Criteria

Text:
Sector:
Display:

Results

Viewing 241 to 270 of 86934
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1392
Eitaro Koya, Masahiko Nakagawa, Shinya Kitagawa, Jun Ishimoto, Yoshikatsu Nakano, Naoya Ochiai
The HPDC (High Pressure Die Casting) manufacturing method has a high productivity because the molten metal is injected at high speed into the mold. On the other hand, it has been considered that, when molten metal is injected at high speed, the amount of gas entrained into the part increases, causing deterioration of the quality. In recent years, researches have been investigating the relationship between J value, which is an index showing the state of atomization of molten metal, and the quality of a molded product. J value is defined by geometric parameters of the injection port (gate) and the injection gate speed. In the investigations on tensile strengths of mass-produced products, we found that there were products with high strength of about 1.5 times as high as usual. In addition, products with high tensile strength were molded under the conditions with a higher J value, and gas distribution conditions in the products were also different.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1391
Feng Lin, Fei Wang, Changan Chen, Cangeng Tang
In this paper, we investigate applications of discrete event system theorem to robot control. Our goal is to control a robot to perform a set of tasks using discrete event system theory. Discrete event system theory has been developed by researchers around the world since 1980s. Supervisory control theory has widely accepted as the main framework for control of discrete event systems. In this framework, many important concepts and methods have been introduced and extensively investigated.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1389
Saurabh Labade
The base of this project was founded when trying to mitigate the loss due to down time in logistic operation. This paper provides the insight about the interdependency of various variables that contribute toward the Bullwhip effect and how the Automation can help tackle this problem and at the same time incur safe work environment. Findings from the optimization project led to the detection of the root cause of the waste of valuable time in operations related to the movement of material due to fork lifts. This waste of precious movements rapidly scaled up as the material flowed through the facility and shipped out as finished goods. The concept of forklift free operations on the production floor seemed to be a potent solution, but it came with its own challenges. After SWOT analysis of the change in operations, the outcome favored the changes.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1388
K. Dhanesh, Shanmugam Mathaiya, VenkataSatish Langu
Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, electronic devices and computers, usually in combination. Complicated systems, such as modern factories, reach & development centers, airplanes and ships typically use all these combined techniques. The benefit of automation includes the labor savings, savings in electricity costs, savings in material costs, and improvements to quality, accuracy and precision. This project deals with the calibration of load cells. Calibration for load cells are carried out every year which involves 25 numbers of it from the range of 5kN to 500kN. The conventional set up involves, a set up time of two/three days for calibration and temporary holding of normally running tests for a period of two weeks since the oscillations in the hydraulic line affects the accuracy of calibration of the load cells.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1386
Dominik Mokriš, Jona Mangold, Martin Schifko
Autonomous cars already exist, why should anybody these days spend manual time on mesh preparation? This is a task for the machine and no the human being. In this session, we will show the one-click way to prepare the mesh for multi bodies or topological complex objects for 3D printing. The underlying software is already in use for paint shop applications to prepare a body in white starting from CAD fully automatic with 5-8 hours computational time of a desktop machine, while the labour work is kept less than 15 minutes. For input, tessellated data can be imported from several sources (there are automatic interfaces to extract the data of multi bodies from CAD). Often these data is defective and not manifold. In addition, the describing surface is not represented in an exact way. The only exact information one can rely at this stage is the position of the vertices of the mesh. They are located directly on the surface.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1385
Saverio Giulio Barbieri, Matteo Giacopini, Valerio Mangeruga, Sara Mantovani
