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Viewing 91 to 120 of 86934
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0593
Jordan A. Tunnell, Zachary D. Asher, Sudeep Pasricha, Thomas H. Bradley
Modern vehicles have incorporated numerous safety-focused Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in the last decade including smart cruise control and object avoidance. In this paper, we aim to go beyond using ADAS for safety, and propose to use ADAS technology to enable predictive optimal energy management and improve vehicle fuel economy. We combine ADAS sensor data with a previously developed prediction model, dynamic programming optimal energy management control, and a validated model of a 2010 Toyota Prius to explore fuel economy. First, a unique ADAS detection scope is defined based on optimal vehicle control prediction aspects demonstrated to be relevant from the literature. Next, during real world city and highway drive cycles in Denver Colorado, a camera is used to record video footage of the vehicle environment and define ADAS detection ground truth. Then, various known ADAS algorithms are combined, modified, and compared to the ground truth results.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0594
Xin Li, Weiwen Deng
As we all know, millimeter wave radar has become one of the most important sensors of advanced driving assistance system (ADAS). However, though millimeter wave radar has strong environmental adaptability because of its unique frequency band, but its application performance is still largely affected by environmental noise, the main problem is that the environmental noise may cause the common problems such as false alarm, missing detection, inaccurate distance measurement, inaccurate velocity measurement, and inaccurate angle measurement, and so on. Therefore, R & D engineers must carry out a large number of repeated tests, it may develop a higher reliability, higher environmental adaptability of millimeter wave radar applications, extract the precise target data, and develop ADAS system more perfect. There are two ways to repeated tests, that is, the actual test and virtual test.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0595
Jie NI, Zhiqiang Liu PhD, Fei Dong, Jingwen Han
Based on the artificial potential field method, a elliptical influence model of obstacle vehicles was presented, and the mathematical model of lane changing trajectory planning was established including the lane boundary potential field, the multi obstacle vehicles potential field and the moving target potential field, which were used to study the trajectory planning of intelligent vehicle lane changing under the freeway scene. Taking the actual change scene as the prototype, the model was used to track the trajectory, the result shows that the planning trajectory is highly consistent with real one in good lane chaning conditions. Load the trajectory into CARSIM software to simulate, the simulation results show that the actual trajectory is consistent with the target trajectory, the front wheel steering angle, lateral acceleration are all satisfied with the dynamic constraint of vehicle, and the vehicle has well stability and comfort.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0605
Julian Schatz, Manuel Eser, Philip Feig, Johann Gwehenberger, Marcel Borrack, Markus Lienkamp
The effectiveness of ADAS addressing property damage has an increasing impact on car manufacturers, insurers and customers, as accident avoidance or mitigation can lead to loss reduction. In order to obtain benefits, it is essential that ADAS primarily address monetarily relevant accident scenarios. Furthermore, sensor technologies and algorithms have to be configured in a way that relevant accident situations can be sufficiently avoided at reasonable system costs. A new methodology is developed to identify and configure monetarily effective parameters for ADAS at parking and maneuvering. In the first step, ADAS requirements regarding accident occurrence are analyzed. ADAS parameters e.g. relevant accident scenarios, required crash avoidance velocities and different sensor layouts are analyzed and evaluated using a real world in-depth accident database of insurance claims provided by Allianz Center for Technology and Allianz Automotive Innovation Center.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0607
Namdoo Kim, Dominik Karbowski, Aymeric Rousseau
This paper presents a framework to simulate vehicle powertrains with human or a connected and automated driving in the same environment considering traffic light information, in order to develop control algorithm for a connected and automated vehicle. Connectivity and automation provide the potential to use information about the environment and future driving to minimize energy consumption. In order to achieve this goal, the designers of control strategy need to simulate a wide range of driving situations that be able to interact with other vehicles and the infrastructure in a close-loop fashion. RoadRunner is a framework based on Autonomie software, which can simulate longitudinal movements of one or more user-defined vehicles along a user-defined route. In the first part of the paper, we provide an overview of framework on how it is organized and under what process.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0606
Kaiming Yang, Xiangkun He, Di Chen
Abstract: The new concept of "human-machine shared control" provides an amazing thinking to enhance driving safety, which has been attracted a great deal of research effort in recent years. However, little attention has been paid to the nonlinearity of the shared control system brought by tire, which significantly influences the control performance under extreme driving conditions. This paper presents a novel shared steering torque control scheme to model the human-machine steering torque interaction near the vehicle's handling limit, where both driver and driver assistance system (DAS) are exerting steering torque to maneuver the vehicle. A six-order driver-vehicle dynamic system is presented to elaborate the relationship between steering torque input and vehicle lateral motion response. Particularly, we use a piecewise-affine (PWA) method to approximate the tire nonlinearity.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0601
