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Viewing 121 to 150 of 85301
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2224
Paul Freeland, Gareth Jones, Rong-Sheih Chen, Liang-Wei Huang, Marwan El-Kassem, Roland Kaiser
REVISED ABASTRACT 4/7/2017 The challenges of maintaining continuous improvements in air quality, manage the earth’s energy resources, and to control atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gasses, whilst supplying ever increasing global sales volumes mean that ever more detailed understanding and optimisation of powertrain systems is required. Downsizing, electrification and traffic flow management all have very important parts to play in achieving these goals, but can still only modify the outputs of the basic propulsion units, and methods to improve the efficiency, cleanliness and flexibility of powertrains remains a vital development requirement. The paper explores the fuel consumption benefits available from de-throttling technologies that can help to bring gasoline engine efficiency on a par with that of diesel engines.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2231
Yongquan Chen, Liguang Li, Qing Zhang, Jun Deng, Wei Xie, Erbao Zhang, Sunyu Tong
Low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) may lead to extreme knock (superknock or megaknock) which has a severe influence on engine performance and service life thus limits the development of downsized GDI engine. One reason for LSPI is auto-ignition occurs in the region where the contaminants, such as lubricants or heavy ends of gasoline, are rich. In this paper, 8 groups of lubricants are injected into a hot co-flow by a single-hole nozzle with a diameter of 0.2 mm under 20 MPa injection pressure. The ignition delays and lifted flames of lubricants with additives of calcium, magnesium and ZDDP (Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphates) under the hot coflow are recorded with a high-speed camera. The experiments are carried out at one atmospheric pressure and the co-flow temperature varies from 1123 K to 1223 K. The study shows that the ignition delays of lubricants decline sharply with the increase of co-flow temperature in the whole temperature range.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2232
Liming Cao, Ho Teng, Ruigang Miao, Xuwei Luo, Tingjun Hu, Xianlong Huang
Atkinson cycle realized with a late intake valve closing (LIVC) and Miller cycle achieved with an early intake valve closing (EIVC) have been recognized as effective approaches for improving the gasoline engine fuel economy. In both Atkinson and Miller cycles, the engine can be designed with a higher geometric compression ratio for increasing the expansion work and the effective compression ratio is governed by the intake valve close (IVC) timing for the knock control. Duration of the intake event and IVC timing affect not only the pumping loss during the gas exchange, but also have strong influences on the friction torques of the intake cams and the turbulence intensities for the in-cylinder charge motion. The latter governs duration of combustion and EGR tolerance, both of which have impacts on the engine thermal efficiency.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2229
Byeongsoek Lee, Heechang Oh, SeungKook Han, SooHyung Woo, JinWook Son
There are two way to improve engine thermal efficiency. One is to improve the theoretical thermal efficiency by increasing the compression ratio and specific heat ratio. The other is to reduce various engine losses like friction, pumping, heat loss. For the development of Ultra High Efficiency, We designed the new 2.0L NA GDI engine based on HMC's Nu 2.0L GDI engine. We conducted various parameter studies related to gasoline combustion characteristic, such as compression ratio, ignition system, intake port design, cam duration, Cooled EGR, etc. As a result, we achieved the maximum thermal efficiency up to 42%(~200g/kWh) in stoichiometric AFR. This paper described the ways and possibilities to improve the maximum thermal efficiency.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2230
Nizar F.O. Al-Muhsen, Guang Hong
Abstract Ethanol as a renewable fuel has been used widely in vehicles. Dual fuel injection which is one of the new techniques in development was adopted to enhance the engine’s thermal efficiency and reduce the emissions. This paper reports an experimental investigation to the ethanol direct injection plus ethanol port injection (EDI+EPI) fuel system with a focus on the effect of spark timing on the engine performance at different ratios of fuel directly injected to fuel port injected (EDI/EPI). Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder 250 cc spark ignition engine at two engine loads, and 3500 RPM. The volumetric ratio of EDI/EPI was varied between EPI (100% port injection) to EDI (100% direct injection) at approximately 25% of the interval. Experimental results showed that the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) was improved significantly by up to 20.88% over the entire dual ethanol injection strategy and spark timing.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2235