Modern high performance engines are usually characterized by high power densities which lead to high mechanical and thermal loadings acting on engine components. In this scenario, aluminium may not represent the best choice for piston manufacturing and steel may be considered a valid alternative. In this paper, a methodology involving optimization techniques is presented for the design of an internal combustion engine piston. In particular, a design strategy is preliminary investigated aiming at replacing the standard aluminium piston, usually manufactured by forging or casting, with an alternative one made of steel and manufactured via an Additive Manufacturing process. Three different loading conditions are employed for the topology optimizations set up. Optimization results are then interpreted and the various structural features of the steel piston are designed starting from the density distribution contour plots.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1384
Sajjad Raeisi, Andres Tovar
Additive manufacturing has been a promising technique for producing sophisticated porous structures. The pore’s architecture and infill density percentage can be easily controlled through additive manufacturing methods. This paper reports on development of sandwich-shape extruded cross sections with various architecture. These lightweight structures were prepared by employing additive manufacturing technology. In this study, three types of cross-sections with the same 2-D porosity were generated using particular techniques. a) The regular cross section of hexagonal honeycomb, b) The heterogeneous pore distribution of closed cell aluminum foam cross section obtained from image processing and c) linearly patterned topology optimized 2-D unit cell under compressive loading condition. The optimized unit cell morphology is obtained by using popular two-dimensional topology optimization code know as 99-line code, and by having the same volume fraction as the heterogeneous foam.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1382
Guohai Jia, Daming Zhang
A 3D grid model of engine brake is established for an automobile engine. The dynamic compression release braking process is simulated by using this model. In the process of engine braking, the movement of valve and piston causes changes of the internal flow field of the engine. In this paper, the movement of valve and piston were defined by using the dynamic grid technology, so that the numerical simulation is closer to the actual situation via the updating of grid. Based on the relevant parameters of compression release engine brake (including the opening of the exhaust valve, the engine speed and the exhaust back pressure), the pressure and power of the compression release braking system were simulated under the conditions of multiple operating conditions and experimental verification was carried out. The results showed that the braking works of the compression release engine brake are mainly from the compression stroke and the exhaust stroke.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1380
Xin Yang, Zhenfei Zhan, Qingmiao Wang, Ping Wang
Brilliant progress in modeling techniques has greatly promoted the application of computer simulations in vehicle safety. However, refined impact model is usually complex and always takes lots of time for simulation and optimization. Hence, to simplify the impact models without losing necessary accuracy is of significant meaning in vehicle safety area. In vehicle crashworthiness analysis, surface deformation is frequently regarded as a critical factor to be measured for validating the accuracy of CAE models. However, researches on the development of quantitative metric for surface accuracy validation are rarely found. To deal with this problem, an integrated validation framework is proposed to evaluate the inconsistence between the deformed surfaces of the original model and simplified model. The geometric features and curvature information of the deformed surfaces obtained based on crash simulation are extracted for calculating the magnitude error and shape error respectively.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1379
Karthik Lakshminarayanan, Deepak Anand Subramanian
To capture market share in different regions of the world, the product must fit different road profiles and operating conditions. Designing a product which suits two different markets requires many factors to be considered like the topography, driving pattern and road load profiles. This project deals with once such situations and required a stringent validation protocol which shall encompass all possible driving scenarios. The fully built vehicle is to be exported to a different market and required powertrain change and subsequently required a new cradle design. Customer usage and road profile study was carried out in the new market to estimate the percent operation in each zone i.e. good road and bad road. CAE analysis carried out to capture stress hotspots and possible failure locations. Vehicle is taken to road to measure frame acceleration at different speeds i.e. 40 kmph to 100 kmph.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1377
Saisri Aditya Kanchibhotla, Saiful Bari
Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards require automakers to raise the average fuel efficiency of new cars and trucks from 24.8 miles per gallon to 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. Also, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s greenhouse gas emissions standards are projected to require 163 grams/mile of carbon dioxide (CO2) from 358 grams/mile of CO2 by 2025. This paper focuses on waste heat recovery system, which is an efficient technology to reduce fuel and vehicle CO2 emissions. Wide variations of power of a vehicle make it difficult to design a heat recovery system which can operate optimally at all powers. Usually, a vehicle does not run at rated power and speed all the time. The exhaust temperature from the engine is critical to design a heat recovery system. Higher the temperature higher will be the gain from the waste heat recovery system. However, as power drops the exhaust temperature drops which makes the heat recovery system performs poorly at lower power.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1375
Dongzhan Jing, Ge-Qun Shu, Xuan Wang
Gaseous fuel internal combustion engines (gas engines) for electric generating are important primary movers in distributed energy systems. However, the average thermal efficiency of the gas engine is just about 30%-40% and most of the waste heat is discharged by exhaust. So it is very meaningful to recover the exhaust waste heat. Electricity-cooling cogeneration system (ECCS) inclusive of a steam Rankine cycle (RC) and an absorption refrigeration cycle (ARC) is an effective way for recovering exhaust waste heat of gas engine. Part-load performance analysis of ECCS is of great significance due to the frequently varied working conditions of gas engines in practical operation. In this paper, an off-design simulation model of ECCS is firstly established by Matlab. Then the effects of the engine working condition on the performance of ECCS are analyzed by this model.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1373
Shuhai Yu, Dongxian Song, Xingxing MA, Ma zhigang, Jian Sun, Yabin Cui
The concept of D-EGR (Dedicated EGR) used high rate of EGR and fuel reformation to improve engine thermal efficiency, entire exhaust gas which supplied from a single cylinder was recirculated to the intake system and then entered into all cylinders to improve combustion. In this study, the D-EGR system was performed on a 1.5L PFI 4-cylinder gasoline engine, compared to the baseline engine, the reduction of fuel consumption was about 20~30 g/kWh in the entire D-EGR engine operating range, the minimum fuel consumption was reduced from 253.7 to 224.3 g/kWh, and the corresponding maximum brake thermal efficiency was improved from 32.6 to 36.8%. The D-lambda (lambda of dedicated cylinder) was considered as the most significant factor to influence the fuel economy and combustion stability, the suitable range of D-lambda was around 0.69~0.82 to gain better engine performance under the whole operating points of this experiment.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1371
Jelmer Rijpkema, Sven Andersson, Karin Munch
Thermodynamic power cycles have been shown to provide an excellent basis for waste heat recovery (WHR) in internal combustion engines. By capturing and reusing the heat that is otherwise lost to the environment, the efficiency of the engine can be increased. This paper evaluates the maximum power output of different power cycles used for waste heat recovery in a heavy duty Diesel engine with the focus on the working fluid selection. Inside a heavy duty Diesel engine four distinct heat sources can be identified, two high-temperature heat sources: the exhaust gas recirculation cooler and the exhaust gas flow out, and two low-temperature heat sources: the charge air cooler and the engine coolant. Typically, only the high-temperature heat sources are evaluated for WHR in internal combustion engines, whereas this paper also includes the potential for WHR from the low-temperature heat sources.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1372
Shivam Mishra, Yasin Sohret, Sanjay R
Exergy analysis provides appropriate information for improvement of thermodynamic efficiency of the system focusing on system components with maximum exergy destruction but this method lacks in showing the mutual interaction between system components on cycle performance. Hence an advanced approach i.e. Advanced Exergy Analysis’ has been adopted and discussed in present paper. Advanced exergy analysis of LM2500+, a marine gas turbine cycle adopting air-film blade cooling techniques has been reported. The advanced exergy analysis primarily focuses on categorizing the irreversibility of process components. Advanced exergy analysis identifies exergy destruction based on two different aspects: first identifying source of irreversibility and other being minimization of this irreversibility.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1370
Shreyas Joshi, Saisri Aditya Kanchibhotla, Saiful Bari
