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Viewing 211 to 240 of 86934
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1448
Krishnakanth Aekbote, Clifford Chou, John Cavanaugh, James Cheng, Jamel Belwafa, King Yang, Stephen Rouhana
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load wall plates aligned with dummy's shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1449
Krishnakanth Aekbote, Clifford Chou, John Cavanaugh, James Cheng, King Yang, Stephen Rouhana, Jamel Belwafa
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load walls aligned with dummy's shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load wall was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1451
Kangyi Yang, Michael Bargende, Michael Grill
As a promising concept to improve efficiency of a long-haul heavy duty truck with diesel engine, organic rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system (WHR) by utilizing the exhaust gas-es from internal combustion engine will be paid increased attention in recent years. The greatest achievable global efficiency may be however restricted by the engine. On the one hand influences the engine operating conditions the exhaust gas temperature and quantity as waste heat source, and on the other hand limits the engine cooling system the heat rejection from condenser of WHR system. This paper aims to evaluate the impacts of the varied engine applications considering the affects of WHR system on the global efficiency and engine emissions. A complex 0D/1D-simulation model for a turbocharged production heavy duty engine with low-/ high-temperature cooling cir-cuit and a WHR system with ethanol as working fluid have been in GT-Suite established.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1453
Konstantinos Bardis, Guoqing Xu, Panagiotis Kyrtatos, Yuri M. Wright, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Most of the phenomena that occur during the high pressure cycle of a spark ignition engine are highly influenced by the mean gas temperature, turbulence intensity and turbulence length scale inside the cylinder. For a pre-chamber gas engine, the small volume and the high surface-to-volume ratio of the pre-chamber increases the relative significance of the gas-to-wall heat losses, the early flame kernel development and the wall induced quenching; all of these phenomena are associated with the turbulence and temperature field inside the pre-chamber. This article presents a novel model for the prediction of the temperature and pressure traces as well as the evolution of the mean and turbulence flow field of a pre-chamber gas engine. Existing turbulence and gas-to-wall heat transfer models initially developed for spark ignition and diesel engines were studied for their capability of simulating the pre-chamber phenomena.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1452
Matthew Turner, Michael Peden, James W G Turner, Nathan Bailey
Recent interest in the possible use of Wankel engines as range extenders for electric vehicles has prompted renewed investigations into the concept. While not presently used in the automotive industry, the type is well established in the unmanned aerial vehicles industry, and several innovative approaches to sealing and cooling have recently been developed which may result in improved performance for ground vehicle applications. One such UAV engine is the 225CS, a 225 cc/chamber single-rotor engine manufactured by Advanced Innovative Engineering (UK) Ltd. This has a water-cooled housing but a novel form of sealed air-cooled rotor which reduces side-seal blowby. To be able to analyse the parameters, opportunities and limitations of this type of engine a model was created in the new dedicated Wankel modelling environment of AVL BOOST.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1456
Michael Clifford Kocsis, Garrett Anderson, Thomas Briggs
In much of the past LSPI work, the fuels used were simple component fuels or were splash blended to investigate oxygenates . These approaches do not fully represent real market fuels composed of hundreds of components and which are blended to maintain fuel octane when ethanol is added. To better understand real fuel effects on LSPI, a matrix was developed to vary certain chemical and physical properties of gasoline. The main properties of interest were: ratio of paraffinic, olefinic, and aromatic components, ethanol content at fixed RON and MON, and fuel volatility as defined by the T90 temperature. The LSPI rate increased with ethanol content but was insensitive to olefin content. Additionally, increased aromatic content uniformly led to increased LSPI rates. For both ethanol and non-ethanol blends, lower T90 temperatures resulted in decreased LSPI activity.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1454
Heiko Kubach, Alex Weidenlener, Juergen Pfeil, Thomas Koch, Hannah Kittel, Ilia V. Roisman, Cameron Tropea
Premature and uncontrolled flame initiation, called preignition (PI), is a prominent issue in the development of spark-ignited engines. It is commonly assumed that this abnormal combustion mode hinders progress in engine downsizing, thus inhibiting development of more efficient engines. The phenomenon is primarily observed in highly turbocharged spark ignited (SI) engines in the full load regime at low engine speeds. Subsequent engine knock induces extremely high peak pressures, potentially causing severe engine damage. The mechanisms leading to this phenomenon are not completely understood. It seems to be common sense that a multiphase process is responsible for the preignition. One effect could be the interaction between injected fuel droplets and the oil film at the cylinder liner. Under certain conditions droplets of oil or oil fuel mixture can be detached leading to a preignition at the droplet surface towards the end of the compression phase.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1358