Ting Liu, Fuyuan Zhang, Yuedong Chao, Zongjie Hu, Liguang Li
EGR is thought to be another technique to improve gasoline engine fuel economy and emissions. In order to investigate the impacts of recirculated exhaust gas temperature on gasoline engine combustion and emissions, experimental study was conducted on a turbocharged PFI gasoline engine. The engine was equipped with a high pressure water-cooled EGR system, in which different EGR temperature was realized by using different EGR coolant. One way is using the room temperature civil water named LT-EGR (Low temperature EGR), and another way is to use hot engine coolant named HT-EGR (High temperature EGR). Therefore, the recirculated exhaust gas temperature after EGR cooler of LT-EGR is generally lower than that of HT-EGR. The engine ran at 2000rpm and 3000rpm, and the BMEP varied from 0.2MPa to 1.0MPa. At each operating point, there were three conditions: without EGR, 10% LT-EGR, 10% HT-EGR.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2236
Mateos Kassa, Carrie Hall, Fabien Vidal-Naquet, Thomas Leroy
In this study, the impact of the intake valve timing on knock propensity is investigated on a dual-fuel SI engine leveraging a low octane fuel and a high octane fuel to adjust the fuel mixture’s octane rating (RON) based on operating point. Variations in the intake valve timing have a direct impact on residual gases concentration due to valve overlap and changes in the compression pressure and temperature due to variations of the effective compression ratio. In this study, it is shown that the fuel RON requirement for a non-knocking condition at a fixed operating point can vary significantly solely due to variations of the intake valve timing. The fuel RON requirement at 2000 rpm and 6 bar BMEP ranges between 80 to 90 as a function of VVT, and between 98 to 104 at 2000 rpm and 14 bar BMEP.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2233
Gautam Kalghatgi, Kai Morganti, Ibrahim Algunaibet
Knock in spark ignition engines is stochastic in nature. It is caused by autoignition in hot spots in the unburned end-gas ahead of the expanding flame front. Knock onset in an engine cycle can be predicted using the Livengood-Wu integral if the variation of ignition delay with pressure and temperature as well as the pressure and temperature variation with crank angle are known. However knock intensity (KI) is determined by the evolution of the pressure wave following knock onset. In an earlier paper (SAE 2017-01-0689) we showed that KI can be approximated by KI = Z(Pko)(∂T/∂x)-2 where Z is a function of Pko, the pressure, and (∂T/∂x) is the temperature gradient in the hot spot at knock onset. Then, from experimental measurements of KI and Pko, using five different fuels, with the engine operating at boosted conditions, a probability density function for (∂T/∂x) was established.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2234
David Vuilleumier, Magnus Sjöberg
Fundamental engine research is primarily conducted under steady state conditions, in order to better describe boundary conditions which influence the studied phenomena. However, light-duty automobiles are operated, and tested, under heavily transient conditions. This mismatch between studied conditions and in-use conditions is deemed acceptable due to the fundamental knowledge gained from steady-state experiments. Nonetheless, it may be of use to characterize the conditions encountered during transient operation and determine if the controlled phenomena are unduly influence by the differences between steady-state and transient operation, and further, whether transient behavior can be reasonably extrapolated from steady state behavior. This study investigates the effect of transient operation on Knock-Limited Combustion Phasing (KL-CA50) compared to steady-state operation.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2239
Andreas F. G. Glawar, Fabian Volkmer, Pauline R. Ziman, Adrian P. Groves, Roger F. Cracknell
Port fuel injected (PFI) technology remains the most common fuel delivery type present in the marketplace for gasoline spark ignition engines. Although increasingly stringent tailpipe CO2 targets in some markets are driving the industry towards more efficient direct injection (DI) technology, in the light of ever increasing vehicle lifetimes, a legacy vehicle fleet featuring PFI technology will remain in the marketplace for decades to come. This is especially the case in some Asian markets where PFI technology is still prominent, although DI technology adoption is starting to catch up. PFI engines can, in the presence of lower quality fuels and lubricants, build up harmful deposits on a range of critical engine parts including in the fuel injectors, combustion chamber and on inlet valves. Inlet valve deposits (IVDs) in more severe cases have been associated with drivability issues such as engine stumble and engine hesitation on sudden acceleration.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2241