Turbocharger in engine has shown efficient way to improve power output and fuel efficiency. However, Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards requires the fuel efficiency to be 24.8 miles per gallon from the current 54.5 miles per gallon. Turbocharger reduces the exhaust gas temperate to run turbine to boost inlet pressure. The exhaust temperature after the turbocharger is still high enough to recover heat to produce additional power. This paper focuses on a 100 kVA turbo-charged diesel-generator to produce additional power from the exhaust heat after the turbo-charger. At rated power, waste heat recovery system (WHRS) using water as the working fluid produced 19% additional power using superheated steam in a steam expander. However, at part load the performance of the WHRS was poor due to low exhaust gas temperature. Organic fluids have low boiling point temperature than water.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1364
Shivam Mishra, Sanjay R
Cogeneration involves production of both thermal energy as well as electrical energy. The thermal energy is generally realized by production of steam, which can be used as process steam. Gas turbine used for marine propulsion can also have cogeneration applications through the utilization of gas turbine exhaust energy for steam generation purposes. Gas turbine blade cooling is critical to reliable operation of gas turbine based power utilities. A thorough literature review suggests that air-film cooling is one of the most widely used blade cooling techniques. The aim of the present study is adoption of few previously developed air-film cooling based gas turbine blade cooling models (without considering radiative heat transfer) and compare them with proposed gas turbine model for estimating blade coolant mass fraction which considers radiative heat transfer from gas turbine blade surface.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1361
Daniel Guse, Serge Klein, Jakob Andert, Stefan Pischinger, Johannes Scharf, Martin Nijs, Ralf Wellers, Yi Zhang
This paper describes an approach to save development costs and time by frontloading of engineering and starting calibration tasks already in early component conception phases. This requires a consistent and parallel virtual development and calibration methodology. The interaction between vehicle subcomponents physically available and those only virtually available at that time is considered by highly accurate real-time models on closed-loop co-simulation platforms (HiL-simulator) providing the appropriate response to components in the hardware test. This paper shows results of a heterogeneous testing scenario containing a real internal combustion engine on a test facility and a purely virtual vehicle using two different automatic transmission calibration and hardware setups. The first constellation is based on a validated vehicle model (A), including a physical dual clutch transmission, a semi-physical tire and a vehicle dynamics model.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1362
Chenaniah Langness, Charu Srivatsa, Christopher Depcik
Given the need of the automotive industry to improve fuel efficiency, many companies are moving towards lean burn and low temperature combustion regimes. Critical control of these methods requires an accurate Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system that can maintain its desired rate and temperature. In this area, the literature illustrates different methodologies to control and monitor this EGR system; however, it lacks a discussion of how the non-linear nature of wave dynamics and time responses of an engine must be taken into account. In order to perform research into the use of EGR for these combustion regimes, an automated, closed-loop EGR system that uses a microprocessor to compute the slope change of the EGR rate and temperature as part of its feedback algorithm was constructed for use in a teaching and research laboratory. The findings illustrate that the system works as intended by replicating known combustion trends with EGR.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1324
Xuguang Wang, Georges Beurier
An automotive seat or an airplane passenger seat is used by thousands or millions of people. The seat should be designed to accommodate the maximum number of a target population by taking into account the variability of body size in the population and also the environment’s constraints. Thanks to a fully adjustable experimental seat recently built at IFSTTAR, data of the optimal seat profile parameters and compressed seat pan surface were collected in function of seat pan and backrest angle from a sample of 36 differently sized participants. Parametric models were obtained to predict optimal seat profile parameters in function of a sitter’s anthropometric characteristics, seat pan angle and seat back angle. Using a population simulation approach, a sample of 500 males and 500 females were generated randomly based on the distribution of relevant anthropometric dimensions.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1321