Xin Li, Weiwen Deng
"Automobile Millimeter Wave Radar" has become one of the important sensors of "advanced driving aid system (ADAS)". However, although millimeter wave radars can operate all day long and all-weather, their “detection capability” and “measurement accuracy” are still largely affected by traffic scenarios. Main performance: Because the relative position and relative motion state between radar and scene elements (such as road, road facilities, moving vehicles and pedestrians, etc.) are different, based on the principle of Doppler effect, The scene elements may lead into different levels of “noise pollution” in the radar frequency domain, and then lead to radar "missing target, measurement is not allowed" and other common problems. Therefore, it is necessary for us to study the mechanism of frequency domain noise interference in order to develop a good ADAS system. The research content of this paper is the application background of Millimeter Wave Radar Virtual Test Simulation Platform.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0603
Hoon Lee, Jaihyun Lee, Sanghoon Yoo, Kwangwoo Jeong, Byungho Lee, Sejun Kim, Levent Guvenc, Mustafa Ridvan Cantas, Santhosh Tamilarasan, Nitish Chandramouli
Coasting in neutral or Sailing has been widely recognized as one of the components of eco-driving. In neutral, the vehicle’s kinetic energy is preserved to keep the vehicle moving compared to coasting in gear, creating drag on the vehicle due to pumping and friction losses from the engine reaching the wheels. The increased coasting distance may lead to better fuel economy as compared to in-gear coasting which typically uses fuel cut-off. This has already been recognized in many vehicle implementations with names like Eco-Pro or Green mode in which the vehicle is able to coast in neutral in the absence of driver input. If available, a camera can assist detecting the obstacles in front for shifting gear back to drive as there might be the need for immediate torque for collision avoidance maneuvers. This paper presents a research prototype vehicle that has been setup to investigate and further develop an advanced coasting function connecting ADAS.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0613
Xian Wu, Jing Ren, Yujun Wu, Jianwang Shao
Faced with intricate traffic conditions, the single sensor has been unable to meet the safety requirements of autonomous vehicles. In the field of multi-target tracking, the number of targets detected by vision sensor is sometimes less than the current tracks while the number of targets detected by millimeter wave radar is more than the current tracks. Hence, a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm is presented by utilizing advantage of both vision sensor and millimeter wave radar. The multi-sensor fusion algorithm is based on distributed fusion strategy that each sensor processes its own measurements to generate tracks respectively. At First, vision sensor and radar are used to detect the target and to measure the range and the angle of the target. Then, each sensor generates tracks for multi-target tracking. Vision sensor uses Hungarian Algorithm for data correlation and uses Kalman Filter for target tracking in view of its characteristics.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0614
Penghui Li, Mengxia Hu, Wenhui Zhang, Yibing Li
With the development of intelligent transportation systems and advanced driver assistance systems, early prediction of driver’s intentions is required. Among that, lane change is a basic maneuver driver conducted during driving, improper lane changing could cause severe traffic accident. Thus, it is urgent to develop lane change prediction systems, especially which could work in the initial phase of lane change. Hence, in the present study, a six degree of freedom motion-based driving simulator with 18 drivers were involved in a lane change experiment, data of steering wheel angle and steering wheel velocity during both lane change and lane keep phase were collected and compared. The results showed that, in the phase up to 0.55s before the onset of lane change, means and variances of the steering wheel velocity showed a significant difference with that in lane keep phase, which suggested a potential indicator for lane change detection before the normal onset of lane change.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0609
Gopal Athani, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju, Punit Jain, Shashank Addala, Satishkumar P
Engine Stop/Start System (ESS) promises to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy of the vehicles. In the previous work of the Authors, emphasis was laid in bridging the gap of improvement in fuel economy promised by ESS under standard laboratory conditions and actual driving conditions. Findings from the practical studies lead to a conclusion that ESS is not so popular among the customers, due to the complexities of the system operation and poor integration of the system design with the driver behavior. In addition, due to various functional safety requirements, and traffic conditions, the actual benefits of ESS are reduced. A slightly modified control algorithm was proposed and proven for the local driving conditions in India, which was developed through Design Thinking Methodology.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0611
Rebekah L. Thompson, Zhen HU, Jin Cho, Jose Stovall, Mina Sartipi
This paper presents a real-time application of see-through technology using computer vision (e.g., object detection) and Vehicle-to-X (V2X) communication (e.g., Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I)). Our wireless communication testbed uses three access points (APs) mounted approximately 3.3 meters from the ground along a road on our campus. Each AP was connected to Chattanooga’s fiber optics internet, supporting a data transfer rate up to 10-Gpbs. Using a 5Ghz frequency, we set up vehicular communications with a seamless handover for transferring real-time data. Two web cameras acting as clients were mounted on the windshield of two of three vehicles. Each client captured and sent 30 frames per second to our server. Using multi-threaded programming, we processed both image feeds simultaneously, which is exponentially quicker than single-thread image transferring/processing.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0610
