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Viewing 1 to 30 of 102045
Technical Paper
2015-01-01
Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu, Edwin K.L. Tam
Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) conducted, to date, of the end-of-life phase of vehicles rely significantly on assumed values and extrapolations within models. The end phase of vehicles, however, has become all the more important as a consequence of increasing regulatory requirements on materials recovery, tightening disposal restrictions, and the rapid introduction of new materials and electronics, all potentially impacting a vehicle’s efficacy for achieving greater levels of sustainability. This article presents and discusses selected research results of a comprehensive gate-to-gate life-cycle-inventory (LCI) of end-of-life vehicle (ELV) dismantling and shredding processes, constructed through a comprehensive and detailed case study, and argues that managing and implementing creative dismantling practices can improve significantly the recovery of both reusable and recyclable materials from end-of-life vehicles. Although the amount of parts and materials recovered and directed for reuse, remanufacturing or recycling may be as much as 11.6% by weight of the ELVs entering a dismantling process [1], greater rates of reuse and/or recycling may be achieved by the strategic management of the ELVs entering the dismantling process according to age.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Ken Fosaaen
Global concerns over pollution have led to increasingly strict emissions legislation targeting small engines, which currently pollute at a much greater level than modern multi-cylinder automotive engines. Closed-loop control may be required to meet many future legislation requirements; however, such systems can be impractical due to high added component costs. A necessary component for closed-loop engine control is an oxygen sensor. Existing automotive oxygen sensors are too large, require too much power, and far too expensive to be suitable for the vast majority of the global small engine applications; therefore, some manufacturers have developed smaller and/or unheated versions based on their existing sensors to meet this emerging need. The ability to miniaturize resistive based sensors well below that of traditional Nernst (zirconia based) oxygen sensors affords the opportunity to meet future emissions standards with less of an impact on cost. The performance of a novel low-cost, low-power narrow-band oxygen sensor was compared with several automotive as well as newer oxygen sensors developed for the small engine market.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Vinoth Balaram Ranganathan, Rajarajan Kesavelu, Adrian Spencer, Andrew Wood
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has great potential to reduce CO2 emissions as compared to the well established Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology. It is one of the familiar GDI strategies to have more than one injection in a single engine cycle and it is termed as split injection. Understanding the fuel spray characteristics in GDI technology is essential for achieving better combustion process. In this context, A.Wood [1] studied the spray characteristics of a multi-stream, split-type, Continental injector using shadowgraphy and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurement techniques on an atmospheric test rig. Atmospheric test rig is not very representative of actual in-cylinder conditions. However, the optimisation of GDI engine requires a thorough understanding of fuel spray characteristics under engine -relevant operating conditions. As an extension of the work done by A.Wood, in the present study, the spray characteristics of a three-hole multi-stream GDI injector from Continental is analysed by spraying the fuel into an optical chamber under conditions closer to in-cylinder pressure and temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Ken Naitoh, Tomoaki Kubota, Kan Yamagishi, Yoshiyuki Nojima, Takuma Okamoto
In our previous reports, we found an inexpensive, lightweight, and relatively quiet engine reactor that has the potential to achieve thermal efficiency over 50% for small engines may be achieved with colliding supermulti-jets that create air insulation to encase burned gas around the chamber center, avoiding contact with the chamber walls and piston surfaces. One of interesting features is that, although traditional homogeneous compression due to piston becomes weak at stoichiometric condition, the colliding of pulse jets can maintain high compression ratio for various air-fuel ratios. Here, a small prototype engine having colliding supermulti-jets pulsed and strongly-asymmetric double-piston system is examined by using compuattional experiments. Pulse can be generated by the double piston system of a short stroke of about 40mm. An original governing equation extended from the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation lying between the Boltzmann and Langevin equations is proposed and the numerical methodology based on the multi-level formulation proposed previously by us is included, which can also capture cyclic variations of combustion in traditional direct-injection gasoline engine and transition to turbulence in intake pipes.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Ken Naitoh, HIrotaka Sagara, Taro Tamura, Taiki Hashimoto, yoshiyuki Nojima, Masato Tanaka, kentaro kojima, Kenya Hasegawa, Takuya Nakai, Taiki Ikoma, Shouhei Nonaka, Tomoaki Kubota