Gregory Schaupp, Johnell O. Brooks, Casey Jenkins, Julia Seeanner, Constance Truesdail
The ability to independently transfer into and out of a vehicle is essential for many wheelchair users to achieve driving independence. The purpose of the current study is to build upon the previous exploratory study that investigated the transfer strategies of wheelchair users by observing YouTube videos. This observational study videotaped five wheelchair users transferring from their wheelchairs into two research vehicles, a small and mid-size sedan that were equipped with a 50mm grid. The goal of this study was to use these videos and vehicle grids to precisely identify ingress and egress motions as well as “touch points” of the wheelchair users in a controlled setting. Using the videos from multiple different camera perspectives, the participants’ ingress and egress transfers were coded, documenting the touch points and step-by-step action sequences. The locations of touch points and lines representing the participant’s actions were plotted in a CAD model of each vehicle.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1328
Chinmoy Pal, Sangolla Narahari, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Shigeru Hirayama, Shinichi Hayashi, John combest
This paper presents the results of study on sensitivity of serious injury outcome for drivers involved in nearside car to car (C2C) collisions, especially at intersection. In total, 865 intersection C2C crashes (NASS-CDS CY 2004-2014) are analysed in detail to determine the injury level outcome based on different crash factors, such as delta-v, age, gender, striking vehicle types, impact locations (F,Y,P,Z,B-regions based on CDC codes), amount of compartment intrusion and impact angle. A higher number of serious to fatal injuries (57%) occurred in the Y-region when compared to other impact locations. Additionally, a higher number of serious to fatal injuries (60%) occurred when the direction of impact is 10 o'clock. A Multi-variate logistic regression test is performed to predict the MAIS3+ injuries using lateral delta-v, age (<60/>60 years), belt usage (yes/no), number of events (single/multi), intrusion (<30cm/>30cm), and direction of impact (9/10 o'clock).
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1327
David C. Viano, Chantal Parenteau
Sled test video and data were independently analyzed to assess the validity of statements and conclusions reported in Bidez et al. SAE paper 2005-01-1708. Bidez et al. (2005) claimed "The lap belts moved up and over the pelvis of the small female dummy for all impact angles tested." In fact, there was no submarining in any of the tests with the production lap-shoulder belts. Bidez et al. (2005) claimed "H3-5F dummies began to roll out of their shoulder belt at… 30 degrees. Complete loss of torso support was seen at 45 degrees without significant kinetic energy dissipation." In fact, the shoulder belt remained in place and restrained the upper torso in the 0, 15 and 30 deg sled tests. At 45 and 60 deg, significant restraint was provided before the belt slipped off the shoulder. It remained in contact with the arm and chest providing restraint. Bidez et al. (2005) claimed "The results indicated kinematic movement of the dummies, which were predictive of injury in all sled runs."
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1326
Pardeep Jindal, Rahul Makwana
Crash safety is a complex engineering field wherein a good understanding of energy attenuation capabilities due to an impact of various components and between different/adjacent components in the context of vehicle environment is imperative. During a frontal impact of the vehicle, an occupant lower extremity tends to move forward and may impact one or more components of the instrument panel assembly. A glove box component design may have an impact on the outcome of the occupant’s lower extremity when in contact with the instrument panel during a frontal impact. The objective of the present numerical study was to develop a novel glove-box design with energy absorbing ribs to help reduce anthropomorphic test device (ATD) lower leg responses. The finite element (FE) approach used in this study utilized morphing techniques with minimal design changes to the baseline glove-box to simulate a sled test including an ATD and a restraint system.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1314
Shayne McConomy, Johnell Brooks, Paul Venhovens, Yubin Xi, Patrick Rosopa, John DesJardins, Kevin Kopera, Nathalie Drouin, Leah Belle, Constance Truesdail, Stephanie Tanner, Sarah Hennessy, Kathy Lococo, Loren Staplin, Elin Schold Davis
Improper fit in a vehicle will affect a driver’s ability to reach the steering wheel and pedals, view the roadway and instrument gauges, and allow vehicle safety features to protect the driver during a crash. CarFit® is a community outreach program to educate older drivers on proper “fit” within their personal vehicle. A subset of measurements from CarFit® were used to quantify the “fit” of 97 older drivers over 60 and 20 younger drivers, ages 30-39, in their personal vehicles. Binary, logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of drivers meeting the CarFit® measurement criteria prior to and after CarFit® education. The results showed older drivers were five times more likely than younger drivers to meet the CarFit® criteria for line of sight above the steering wheel, suggesting that younger drivers would also benefit from CarFit® education.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1315