Marjan Hanc, Peter Subke, Martin Dietze
Today´s road-vehicles (passenger cars and commercial vehicles), as well as non-road mobile machinery (NRMM), are equipped with E/E systems that consist of electronic control units, in-vehicle networks, sensors, actors, wiring, connectors, and some electrical and electrohydraulic components. Coping with the increasing complexity of these systems requires a new approach for external test equipment being deployed in the entire process chain: development, production, and after-sales service. Numerous papers are dealing with the technology of external test equipment, (remote) diagnostics, troubleshooting, guided fault finding, predictive maintenance and the standardized components, such as UDS, MVCI, ODX, and OTX. Diagnostic sequences are described in OTX and processed by an OTX runtime module. The OTX runtime module uses the MVCI D-Server API. The D-Server processes diagnostic data which is described in ODX. This paper starts with a brief introduction to the standardized components.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1457
JoonHyun Park, SeonMi HAN
In the early 1980s, an oxygen sensor was applied to improve the fuel efficiency of automotive embedded systems. Currently, the complexity of software development has being increased due to the emergence of various requirements and the electronic control devices to ensure the safety and convenience of the driver. The high-performance hardware embedded in the ECU is a big issue for the automobile industry. OEMs, TIERs, tool providers, and the others are aiming at a variety of unit reusability, including software and hardware, based on the plug-and-play architecture concept. It is enhancing the quality attributes (safety, performance, real-time) of various perspectives. Furthermore, international standard process (ISO 26262, A-SPICE) does not provide a direct methodology for dealing with requirements refinement procedures, standard specification methods, and traceability of extracts.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1360
Ondrej Santin, Jaroslav Beran, Ondřej Mikuláš, Jaroslav Pekar, John Michelini, Steven Szwabowski, Shankar Mohan, Dimitar Filev, Junbo Jing, Umit Ozguner
In order to improve the fuel economy while in cruise, the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology has been adopted utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on robustness study of delivered fuel economy benefit of Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier to several noise factors, e.g. vehicle platform, vehicle weight, fuel type etc. Further, as the vehicle position is obtained via GPS with finite precision and source of road grade preview might be inaccurate, the effect of inaccurate information of the road grade preview worsen the fuel economy benefits is studied and remedy to it is established.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1350
Amanda Nummy
In recent years, piano black has emerged as a trend for automotive interior and exterior trim due to its high-gloss and deep-color appearance, intended to evoke the luxury of the instrument for which it is named. However, it has been a challenge to find suitable material for the requirements of vehicles and their drivers. The current industry standard is a 3-layer paint coating consisting of a primer, black layer, and protective clear coat. Although this gives a glossy appearance, paint leaves an “orange peel” effect, meaning imperfect smoothness. Another approach is to use high-gloss molded plastic, such as polycarbonate or PMMA, which provide a smooth surface, but are susceptible to scratching, UV degradation, and chemical attack. Because of this, many consumers complain that their piano black trim does not maintain good appearance. The exterior pillars, for example, become easily scratched from spinning brushes in an automatic car wash.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1355
Hakan Warnquist, Jonas Biteus
Troubleshooting trees are traditionally used to guide technicians through the process of identifying the cause of vehicle problems and solving them. These static trees can successfully visualize complex information. However, for modular vehicles, the trees become difficult to create and maintain due to the numerous different configurations. These issues can be overcome using a model-based approach. This paper describes a prototype tool for guided troubleshooting and shows its application to a selective catalytic reduction system on heavy vehicles. The tool guides the technician through the troubleshooting process by presenting the most likely fault candidates and recommending the most useful actions to perform. The list of candidates and recommendations are updated continuously to reflect the outcomes of past actions. An important aspect of the tool is that it removes the user’s need to search and browse for diagnostic information.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1349
Michael Mandziuk, Laura Ball, Scott Piper
EMC Component Validation Responsibilities encompass many realms. One of these realms is the effect of magnetic fields on silicon-based devices. This paper describes a method for exposing these devices to magnetic fields with waveforms other than the traditional sinusoidal excitation. To explore the sensitivity of test devices (active silicon devices, not just simple wire loops or passive element devices), the method commonly used is to expose the device to a representative sinusoidal field and observe its reaction, or lack thereof. The challenge is to characterize the representative field and be able to verify its effectiveness. Recent vehicle level testing of new designs has brought our attention to time-varying or transient magnetic field shapes that create deviations not previously detected with MIL-STD-461 type sinusoidal magnetic field exposure.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1352