In our previous reports based on computational experiments and fluid dynamic theory, we proposed a new compressive combustion principle for an inexpensive, lightweight, and relatively quiet engine reactor that has the potential to achieve thermal efficiency over 50% even for small combustion chambers having less than 100 cc. This level of efficiency can be achieved with colliding supermulti-jets that create complete air insulation to encase burned gas around the chamber center. The P-V diagram for this engine concept is between the Otto and Lenoir cycles. We originally developed two small prototype engine systems for gasoline. First one having one rotary valve for pulsating the intake flow and also sixteen nozzles of jets colliding is for examining combustion occurrence. As this prototype has no pistons, the bore size can be varied easily between about 50mm and 15mm. Experimental data basically indicates combustion occurrence. Next, we developed the second one having a strongly-asymmetric double piston system with the supermulti-jets colliding, although there are no poppet valves.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Rajarajan Kesavelu, Rajagopalan V R, V Lakshminarasimhan, Pramod S Mehta, S R Chakravarthy
In an era of vigorous engine R&D in automobile industry, there is need to meet stringent fuel economy and emission norms. For this purpose, the understanding of in-cylinder flow processes is critical as they are central to engine combustion and its associated effects. The optical access engines with laser based diagnostics have proved useful for investigating intricacies of in-cylinder motions. Single cylinder engines with smaller bore (< 60 mm) are quite popular on two-wheeler vehicles in Asian countries particularly in India. Though wider optical investigations have been carried out on larger bore engines, not much published works are available on the smaller bore engines close to production series. In this study, an optical engine is developed based on Bowditch design for a mass manufactured 110 cc, 4 stroke, air cooled SI engine used on motorbikes. The over-squared indigenously developed spark-ignited optical engine is designed to have a complete optically-transparent piston crown and a cylinder liner made of quartz.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Patrick Pertl, Philipp Zojer, Michael Lang, Oliver Schoegl, Alexander Trattner, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger, Nagesh Mavinahally, Vinayaka Mavinahalli
The automotive industry has made great efforts in reducing fuel consumption recently. The efficiency of modern spark ignition (SI) engines has been increased by improving the combustion process and reducing engine losses such as friction, gas exchange and wall heat losses. Nevertheless, further efficiency improvement is indispensable for the reduction of CO2 emissions and the smart usage of available energy. In the previous years the Atkinson cycle realized over the crank train is attracting considerable interest of several OEMs due to the high theoretical efficiency potential. In this publication a crank train-based Atkinson cycle engine is investigated. The researched engine, a 4-stroke 2 cylinder V-engine, basically consists of a special crank train linkage system and a novel mono shaft valve train concept. The idea of a mono shaft valve train mechanism is to realize the valve actuation without the need for separate cam shafts and gears, but via a cam disk rotating crank shaft speed, thus enabling the integration of the cam disk in the crank shaft.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Tomomi Miyasaka, Kenta Miura, Norikuni Hayakawa, Takashi Ishino, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazushi Tamura, Toshimasa Utaka, Hideki Kamano
Supercharged direct-injection engines are known to have a tendency toward abnormal combustion such as spontaneous low-speed pre-ignition and strong knock because they operate under low-speed, high-load conditions conducive to the occurrence of irregular combustion. It has been hypothesized that one cause of such abnormal combustion is the intrusion of engine oil droplets into the combustion chamber where they become a source of ignition. It has also been reported that varying the composition of engine oil additives can change susceptibility to abnormal combustion. However, the mechanisms involved are not well understood, and it is not clear how the individual components of engine oil additives affect autoignition. In this study, abnormal combustion experiments were conducted to investigate the effect on autoignition of a calcium-based additive that is typically mixed into engine oil to act as a detergent. The experiments were performed with a single-cylinder 4-cycle gasoline engine using a primary reference fuel (PRF 50) into which the calcium salicylate (CaSa)-based detergent was mixed at various ratios.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jeffrey Blair, Glenn Bower
Operation of snowmobiles in national parks is restricted to vehicles meeting the Best Available Technology standard for exhaust and noise emissions as established by the National Parks Service. An engine exceeding these standards while operating on a blend of gasoline and bio-isobutanol has been developed based on a production 4 stroke snowmobile engine. Miller cycle operation was achieved via late intake valve closing and turbocharging. The production Rotax ACE 600cc 2 cylinder engine was modeled using Ricardo Wave. After this model was validated with physical testing, different valve lift profiles were evaluated for brake specific fuel consumption and brake power. The results from this analysis were used to determine the cam profile for Miller cycle operation. This was done to reduce part load pumping losses and increase engine efficiency while maintaining production power density. A catalytic converter was added to reduce exhaust gas emissions, as measured by the EPA 40 CFR Part 1051 5-mode emissions test cycle.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Norikuni Hayakawa, Kenta Miura, Tomomi Miyasaka, Takashi Ishino, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazushi Tamura, Toshimasa Utaka, Hideki Kamano