Xin Yu, Vincent Costanzo, Elana Chapman, Richard Davis
In this work, an experimental method was developed to induce and rate preignition tendency in a single cylinder research SI engine. By observing and quantifying the statistical behavior of some key combustion parameter, a single valued ranking was defined. The sensitivity of this induced preignition ranking method was then explored by varying different engine operating conditions. Finally, different hydrocarbon fuels were found to have relatively large variations on the ranking.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2237
K. Gopal Duleep
The overall objectives of this study are to establish the relationship between a spark ignition, or Otto cycle, engine energy efficiency and the octane number of the fuel through a comprehensive review of recently published literature. The efficiency of the ideal Otto cycle is a function of the compression ratio, but increasing compression ratio is limited by the onset of knock, which can be prevented by increasing fuel octane number. Hence, in an ideal case, there is a direct connection between engine efficiency and fuel octane number. In the real world, other factors also contribute to the relationship and spark timing is the primary control variable that affects both knock and efficiency. This analysis explores the relationship between efficiency and octane number.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2238
Ripudaman Singh, Travis Burch, George Lavoie, Margaret Wooldridge, Mohammad Fatouraie
Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of ethanol in increasing the thermal efficiency of gasoline-fueled spark ignition engines via the higher enthalpy of vaporization and higher knock resistance of ethanol compared with gasoline. This study expands on previous work by considering a split fuel injection strategy with a boosted direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine fueled with E0 (100% by volume reference grade gasoline; with research octane number = 91 and motoring octane number = 83), E100 (100% by volume anhydrous ethanol), and various splash-blends of the two fuels. Experiments were performed using a production 3-cylinder Ford Ecoboost engine where two cylinders were de-activated to create a single-cylinder engine with a displacement of 0.33 L. The engine was operated over a range of loads with boosted intake manifold absolute pressure (MAP) from 1 bar to 1.5 bar absolute.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2244
Shui Yu, Xiao Yu, Zhenyi Yang, Meiping Wang, Xiaoye Han, Jimi Tjong, Ming Zheng
The fuel efficiency improvement of gasoline engines can be achieved through lean burn and/or exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, the ignition of a diluted cylinder charge tends to be more diverged, owing to the slower ignition and combustion processes. The operable range of diluted combustion in gasoline engines is often limited, e.g. with lambda below 2.0 or EGR rate lower than 30%, owing to the deterioration in mixture ignitability and severe cyclic variations. In addition, the adoption of intensified cylinder charge motion requires further optimizations of ignition system, including the igniter geometric configurations and the temporal modulations over ignition energy delivery and spark discharge pattern. In this work, a variety of spark ignition approaches are investigated to improve the ignition of diluted gasoline engine under homogeneous mixture mode. A spatially distributed spark arcing control is realized based on a three-pole igniter.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2242
Boyuan Wang, Zhi Wang, Changpeng Liu, Fubai Li, Yingdi Wang, Yunliang Qi, Xin He, Jianxin Wang
A new ignition method is proposed called flame accelerated ignition, which is realized by a flame acceleration tunnel set between the spark plug and the main chamber with annular spoilers inside. The investigation of flame accelerated ignition was experimentally accomplished on both a rapid compression machine with optical accessibility and a single-cylinder heavy duty engine. In rapid compression machine study, synchronous pressure sensing and high-speed photography were used with spark ignition cases tested for comparison. The results show that the combustion process is significantly accelerated by flame acceleration ignition. The combustion duration is shortened by more than 30% under all loads compared with spark ignition. According to the optical results, the axial speed of flame outside the flame acceleration tunnel reaches at least 30 m/s and shows positive correlation with load, which is over 10 times than that of conventional flame propagation caused by spark ignition.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2245