Gaurav kumar, Somnath Sengupta
With increasing emphasis on renewable energy and depleting oil reserves along with rising emission levels, the world is moving towards the use of electric vehicles (EV). However, to ensure safety and reliability in fast evolving systems like EV which is subjected to various operating conditions, there is a need for a systematic fault diagnosis approach. In highly complex systems like EV where accurate representative physics based models seem challenging, the use of machine learning techniques on the available extensive data from sensors can be useful for fault diagnosis. In this work, a fault diagnostic approach is developed and implemented for a real running EV’s power system based on machine learning techniques (such as Random Forest, KNN, linear and logistic regression) applied on the acquired data log.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1351
Jennifer Mcclung, Marcus Hutchins
Cars have become more than just a mode of transportation for consumers. They have become an interactive extension of ourselves, customize by their users. Knobs, buttons and overhead lighting have been replaces by touchscreens, capacitive sensing, and mood lighting allowing the driver to be encapsulated in their own styling preferences. This requires coating to be robust in design and elite in performance to withstand the harshest environments. Traditionally, original equipment manufacturers (OEMS) adopted one component (1K, no hardner, catalyst or activator) and multicomponent (2K, mix with hardner, catalyst or activator) systems for protecting interior trim and parts. For decades, these coatings have served the market well. However, with OEM’s moving to more stringent durability requirements, 1K and 2K coatings are scrambling to meet tougher OEM Standards.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1346
Sandip Hazra, Ajit Kharade, Vikas Kolage
As we are moving towards complete electrification from combustion engine to electric motor, the system design approach also changes due to application. For a range of 100-150kg EV powertrain weight, number of mounts as well as mount locations, orientations and stiffness plays a significant role during system design. However, as the electric powertrains are usually lighter and their mounts are usually stiffer than the mounts for typical combustion engines, the static displacements at dead load are usually lower. However, currently it seems like there is no common direction of all OEM's regarding the question of how stiff an e-motor mounting system should actually be. Due to the high torque of the EV's one could even think about switching to a four point mounting instead of a pendulum mounting.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1345
Guido Ricardo Guercioni, Enrico Galvagno, Antonio Tota, Alessandro Vigliani, Tong Zhao
The nonlinear behavior of automotive powertrains is mainly due to the presence of backlash between engaging components. In particular, during tip-in or tip-out maneuvers, backlash allows the generation of impacts that negatively affect the vehicle NVH performance. Due to the faster response of electric machine with respect to conventional internal combustion engines, this problem is even more critical for electric vehicles. In order to employ numerical optimal control methods for backlash compensation, the powertrain torsional system states have to be known. In this paper, an electric powertrain is modeled as a two-mass oscillator with lumped backlash. This model estimates the system states when in non-contact mode while a Kalman filter that relies only on commonly available speed measurements (motor and wheels) is active in the contact phase.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1347
Ji Zhang, Yu Lv, Xi Zhao
Electromagnetic compatibility of electric vehicles is withstanding great challenges because of multiple ECU and actuators distributed in vehicle. At present, researches on electromagnetic characteristics of vehicle mainly focus on rectification based on the EMC experiment, which take much time and energy. Thus, this paper adopts the way of computer simulation studying the electromagnetism model and electromagnetic characteristics of electric vehicle with following procedure. Firstly, the equivalent model of wiring harness was deduced and built. Harnesses were divided into different groups according to terminal reflection property. The equivalent unit parameter matrix was calculated to build the equivalent wiring harness. The crosstalk and radiation cases were set to check the equivalent harness method.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1341
K U Syed Taj Yaser, Sourabh Jadhav, Aashish Bhargava
The reduction of tire wear in vehicle is one of the major challenges for engineers. The underinflated tire can cause reduction in tire life along with decrease in driving stability of vehicle. Effort has been taken to develop a low cost auto-tire inflation system integrated in vehicle for reduction in tire wear as well as to avoid periodic checks of tire pressure. This paper deals with the technology and design approach required in the development of auto-tire inflation system for commercial vehicle. This system should have the fundamental role of not only monitoring the tire pressure but also inflating the tire to the recommended level of pressure whenever the pressure is reduced below the recommended level. Different approaches have been worked out for integration of system on vehicle with least modification in existing design.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1342