Nathir Rawashdeh, Samir A. Rawashdeh
Visual odometry and mapping will be essential components in future ADAS and autonomous driving systems. In particular, visual odometry can provide localization when GPS estimates are lost or degraded, and can provide localization relative to the surrounding environment for purposes of navigation and hazard avoidance. Feature-based visual odometry algorithms extract distinct corners/features from the scene and track them over time in order to maintain an estimate of ego-motion. From prior work, it is known that odometry can fail depending on scene content. Tracking is lost when too few detected points contribute to tracking, where the remaining points are false-matches and are outliers to the motion estimator. For example, we observed that features on trees mostly fail to be tracked because they can be confused for one another and become outliers to the motion model.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0005
Manoj Kumar Pant
This paper explain requirement based testing approach for ensuring the intended Automotive Software performing its functionality with a high level of confidence by satisfying the ISO 26262 functional safety standard to meeting the Aspice process assessment objectives. Requirement based testing can be achieved by performing the effectual test design in different levels of testing (UT/SIT) such as- 1. Normal Range Test case design 2. Robustness Test case design VectorCAST/Manage and Jenkins together provide a scalable approach to continuous testing of automotive software. It allows the verification and validation of the software product at the early stages of the project thus cutting down the failure cost and reducing time-to market. The major advantage of using both VectorCAST and Jenkins together is reduction of the manual effort and completion of the project in early stages.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0004
Gunwant Dhadyalla, Chek Pin Yang, James Marco, Paul Jennings
Recent reports highlighted the increasing demand for new features in road-going vehicles through electronics and software. Electronic control systems are expected to respond to input demands in real-time (circa: milliseconds) to ensure occupant and road user safety and comfort. System complexity and real-time computing requirements create significant challenges in proving the robustness of control systems, here robustness is the degree to which a system can function correctly in the presence of unexpected inputs. Despite the efforts of many vehicle manufacturers, evidence shows that faults still escape to customers incurring large warranty costs. This implies that existing test methods can be ineffective with the primary focus being on requirements validation. Evidence from other industries, e.g. IT and medical, suggests that difficult to find faults manifest due to complex interactions and sequences of events which can cause race conditions.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0006
Shreya KRISHNA, Neeraj K. Goyal, Shikhar Dhar
Automotive software complexity has been growing rapidly with time. The demand for automation in automotive segment including autonomous automobiles and software based products has caught the attention of researchers. Hence, it is necessary to check the complexity of automotive software and their reliability growth. Testing in the field of software artefact is resource intensive exercise. If project managers are able to put forward testing activities well then the testing resource consumptions may be much more resource/cost efficient. Reliability is checked under the software testing phase of software engineering. Software reliability growth models(SRGMs) are used to determine the reliability change. Reliability is analysed using different models which may be based on Non-Homogeneous Poisson Process (NHPP), Markov process or Bayesian models.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0007
Ethan Faghani, Jelena Andric, Jonas Sjoblom
Due to stricter emission regulations and more environmental awareness, the powertrain systems are moving toward higher fuel efficiency and lower emissions. In response to these pressing needs, new technologies have been designed and implemented by manufacturers, as a result of increasing complexity of the powertrain systems, their control and optimization become more and more challenging. Virtual powertrain calibration, also known as model-based calibration, has been introduced to advance powertrain development and optimization. The aim is to transfer a part of test bench experiments into virtual environment, and hence considerably reduce time and cost of product development process while increasing the product quality. Nevertheless, virtual calibration has not yet reached its full potential in industrial practice. Volvo Penta has recently developed a virtual test cell named VIRTEC, which is used in an ongoing pilot project to meet the Stage V emission standards.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0003
Sanjay Singh, Cumhur Unveren
Total vehicle integration and design is a complex process and deals with interactions of many subsystems. The subsystems in a vehicle not only have to perform their role but interfaces between the subsystems must be well understood to design for all the interactions. Global automotive market is following autonomy and electrification trends and vehicle integration design process needs to include those new used cases of autonomous driving and electrification into traditional vehicle design process. The process starts with establishing the top-level vehicle metrics relative to key deliverables of the vehicle ranging from providing comfortable environment to the driver to good performance. The process of establishing vehicle level metrics is not trivial and in lots of cases must be derived from customer verbatim. In lots of cases there are conflicting requirements and priority must be given to one over another.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0013