Xianlin Ouyang, Ho Teng, Xiaochun zeng, Xuwei Luo, Tingjun Hu, Xianlong Huang, Jiankun Luo, Yongli Zhou
Atkinson cycle realized with a late intake valve closing (LIVC) and Miller cycle achieved with an early intake valve closing (EIVC) have been recognized as effective approaches for improving the gasoline engine fuel economy. In both Atkinson and Miller cycles, the engine can be designed with a higher geometric compression ratio for increasing the expansion work and the effective compression ratio is governed by the intake valve close (IVC) timing for the knock control. Duration of the intake event and IVC timing affect not only the pumping loss during the gas exchange, but also have strong influences on the friction torques of the intake cams and the turbulence intensities for the in-cylinder charge motion. The latter governs duration of combustion and EGR tolerance, both of which have impacts on the engine thermal efficiency.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2243
Yizhou Jiang, Xiuchao Bao, Amrit Sahu, Xiao Ma, Hongming Xu, Andy Thong
The demand for more efficient and clean engines have prompted the research and development of new engine technologies. Automotive engines expected to run with leaner mixtures and higher compression ratios. Lean burn is effective to increase fuel economy whilst reducing emissions but unreliable ignition of the lean mixtures by the conventional spark plug is one of the problems which causes concerns to the engine designers. Laser induced plasma ignition is an promising technology and holds many benefits over the spark ignition because it can extend the ignitability of lean mixtures with flexibility of the ignition location and absence of electron degradation for improved engine performance with lean burn. In this study, high-speed photography is used to investigate the flame kernel growth and propagation in an optical direct injection engine using laser ignition by a Nd:YAG laser.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2249
Chen Wang, Tianyou Wang, Kai Sun, Zhen Lu, Yong Gui
Clean combustion is critical for marine engines to meet the Tier III emission regulation. In this paper, the effects of EGR and injection strategies (including injection pressure, injection timing as well as multiple injection technology) on the performance and emissions of a 2-stroke, low speed marine diesel engine were investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to reach the IMO Tier III NOx emissions target and reduce the fuel consumption rate. Due to the large length scale of the marine engine, RANS simulation was performed in combination with the CTC-SHELL combustion model. Based on the simulation model, the variation of the cylinder pressure curve, the average temperature in the cylinder, the combustion heat release rule and the emission characteristics were studied.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2248
Haichun Ding, Wenbin Zhang, Xiao Ma, Shi-Jin Shuai, Bin Zheng, Alex Cantlay, Vinod Natarajan, Zhang Song Zhan, Bin Liu
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine is now widely used due to its high fuel efficiency and low HC emission during cold start. However, high particle emission has become an inevitable challenge especially with injector deposits. In this paper, a 4-cylinder turbocharged GDI engine in Chinese market was selected and operated at 2000rpm and 3bar BMEP condition for 50 hours to accumulate injector deposits. The engine ignition angle, cylinder pressure, combustion duration, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), gas emissions ( THC, NOx, CO) and particle emission were measured before and after the injector fouling test at eight different operation conditions. The test results indicated that, although the injector flow rate and injection pulse did not change a lot after the injector fouling test which means few internal deposit was built inside the injector hole, it still had some effect on engine combustion and emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2247
Wenbin Zhang, Haichun ding, Shijin Shuai, Bin Zheng, Alex Cantlay, Vinod Natarajan, Zhang Song ZHAN, Yunping Pu
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been developed rapidly in recent years, driven by stringent legislative requirements on vehicle fuel efficiency and emissions. However, one challenge facing GDI is the formation of particulate emissions, particularly with the presence of injector tip deposits. The Chinese market features some gasoline fuels that contain no detergent additives and are prone to deposit formation, which can affect engine performance and emissions. The use of detergent additives to mitigate the formation of injector deposits in a GDI engine was investigated in this study by testing a 1.5L turbocharged GDI engine available in the Chinese market. The engine was operated both on base gasoline and on gasoline dosed with detergent additives to evaluate the effect on injector deposit formation and engine performance and emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2246