Hao Pan, Xuexun Guo, Xiaofei Pei
Focusing on distributed electric vehicles (DEV) with in-wheel motors, a novel regenerative braking control strategy based on braking intention is proposed. Firstly, a design scheme for the regenerative braking system is described. Four in-wheel motors and an Electro-Hydraulic Braking (EHB) system are respectively designed for regenerative braking and hydraulic braking. Then, the driver braking manipulation data are collected from Real vehicle test platform. Braking intention recognition self-learning libraries are established based on Hidden Markov Model method, which is validated by driver-in-loop tests. According to various speed and braking intention, the regenerative braking control strategy for multiple brake modes is developed. Eventually, the co-simulation results show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve energy recovery and brake response with the intention-based torque distribution.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1343
Takamitsu Tajima
The development and launch of electric vehicles (EVs) is happening quickly, taken as measures against global warming in our mobile society. However, there are still some big issues with EVs today. Among the major issues are a limited cruising range, charging, securing resources for onboard batteries, battery disposal, and a decline in cruising performance as vehicles become heavier. There are two primary approaches to solving these major EV issues. One is to increase battery performance, or increase battery capacity. The other is dynamic charging, or charging the battery while the vehicle is still cruising. With that the background, this research sought to develop a dynamic charging system, achieving an unlimited EV cruising range by charging the EV at high power during cruising. This system would help make it possible to finish battery charging in a short time by contact with the EV while cruising and enable drivers to freely cruise their intended routes after charging.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1337
Changsu Kim
As the singular contact point with the ground transmitting all forces and moments (accelerating, braking, cornering, rolling), the tire is the vital element in vehicle dynamics. Over the recent decades tire development for passenger cars has been continuously improved and optimized in order to achieve a good overall vehicle performance in R&H, that is in balance with all other tire performances(Wear, Durability, NVH, RR, Miles). This general development process has to be suitable for various vehicle types from regular passenger car over eco-friendly hybrid or electric vehicles to high performance sports cars. The balance between Ride and Handling performance is further adjusted to local customer preferences that are usually distinguished by markets (US, EU, Asia). Tire performances are historically evaluated during subjective test drives on R&H manoeuvers/tracks.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1338
Gibin Gil, Jeongheon Park
Tire model is one of the most important components of vehicle dynamic simulation because it is responsible for calculating major external forces and moments acting on a vehicle. The conventional modeling approach relies on empirical formula, hence, the resulting model cannot account for the effect of temperature and inflation pressure changes that occur during handling test maneuvers. In this study, a physical tire model is proposed based on the brush model with flexible carcass. Its parameters are determined by using indoor tire force and moment measurements along with footprint data. The model parameters for tires with different sizes and design specifications are obtained at several temperature and inflation pressure conditions. Based on the results, the parameters are modeled as functions of tire tread temperature and inflation pressure.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1340
Stefano D'Ambrosio, Roberto Vitolo, Nicolò Salamone, Enrico Oliva
Active Tire Pressure Control (ATPC) is an automatic central tire inflation system, designed, prototyped and tested at the Politecnico di Torino, which is aimed at improving the fuel consumption, safety and drivability of passenger vehicles. The pneumatic layout of the system and the designed solution for on-board integration are presented. The critical design choices are explained in detail and supported by experimental evidence. In particular, the results of experimental tests, including the characterizations of various pneumatic components in working conditions, have been exploited to obtain a design, which allows reliable performance of the system in a lightweight solution. The complete system has been tested to verify its dynamics, in terms of actuation time needed to obtain a desired pressure variation, starting from the current tire pressure, and to validate the design.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1334
Stefano D'Ambrosio, Elia Francesco Mameli, Roberto Vitolo, Ivan Calaon, Enrica capitelli, Vladi Nosenzo, Alessio Sarcoli
