. This novel design helped lower cogging torque and fabrication costs. Simulation of the design, using the 3D transient with motion solver in commercial finite element software, showed promising results.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2458
Mohamed Awadallah, Peter Tawadros, Paul Walker, Nong Zhang
Driven by stricter mandatory regulations on fuel economy improvement and emissions reduction, market penetration of electrified vehicles will increase in the next 10 years, among which mild hybrid will become a leading sector in growth. Researchers forecast the sales of mild hybrid vehicles will reach 1.4 million units per year by 2020, and 7 million units by 2024. The high cost of HEVs has somewhat limited their widespread adoption, especially in developing countries. Conversely, it is these countries that would benefit most from the environmental benefits of HEV technology. Compared to a full hybrid, a plug‐in hybrid or an electric vehicle, a mild hybrid system stands out due to its maximum benefit/cost ratio. As part of our ongoing project to develop a mild hybrid system for these markets to improve the drive performance and efficiency. High power density ultra-capacitors are incorporated for fast charging and discharging during the acceleration and other operations.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2417
Houchuan Fan, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi, Nan Jiang, Dayong Qu, Yi Zheng, Yinghong Zheng
An electronic waste-gated turbocharger for automotive application can accurately control the boost pressure and can also effectively reduce the turbo-lag. It improve the transient responsive performance of engine and the acceleration performance, which make vehicle have a better adaptation to the complex traffic environment. A detail analysis of aerodynamic working principle is the foundation for the optimal control strategy of electronic waste-gated turbocharger. The study, in which the influence of the valve opening on the performances of electronic waste-gated turbocharger turbine under the condition having periodic pulse exhaust gas of engine, has the practical application value. This paper discusses the unsteady performances and mass flow characteristics of a turbocharger turbine with an electronic waste-gate under different valve opening conditions using numerical simulation method, based on a unified periodic pulse inlet wave.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2414
Dongsheng Zhang, Qilong Lu, Michael Kocsis, Ian Gilbert, Marc Megel, Xihao Liu, Jiaxin Gu, Qingyan Liu, Yanming He
The new BAIC engine, an evolution of the 2.3L 4-cylinder turbocharged PFL gasoline from Saab, was designed, built, and tested with close collaboration between BAIC Motor Powertrain Co., Ltd (BMPC) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The upgraded engine was intended to achieve low fuel consumption and a good balance with high performance and compliance with Euro 6 emissions regulation. Low fuel consumption was achieved primarily through utilizing cooled low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LP-EGR) and dual independent cam phasers, improving intake and exhaust design, optimizing combustion chamber design, and minimizing mechanical friction losses. Cooled LP-EGR helped suppress engine knock and consequently increase compression ratio and improve thermal efficiency of the new engine. Dual independent cam phasers reduced engine pumping losses and helped elevate low-speed torque.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2427
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Rahul Jain, Shivdayal Prasad, Rahul Machiya, Avinash Mandyam
Automotive vehicle includes various systems like engine, transmission, exhaust, air intake, cooling and many more systems. No doubt the performance of individual system depends upon their core design. But for performance, the system needs to be fastened properly. In automotive, most of the joints used fasteners which helps in serviceability of the components. There are more than thousands of fasteners used in the vehicle. At various locations, we found issue of bolt loosening and because of this the design intent performance is not met by the system. During product development of ECS (Engine cooling system), various issues reported to loosening the bolt. The pre-mature failure of bolt loosening, increases the interest in young engineers for understanding the behavior of fastener in vehicle running conditions. This paper focuses on the design of wedge shape of washer to avoid bolt loosening.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2439
Srinivasan Paulraj, Saravanan Muthiah
Poor clutch life is a major issue for some light commercial vehicle models. Clutch overheating is the primary cause for clutch failure. Some of the reasons include inappropriate gear selection by the driver, poor low-end dynamic torque availability from an engine, heavy stop and go traffic, vehicle overloading resulting in excessive clutch slippage especially in gradients, riding of the clutch pedal by the customer etc. These situations lead to a high thermal energy dissipation at the clutch, increasing clutch wear and in extreme conditions leading to not only poor shift quality but also eventual clutch failure. Unfortunately, it is not practical to monitor clutch temperature in a production vehicle due to high costs or technical challenges involved. This paper describes 1-D thermal modeling of single plate dry clutch typically used in passenger car/truck and bus applications. The objective of simulation is to estimate the temperature rise on the clutch facing and clutch housing.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2370
Matthieu Lecompte, Jerome Obiols, Jerome Cherel, Stephane Raux
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) like Adblue® is a urea/water solution injected upstream of the SCR catalyst. Urea decomposes into ammonia (NH3) which serves as reductant in the de-NOx reaction process. However, incomplete decomposition of urea can lead to undesirable deposits formation, which can result into backpressure increase, loss of NOx reduction efficiency, and durability issues. The phenomenon is exacerbated at low temperatures and can lead to restriction or stop of DEF injection below certain exhaust temperatures. This paper focuses on the influence of the additivation of DEF on deposits formation in a passenger car close-coupled SCR on filter Diesel exhaust line installed in a laboratory flow test bench. The behavior of two different additivated DEF was compared to Adblue® in terms of deposits formation on the mixer and SCRF canning at different temperatures comprised between 240°C and 165°C, and different air flows.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2408
Lei Zhou, Hongxing Zhang, Zhenfeng Zhao, Fujun Zhang