Xuwei Luo, Ho Teng, Yuxing Lin, Bin Li, Xiaochun Zeng, Tingjun Hu, Xianlong Huang, Xiaojun Yuan
Atkinson cycle realized with a late intake valve closing (LIVC) and Miller cycle achieved with an early intake valve closing (EIVC) have been recognized as effective approaches for improving the gasoline engine fuel economy. In both Atkinson and Miller cycles, the engine can be designed with a higher geometric compression ratio for increasing the expansion work and the effective compression ratio is governed by the intake valve close (IVC) timing for the knock control. Duration of the intake event and IVC timing affect not only the pumping loss during the gas exchange, but also have strong influences on the friction torques of the intake cams and the turbulence intensities for the in-cylinder charge motion. The latter governs duration of combustion and EGR tolerance, both of which have impacts on the engine thermal efficiency.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2255
Raul Payri, Jaime Gimeno, Santiago Cardona, Sridhar Ayyapureddi
In this article, a prototype multi-hole diesel injector from a high-pressure common rail system is used in a high-pressure and high-temperature test rig capable of reaching 1100 Kelvin and 150 bars under different oxygen concentrations. A novel optical set-up capable of visualizing the soot cloud evolution from 30 to 85 millimeters from the nozzle exit with the high-speed color diffused back illumination technique is used thanks to the insertion of a high-pressure window in the injector holder opposite to the frontal window of the vessel. Experimental results show the reduction of soot formation with an increase in injection pressure, a reduction in chamber temperature, a reduction in oxygen concentration or a reduction in chamber density.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2254
Sirui Huang, Changpu Zhao, Yayong Zhu
In order to improve the combustion and emissions for high-speed marine diesel engines, numerical investigations on effects of different combustion chamber structures combined with intake air humidification have to be conducted in this paper. The study uses AVL Fire code to establish three-dimensional combustion model and simulate the in-cylinder flow, air-fuel mixing and combustion process with the flow dynamics metrics such as swirl number and uniformity index, analyze the interactional effects of combustion chamber structures and intake air humidification against the experimental data for a part load operation at 1350 r/min, find the optimized way to improve engine performance as well as decrease the NOx and soot emissions. The novelty is that this study is to combine different air humidifying rates with different combustion chamber structures including the re-entrant chamber, the straight chamber and the open chamber.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2252
Weihua Sun, Wei Du, Xuefei Dai, Xiangdong Bai, Zhiping Wu
Getting real cylinder pressure is the basis of engine combustion analysis. Because of the advantages of good thermal performance, fast response, small size, high accuracy, large range and so on, piezoelectric quartz sensor is widely used in the measurement of the cylinder pressure. But this kind of sensor can only get the dynamic cylinder pressure which may not represent the real one. In this situation, the cylinder pressure needs to be corrected by some method. It also could cause great result divergences of the combustion analysis by using different cylinder pressure correction methods. This paper aims to acquire a proper cylinder pressure correction method by carrying out the theory analysis based on ideal gas equation and experiment research of cylinder pressure on a turbocharged eight-cylinder diesel engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2251
Lei Feng, Beiling Chen, Haifeng Liu, Mingfa Yao, Chao Geng
The flame structure and combustion characteristics of wall-impinging diesel fuel spray were investigated on a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume combustion vessel. The ambient temperature (Ta) was set to 773 K, and the wall temperature (Tw) was set to 523 K, 673 K, 773 K respectively. Three different injection pressures (Pi) of 600 bar, 1000bar, 1600bar, and two ambient pressures (Pa) of 2 MPa, 4 MPa were applied. The flame development process of wall-impinging spray was measured by high-speed photography, which was utilized to quantify the flame luminosity intensity, ignition delay, and flame geometrical parameters. The results reveal that, as the wall temperature increases, the flame luminosity intensity increases and the ignition delay decreases.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2260
Weiwei Fan, Ming Jia, Yachao Chang, Yaopeng Li