Tire inflation pressure has a relevant impact on fuel consumption and tire wear, and therefore affects both CO2 emissions and the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). The latter is extremely important in the case of commercial vehicles, where the cost of fuel is responsible for about 30% of the TCO. A possible advanced central tire inflation system, which is able to inflate and deflate tires autonomously, as part of a smart energy management system, and an active safety device, have been studied. This system allows misuse due to under-inflation to be avoided, and adapts the tires to the current working conditions of the vehicle. For instance, the tire pressure can be adapted according to the carried load, or during tire warm up. An on-board software is able to evaluate the working conditions of the vehicle and select the tire pressure that minimizes the energy expense, the TCO or the braking distance, according to a multi-objective optimization strategy.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1335
Andrei Izmailov, Zakhid Godzhaev, Valerij Revenko
The process of interaction of the driving wheels of mobile energy resources with soil is considered. A computational and experimental method is proposed for plotting the shear stresses in the contact zone of the skid wheel with a supporting surface, based on the use of normal stresses obtained for specific ground conditions. The character of the interaction of the driving wheel of the tractor with various types of supporting base has been studied in detail: a dirt road, stubble, a field prepared for sowing. It is revealed that, contrary to the generally accepted ideas, the slipping wheel has practically no adhesion zone in the contact spot. After touching the tiller of the supporting surface, it immediately begins to shift backward.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1329
David C. Viano, Samuel White
Objective: This study involved a number of different tests addressing theories for recliner and track release of front seats in rear impacts. It addressed the validity of the theories. Method: This study reports on several separate bench and sled tests addressing claims made about recliner and track release of front seats in rear impacts. The following theories were evaluated to see if they were true or a myth: • Recliner teeth slipping with minimal damage to the teeth • Recliner teeth bypass by disengage and re-engage under load without damaging the teeth • Recliner shaft bending and torque releasing the recliners • Track release by heel loading • Track release with occupant load on the seat: • Recliner handle rotation causes recliner release • Double pull body block tests: Results: Many of the theories were found to be myths once actual test data was available to judge the merits of the theory. Data from the tests and images from high-speed movies provide factual information.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1330
David C. Viano, Chantal S. Parenteau
Objective: This study analyzed FMVSS 301 rear impact tests with an instrumented rear-seat dummy. The test data and videos were downloaded from NHTSA and divided into three series based on the presence or absence of a rear head restraint, instrumentation and video coverage. Methods: NHTSA conducted 15 FMVSS 301 rear crash tests with an instrumented 50th Hybrid III dummy in the rear seat. The dummy was lap-shoulder belted. In series 2, there were 8 tests with 2003-2005 MY vehicles that had rear head restraints. In series 3, there were two tests with 2004-2005 MY vehicles that did not have rear head restraints. There was an onboard camera view of the rear occupant. In series 1, there were three repeat tests with the Jeep Liberty and two others, but no onboard camera view. The dummy responses were evaluated and compared to IARV.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1331
Noelle Baker, Scott Henry, Tony Laituri
An eleven-group taxonomy was created to classify real-world side crashes from the Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) component of the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). Three steps were taken to develop the taxonomy: (1) side-impact towaway crashes were identified by examining 1987-2016 model year light passenger vehicles with Collision Deformation Classification (CDC) data from the 1997-2015 calendar years of NASS; (2) case reviews, engineering judgments, and categorization assessments were conducted on these data to produce the eleven-group taxonomy; and (3) taxonomy groups were reviewed relative to regulated crash test procedures. "Oblique" and "Partial Perpendicular F" crashes were the most frequent crash types, each contributing approximately 22% to the total, followed closely by “No Wheel Engaged P” contributing approximately 19%. The “No Wheel Engaged P” group was also the most highly represented crash type for vehicles with at least one seriously-injured occupant.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1332
Jan Vychytil, Ludek Hyncik, Jaroslav Manas, Ludek Kovar, Pavlina Dvorakova, Katerina Bucsuhazy, Jan Rucker
There are many active systems designed to protect passengers of modern cars. The aim of this paper is to use numerical simulations for assessment of innovative head restraint system, which can protect passengers head during a side impact. That is, to evaluate possible benefit of such headrest installed in a car without head airbag during side impact and in configuration of, so called, far side impact We use a novel approach in assessment of functionality of the innovative headrest. The functionality of the headrest is evaluated with respect to human population variability. There is used VIRTHUMAN (scalable human body model) scaled for pre-selected human individuals to assess population variability influence in defined side impact scenarios. The human model can cover large numbers of passengers of different sizes and it extends conventional virtual evaluation of the new safety designs via existing pre-defined mono-purpose side dummies and its FE models.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 86934