Ryo Kurachi, Toshiyuki Fujikura
In recent years, the feasibility of attacks on contemporary automotive systems has already been demonstrated by many studies. In the automotive industry, to check deviations and vulnerabilities in software, static analysis, which implies analyzing software without its execution, is performed based on the coding check tools. Additionally, in order to detect abnormalities of integrated systems in early phase, the hardware in the loop simulator (HILS) environment is already used in automotive industry. Therefore, some researches discusses security testing method on HILS. Although all existing methods are effective for security testing for automotive systems, there is room for further improvement in terms of scalability and seamless testing. In this study, we designed security testing method that can integrate with requirement-based testing for virtualized automotive systems.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0014
Jin Seo Park, Daehyun kim, Seokmin Hong, Hyunjung Lee, EuiJung Myeong
Several external networks like telematics, and SOTA and many in-vehicle networks by gateways and domain controllers have been increasingly introduced. However, these trends may potentially make many critical data opened, attacked and modified by hackers. These days, vehicle security has been significantly required as these vehicle security threats are related to the human life like drivers and pedestrians. Threat modeling is process of secure software development lifecycle which is developed by Microsoft. It is a systematic approach for analyzing the potential threat in software and identifying the security risk associated with software. Through threat modeling, security risk is be mitigated and eliminated. In vehicle software System, one of vulnerability can affect critical problem about safety. An approach from experience and hacking cases is not enough for analyzing the potential threat and preparing new hacking attack.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0015
Dmytro Klets PhD, Igor V. Gritsuk
The results of this work allowed to identify a number of threats to the cybersecurity of automated security-critical automotive systems, which reduces the efficiency of operation, road safety and system safety. Wired or wireless access to the information networks of the modern vehicles allows you to gain control over its power unit, chassis, security system components and comfort systems. According to the criteria for evaluating on-board electronics, the presence of poorly-protected communication channels, the danger of external blocking of vital systems, 75% of the researching modern vehicles do not meet the minimum requirements for cybersecurity. The revealed vulnerabilities of the security-critical automotive systems lead to the need to develop methods for mechanical and electronic protection of the modern vehicle. The law of normal distribution of average points of expert evaluation of cybersecurity of the modern vehicle is defined.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0008
Rajagopal Jayaraman, Adit Joshi, Viet To, Ghamdan Kaid
The propulsion system of a power-split hybrid vehicle typically comprises of an engine drive system in which the engine, drivetrain and generator are mechanically coupled on a planetary gear set driveline while the electric drive system consists of a high voltage battery and a traction motor. Traditionally, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulations of hybrid vehicle controls and high-voltage battery controls have been implemented on separate HIL benches which were exclusively targeted to hybrid vehicle controls and battery controls simulations respectively. This research demonstrates an implementation of enhanced fidelity of a power-split hybrid vehicle powertrain controls HIL by integrating it with high- voltage traction battery subsystem HIL by networking the two aforementioned HIL systems together.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0009
Adit Joshi
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is becoming a common feature in modern day vehicles with the advancement of Advanced Driver Assist Systems (ADAS). Simultaneously, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation has emerged as a major component of the automotive product development cycle as it can accelerate product development and validation by supplementing in-vehicle testing. Specifically, HIL simulation has become an integral part of the controls development and validation V-cycle by enabling rapid prototyping of control software for Electronic Control Units (ECUs). Traditionally, ACC algorithms have been validated on a system or subsystem HIL bench with the ACC ECU in the loop such that the HIL bench acts as the host or trailing vehicle with the remote or preceding vehicle usually simulated using as an object that follows a pre-defined motion profile.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0010
Sivaprasad Nandyala, Mithun Manalikandy, Sri Ragavi
Automated testing is replacing manual testing on a large scale now-a-days. Automated testing tools can execute tests, report the results and do comparison of the same with the earlier results. Model Based Design provides an application called Model Based Testing (MBT) for performing software testing. MBT will identify defects at the early stages of development unlike manual testing. It enables higher level of automation, generates large quantities of nonrepetitive useful tests and provides number of statistical measures to evaluate software quality. Models can be used to represent testing strategies or the desired behaviour of the system. Model of software can also help refine poorly defined requirements. It eliminates model defects before coding and enables automatic test case creation which helps in cost reduction and provides high quality code. The various test mechanisms in MBT are Model-in-Loop (MIL) testing, Software-in-Loop (SIL) testing and Processor-in-Loop (PIL) testing.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0011