The chemical kinetic mechanism determines the ignition timing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. The correlation between the ignition delay in shock tubes and HCCI engines under different operating conditions was studied with the reduced mechanism of a primary reference fuel (PRF) composing of n-heptane and iso-octane. According to the similarity analysis of the sensitivity coefficient, the operating conditions which affect the similarity factor are recognized. The results indicate that, under the conditions of high pressures and the negative temperature coefficient region of the ignition delay in shock tubes, the importance of each reaction on the ignition delay in shock tubes is similar to that in HCCI engines. Furthermore, it is concluded that the effect of the ambient temperature on the ignition delay is more obvious than that of the equivalent ratio and the ambient pressure.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2259
Tianpu Dong, Fujun Zhang, Hongli Gao, Sufei Wang, Yidong Fei
The diesel low temperature combustion(LTC) can keep high efficiency and produce low emission. It has been widely studied at home and abroad in recent years. The combustion control parameters such as injection pressure, injection timing, intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure, intake temperature and so on, have an important influence on the combustion and emission of diesel LTC. In order to realize different combustion modes and combustion mode switch of diesel engine, it is necessary to accurately control the injection parameters and intake parameters of diesel engine. In this work, the effect of intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure and intake temperature on the combustion and emission characteristics of diesel LTC were analyzed by experimental study. Combustion performance and emission characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure, temperature, heat release rate, NOx and soot emission are presented and discussed.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2257
Linjun Yu, Yanfei Li, Bowen Li, Hao-ye Liu, Zhi Wang, Xin He, Shi-jin Shuai
This study compares the combustion and emission performance of gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) in a single-cylinder, intake-boosting and water-cooling diesel engine with a compression ratio of 16.7. The test fuel was commercial gasoline in China with RON of 92, and intake pressure varied from 0.16 to 0.21 MPa, while Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) was fixed at 1.0 MPa. Both the knock limit and misfire limit of gasoline HCCI were studied. The results showed that Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR) was observed before High Temperature Heat Release (HTHR) in gasoline HCCI, and the LTHR accounted for less than 10 percent of total heat release. The knock limit and misfire limit of gasoline HCCI coincided when the intake pressure decreased to 0.16 MPa. Increasing the intake pressure helped to promote the Indicated Thermal Efficiency (ITE) for both gasoline HCCI and MPCI.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2256
Muhammad Umer Waqas, Kai Morganti, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Bengt Johansson
Future internal combustion engines demand higher efficiency, progression towards is limited by antiknock quality of present fuels and energy economics in octane enhancement. A possible solution is Octane-on-Demand, that uses a combination of high and low octane fuels in separated tanks to generate fuels of the required octane rating according to demand. Methanol, a RON 109 fuel was selected as the high octane fuel and five low octane fuels were used as base fuel. These were FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, more specifically FACE I, J and A and their primary reference fuels (iso-octane/n-heptane). Experiments were conducted with a modified Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. For SI combustion mode the CFR operated at RON and MON conditions. The engine i.e. also operated in HCCI mode to get the auto ignition properties at lean conditions (λ=3).
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2264
Hyun Woo Won, Alexandre Bouet, Joseph Kermani, Florence Duffour, Simon Dosda
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression ignition engines. In this context, low RON gasoline, a refinery stream derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. In addition, thanks to its higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel, CO2 benefits are also expected when used in such engines. In previous studies, different Cetane Number (CN) fuels have been evaluated and a CN 35 fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern and nozzle design have been performed on a single cylinder compression-ignition engine. The purpose of this paper is to assess different airpath and after treatment system (ATS) definitions to maximize the potential of a low-RON gasoline fuel running on a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 85301