Spontaneous low-speed pre-ignition, strong knock and other abnormal combustion events that occur in supercharged direct-injection engines are viewed as serious issues. The effects of the engine oil and the components of engine oil additives have been pointed out as one cause of such abnormal combustion. However, the mechanisms involved have yet to be elucidated, and it is unclear how the individual components of engine oil additives influence autoignition. This study investigated the effect on autoignition of boundary lubricant additives that are mixed into the engine oil for the purpose of forming a lubricant film on metal surfaces. A high-speed camera was used to photograph and visualize combustion through an optical access window provided in the combustion chamber of the 4-cycle naturally aspirated side-valve test engine. Spectroscopic measurements were also made simultaneously to investigate the characteristics of abnormal combustion in detail. Combustion experiments were conducted using a primary reference fuel (PRF 50) to which various zinc dithiophosphate (ZnDTP)- and molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC)-based additives were added in volumetric ratios ranging from 0-0.7% as typical boundary lubricant additives.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Abhinav Tomar
The original diesel engine is a four-stroke, Ford diesel engine with a compression ratio of 22.9:1. In order to accommodate CNG in diesel engine, the compression ratio has to be reduced to prevent knock. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method using ANSYS simulation software is used for this purpose. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of different compression ratio on the performance of a diesel engine operating on a dual fuel system using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as the main fuel. The engine performance will be investigated in terms of the mixing quality of CNG and air before injection of diesel fuel, temperature and pressure distribution. Based on the simulation results, the optimum compression ratio chosen to operate the CNG-diesel engine without knock is 16.6:1. At this compression ratio, the engine can operate until the normal operating load condition where the wall temperature is 373 K before the engine was knocking.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yuichi Seki, Keito Negoro, Norimasa Iida, Katsuya matsuura, Hiroshi Sono
This work investigates effects of gas inhomogeneity induced by droplets of fuels and oils on the auto ignition timing and temperature in the direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) engine by means of detailed numerical calculation using multi zone model. Recent researchers pointed out that droplets are made of fuels and oils which mix on the cylinder liner and released from the cylinder liner. During the compression stroke released droplets reach the auto ignition temperature before flame propagation induced by spark ignition. It is called Pre-ignition. When pre-ignition occurring, sometimes severe oscillation which is called Super-knock happens and damages the engine severely. In combustion chamber, there is inhomogeneity caused by temperature and mixture distribution. As for temperature, it is very hot in the center of the combustion chamber, while mixture around the cylinder liner is a relatively low temperature under the influence of the coolant. Concerning fuel distribution, it is caused by direct injection of fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Matthew Smeeth
Rolling contact fatigue is a particular type of fatigue that occurs in heavily loaded, non-conformal contacts, such as gears and rolling element bearings. It is primarily a failure mode associated with repeated cyclic loading that generates high local Hertzian pressures, leading to local plastic deformation and substantial surface or sub surface stress. This in turn leads to crack formation and propagation. In some instances this results in sudden and often critical mechanical failure of contacting parts. This failure mode can, to a certain degree, be controlled by the appropriate choice of lubricant; in terms of both the physical and chemical properties of the films formed at the surface. A three contact disc machine has been used to examine the rolling contact fatigue of motorcycle lubricants in such heavily loaded contacts. Three counterface test rings of equal diameter (54mm) are mounted 120° apart with a smaller (12mm diameter) test roller in the centre. Using this configuration, a large number of contact cycles are possible in a short period of time (up to one million per hour), which greatly accelerates the testing test.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Mikael Bergman, Magnus Bergwall, Thomas Elm, Sascha Louring, Lars Nielsen
Abstract: Husqvarna as a member of group of European SMEs, surface coating technology providers and engine manufacturers - wish to develop and demonstrate a second-to-none advanced low-friction coating tailored for engine applications. Contrary to existing approaches this is based on a holistic approach combining coating technologies, substrate alloys and well known large-scale second-to-none production technologies. The implementation of the AdEC project will significantly contribute to upgrading state-of-the-art surface technologies and improve existing advanced coating processes through investigation within the field of material science, especially in the area of complex materials focusing on Ni-Co based dispersion coatings containing a mixture of nano-diamonds and hexa-boron nitride (BN). The latest development in use of advanced coating materials was introduced when NSU invented the wankel engine in the late 60s. For that purpose an electrochemical deposit coating (Nikasil) was invented.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Diego Copiello, Ze Zhou, Gregory Lielens
This paper addresses the numerical simulation of vehicle exhaust system noise using an innovative transfer matrix method (TMM) supporting high order duct modes combined with finite element method (FEM). Exhaust systems usually consist of complex volume components (mufflers, catalyzers ...) connected by simpler pipes. The noise propagation through such systems can be efficiently addressed by means of the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The TMM is an analytical method which allows assessing efficiently the acoustic behavior of an entire exhaust line by combining acoustic transfer matrices of each of its constitu¬ent sub-components (i.e., volume components: mufflers, catalyzers, etc.). The main assumption of this method is that within the exhaust line only the plane wave is propagating and thus the transfer matrices could be computed analytically. On the contrary, this assumption leads to a strong limitation in the maximum frequency of analysis which is the cut off frequency of the first higher order mode present in any one of the exhaust line components.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Kazuhiko Tanaka, Haruomi Sugita, Hibiki Saito, Masahiko Sekita