Kenta Morishima, Yasuo Sugure, Yoshihiro Miyazaki
We have developed the multiple virtual power window system with CAN model including a parallel execution mechanism. The power window model consists of electronic - mechanical model and a CPU model. Each simulator with a different execution speed cooperatively executes by a synchronization mechanism that waits at a specific time and exchanges data. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations and executed step-by-step its control program in binary digital code. Therefore, production-ready codes of ECUs are of primary interest in this research. As an inter-simulator synchronization mechanism, we developed an environment that combines the synchronization mechanism of D-EIPF which synchronously executes heterogeneous simulators and the model of in-vehicle communication CAN connecting each ECU. This indicates that the interaction between the ECUs can be confirmed with the binary code of the product version.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0020
Jana Karina von Wedel, Paul Arndt
The ever increasing complexity and connectivity of driver assist functions pose challenges for both functional safety and cyber security. Several of these challenges arise not only due to the new functionalities themselves but due to the numerous interdependencies between safety and security. Safety and security goals can conflict, safety mechanisms might be intentionally triggered by attackers to negatively impact functionality or mechanisms can compete for limited resources like processing power or memory to name just some conflict potentials. But there is also the potential for synergies, both in the implementation as well as during the development. For example, both disciplines require mechanisms to check data integrity, are concerned with freedom from interference and require architecture based analyses. So far there is no consensus in the industry on how to best deal with these interdependencies in automotive development projects.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0017
Narendra Kumar SS
Days are not far off, when cars will be driving by themselves. Driverless cars or Autonomous vehicles are no more a fiction. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) has introduced lot of intelligence into car’s electronics. Cars can sense the surrounding, understand the scenario and take intelligent decisions. Cars can talk to other cars and exchange useful information. Cars can find out the best possible route to reach the destination. All this is made possible by tens of millions of lines of code running inside modern cars. Cars have been transformed to Cyber Physical Systems (CPS). They have more than hundred microcontrollers controlling all aspects of car from brake to steering to power windows. They are connected in various network topologies and are very complex. But, they are not secure. Researchers have already shown that, internal networks of modern cars are vulnerable to external attacks. Recent ransomware attacks have taken the IT world by storm.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0022
Xin JIN, Motohiro Nakamura, Shuhei TETSUO, Hironobu Sugimoto
A hybrid navigation system that performs route calculations and highly flexible natural speech location searches in the cloud using dynamic databases that combine probe data collected from the vehicle and external data, and transmits to on-board devices has been developed. The system automatically switches to the on-board device when the vehicle is out of network communication range or when faster processing is required for tasks such as re-routing.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0019
Pallavi Kalyanasundaram, Venkatesh Kareti, Meghana Sambranikar, Narendra Kumar SS, Priti Ranadive
Controller Area Network (CAN) bus forms the major medium of communication between the Electronic Control Units (ECUs) in cars. As of today, it is impossible to imagine automobiles without CAN. Some of the recent studies reveal that it is possible to access the in-vehicle network and inject malicious messages to alter the behavior of the vehicle. Researchers have shown that, it is possible to hack a car and remotely take control of brake, steering, power window systems, etc. Hence, it becomes inevitable to implement schemes that detect anomalies and prevent attacks on CAN network. Our work explores the complete anomaly detection process for CAN network that includes the techniques followed, available tools and challenges at every stage. Various existing techniques to eliminate malicious CAN messages are also mentioned. Starting from what makes CAN protocol vulnerable, we discuss case studies about attacks on CAN network with major focus on Denial of Service (DoS) attacks.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0016
Assaf Harel, Tal Ben David, Ameer Kashani, Gopalakrishnan Iyer, Ando Motonori, Egawa Masumi
Externally connected ECUs contain millions of lines of code, which may contain security vulnerabilities. Hackers may exploit these vulnerabilities to gain code execution privileges, which affect public safety. Traditional cybersecurity solutions fall short in meeting automotive ECU constraints such as zero false positives, intermittent connectivity and low performance impact. A desirable solution would be deterministic, require minimum resources, and protect against known and unknown security threats. We integrated Autonomous Security on a BeagleBone system to evaluate the feasibility of mitigating cybersecurity risks against such kind of threats. We identified key metrics that should be measured, such as level of security, ease of integration and system performance impact. In this paper, we describe the integration and evaluation process and present its results.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 86934