The Opposed Piston Two-Stroke (OPTS) engine has several advantages for power density, fuel tolerance, fuel efficiency and package space. A new type of balanced opposed-piston folded-crank train two-stroke engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was studied in this paper. The effects of high altitude environment on engine performance and emissions are investigated by thermodynamic simulation. Moreover, the matching between the engine and turbocharger was designed and optimized for different altitude levels. The results indicate that a suitable turbocharger for OPTS engine can achieve the purpose of improving the quality of scavenging, lowering the fuel consumption and recovering power at high altitude environment. Finally, an optimized OPTS engine model especially for UAV is proposed in this research.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2401
Elana Chapman, Pat Geng, Yaowei Zhao, Susan Zhang, JunJun Ma, Jianqiang Gong
The impact of gasoline compositions to vehicle particular emission response have been widely investigated and documented with recently proposed so called Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN data has demonstrated correlations of the indices to vehicle response. In previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented. With increasing air pollution concern and ever stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenge. Emission control requires systematic approach on both fuel and vehicle. This paper will focus on China market gasoline on fuel’s sooting tendency. Additional China vehicle response with ranges of PEI fuels are presented. In addition to PEI index, other fuel properties in gums, final boiling, aromatics, and fuel detergency are also reviewed
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2400
Yanlong Wu, Jason Ferns, Hu Li, Gordon Andrews
Hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel fuels have potential to provide reduced carbon footprint in diesel engines and reduce exhaust emissions. Therefore it is a strong candidate for transport and diesel powered machines including electricity generators and other off-road machines. In this research, a waste cooking oil derived HVO diesel was investigated for its combustion performance including ignition delay and heat release, and particulate number emissions including size segregated values. The results were compared to the standard petroleum diesel. A 3 litre direct injection intercooled IVECO diesel engine equipped with EGR was used which has a maximum power output of 96kW and is EURO5 emission compliant. The engine was equipped with an integrated DOC and DPF aftertreatment system. Both the upstream and downstream of the aftertreatment emissions were measured. The tests were conducted at different RPM and loads at steady state conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2397
Zhan Gao, Lei Zhu, Xinyao Zou, Chunpeng Liu, Zhen Huang
Biodiesel is a potential alternative fuel which can meet the growing need for sustainable energy. Partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) is an important low-temperature combustion strategy to reduce NOx and soot emission of diesel engines. To investigate partial premixing impact on particle formation in flames of biodiesel or biodiesel surrogates, an experimental study was performed to compare the soot morphology and nanostructure evolution in laminar co-flow methyl decanoate non-premixed flame (NPF) and partially premixed flame (PPF). The thermophoretic sampling technique was used to capture particles along flame centerlines. Soot morphology information and volume fraction were obtained from TEM analysis and nanostructure features were evaluated by HR-TEM. With primary equivalence ratio of 19, gas temperature of PPF is higher along flame centerline compared with NPF. The results show an initially stronger sooting tendency in PPF at lower positions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2376
Nic Van Vuuren, Phil Armitage
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems are virtually indispensable to meet NOx emissions limits worldwide. These systems generate the NH3 reductant by injecting aqueous urea solution (AUS-32/AdBlue®/DEF) into the exhaust for the SCR NOx reduction reactions. Understanding the AUS-32 injector spray performance is critical to proper optimization of the SCR system. Specifically, better knowledge is required of the formation of near-nozzle deposits that have been observed on existing underfloor SCR systems. The current work presents in-situ time lapse imaging of an underfloor mounted AUS-32 exhaust-mounted urea dosing unit. The operating conditions under examination are representative of low-load low speed urban driving interspersed with high temperature exposures typical of periodic DPF regeneration.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2375
Akihiro Niwa, Shogo Sakatani, Eriko Matsumura, Takaaki Kitamura
Diesel engine has low carbon emissions and high fuel efficiency. However, diesel engine needs to reduce both Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Particulate matters (PM). To meet the demand of strict exhaust gas regulation, after-treatment device is required. Therefore, urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system is used to clean NOx in diesel engine exhaust gas. In urea SCR system, it is necessary to inject the urea water solution upstream the SCR catalyst. And, it can reduce NOx applying the generated ammonia (NH3) by urea thermolysis and isocyanic acid (HNCO) hydrolysis. In this study, it focused on urea SCR system. The spray behavior injected in tail-pipe can be divided into the regime of a free spray, an impingement spray, an evaporation of liquid film and a separation droplets, and an urea water solution dispersion. Also, in each region, after evaporation of H2O in urea water solution completely, NH3 is generated by urea thermolysis and HNCO hydrolysis.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2448
Jesse Schneider, Kensuke Kamichi, Daniel Mikat, Robert Sutton, Mohamad Abdul-Hak, Yusuke Minagawa, Hiroyuki Abeta, Eloi Taha, Rich Boyer, Jonathan Sirota, Morris Kesler, Richard Carlson, Mark Klerer, Sebastian Mathar
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is to be commercialized in the very near future. There are however many technology challenges. The SAE J2954 Taskforce published a guideline or Technical Information Report in 2016 to help in the harmonization in the first phase of this technology. SAE J2954 is a performance-based approach for WPT by specifying ground and assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-Height) to validate interoperability. However, there were two types of technologies used for the topologies of these coils in SAE J2954. The main goal of this SAE J2954 testing campaign was to prove interoperability and the guideline contained within. The main challenge is that this type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems. Automakers, suppliers and government employees worked together to create this test plan and resuts.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 85301