Seon Chae Na, Jong moon Yoo, Chanho Jeong, Doo ri KIM, Moo young KIM, Jun yeol heo
While the need for rear seat comfort and convenience of consumers with a mid-sized sedan is increased, seat specifications for those are limited to luxury and large-sized vehicles. Rear seat reclining is one of those expensive specifications. This paper is a research of the mechanism of seat back reclining linked to cushion which upgraded the rear seat comfort compared to current reclining system of sedan. The mechanism has been optimized as well to reduce weight and cost, thus allowing application for mid-sized sedans.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1313
Yongping hou, Yanwei Huang
Fuel cell vehicle commercialization and mass production are challenged by the durability of fuel cells. In order to research the durability of fuel cell stack, it is necessary to carry out the related durability test. The performance prediction of fuel cell stack can be based on a short time durability test result to accurately predict the performance of the fuel cell stack, so it can ensure the timeliness of the test results and reduce the cost of test. In this paper, genetic algorithm-BP neural network (GA-BPNN) is proposed to modeling automotive fuel cell stack to predict the performance of it. Based on the strong global searching ability of genetic algorithm, the initial weights and threshold selection of neural networks are optimized to solve the shortcoming that the random selection of the initial weights and thresholds of BP neural network which can easily lead to the local optimal value.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1318
Johnell O. Brooks, Lauren Mims, Casey Jenkins, Damian Lucaciu, Pete Denman
Autonomous vehicles have the potential to provide mobility to individuals who experience transportation disadvantages due to the inability to drive as a result of physical, cognitive or visual limitations as well as able-bodied individuals with no/limited desire to drive. Individuals who do not have easy access to transportation have social, academic, health and career disadvantages in comparison to their peers. Fully autonomous vehicles have the potential to offer mobility solutions to these individuals. A user-center design approach was utilized by a multidisciplinary team representing engineering, human factors and design to develop future vehicle concepts for a broad range of users.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1310
Yongping hou, Lin Liu
In the assembling process of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, the clamping load is known to have direct effect on the contact pressure of interfaces. Compression on the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) results in change in gas diffusion layer (GDL), porosity and electrical resistance, thus affecting the performance, durability and reliability of the PEMFC stack. In this paper, the relation between clamping load and performance of PEMFC stack was obtained by experimental study, and the influence of clamping load on the contact pressure of MEAs was analyzed by finite element analysis. The performance test rig was established and the approach of polarization curve testing was introduced. Both the effect of magnitude and distribution of the bolt torques on the performance were taken into account. The finite element model was adopted to figure out the magnitude and uniformity of contact pressure of MEAs, which provides a new angle to understand the experimental results.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0121
Carl Caruana, Gilbert Sammut, Mario Farrugia
Several methods are nowadays used by OEM’s in order to determine engine friction through experiments to help them develop friction correlations to be used in 1D simulation models. Some of the friction measurement methods used are; Willan’s Line, Morse test, Teardown test and Indicated Method. Each of these methods have their own disadvantages, with some reliant on heavy assumptions. In this paper a friction measurement method is discussed which requires a conventional motoring dynamometer cell by which the engine can be motored at different speeds. The exhaust manifold of the 2 litre, 4 cylinder diesel engine was shorted to the intake manifold with an unrestrictive ‘shunt’ pipe which reroutes the exhausted air to the intake. The shunt pipe was pressurised by an external source of compressed air to make up for blow-by losses. It is noted that the compressed air supply is thus a small fraction of what would be required if no recirculation is used.
Viewing 241 to 270 of 86934