The exhaust sound of a motorcycle is one of the key appealing factors to the customers along with its styling and dynamic performances. Accordingly, various attempts have been made to realize attractiveness of exhaust sounds. Recently, there is an increasing demand to divert a common motorcycle engine to various vehicle categories. An individual engine configuration category has its own featuring exhaust sound. Despite of these circumstances, it is also required to create the best suitable sound for each vehicle category with a specific vehicle feature. Accordingly, there is a possible case in which an inline-four-cylinder engine is shared with another motorcycle model in the vehicle category with nostalgic appearances in which V-twin engine flavor is frequently featured. In this study, three essential factors were extracted from the verbal expressions that appear as adjectives, exclusively or commonly, used to illustrate the exhaust sounds in each vehicle category or engine type. We tried to develop a method applicable to various engine types to design a targeting exhaust sound, by clarifying the relationship between the position of each exhaust sound, appeared on the mapping chart for the three factors, and the feature of the waveform of the sound,.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Vishnu kumar Kuduva Shanthulal, Kannan Marudachalam, Pattabiraman V, S Jabez Dhinagar, Chandramouli Padmanabhan
The diesel power train (engine and transmission) is the most significant mass contributor in a three- wheeled vehicle. High idling vibrations of a single cylinder four-stroke diesel engine causes discomfort for driver and passengers as vibrations from the engine get transmitted to the structure and the body panels through the engine mounts. The isolation of these vibrations by proper design of rubber mounts is the most effective engineering approach to improve ride quality of vehicle. In the present study, a mathematical model of the powertrain and mount system is developed; the engine and transmission are assumed to behave as a rigid body (6 degrees-of-freedom) and the compliance comes from the mounts. Both four and three mount configurations have been investigated, with the mounts being represented by three independent springs in the compression and shear modes. Since the mounts can be inclined, appropriate transformations are carried out from the local mount co-ordinate system to the global co-ordinate system.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Takahiro MASUDA, Kouji SAKAI, Yuki YAMAGUCHI, Jun-ichi KAKU, Hirobumi NAGASAKA
This paper proposes a novel engine starter system composed of a small-power electric motor and simple mechanical devices. The system makes it possible to design more efficient starter-generators than conventional systems, and especially, it is effective to restart engines equipped with idling stop systems. Recently, several idling stop systems have been proposed for motorcycles to achieve intelligent start-up functions and highly-efficient generation. One of challenges of the idling stop systems is downsizing of starter motors. However, there are real limitations to downsize the motors in the conventional idling stop systems, since the systems utilize forward-rotational torque of the motors to compress mixture gas in cylinders. Our study exceeds the limitations of the downsizing by exploiting combustion energy instead of electric energy to run over a first compression top dead center. The starter system described in this paper consists of (A) an electric motor which can rotate a crank shaft both forward and backward, (B) a cam-train to drive an intake valve during an exhaust stroke in a backward rotation, and (C) a control unit to inject and ignite at arbitrary timing.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Vipin Sukumaran T., Sumith Joseph
In recent past, the two stroke vehicle manufacturers are continuously motivated to develop extreme low emission vehicle for meeting the requirements of emissions regulations. To achieve this emission compliance, manufacturers have developed engines with better induction system, improved ignition timings, increased compression ratio (C.R) and larger after-treatment devices. As an effect of above changes, engine operating temperatures are quite high which reduces the block-piston life. Even though, typical two stroke engines are forced cooled engines, there is a lot of potential for optimizing block cooling to reduce maximum liner temperature and block gradient for enhancing block-piston durability. This paper presents an experimental study of various measures to reduce liner temperature for a two stroke, single cylinder 70 c.c. engine used for two wheeler application. By studying the cooling air flow around the block and block to interface parts heat transfer, the following parts were redesigned to reduce maximum liner temperature – exhaust gasket, base gasket, cooling fan profile and cooling cowl.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Ken Fosaaen
Global concerns over pollution have led to increasingly strict emissions legislation targeting small engines, which currently pollute at a much greater level than modern multi-cylinder automotive engines. Closed-loop control may be required to meet many future legislation requirements; however, such systems can be impractical due to high added component costs. A necessary component for closed-loop engine control is an oxygen sensor. Existing automotive oxygen sensors are too large, require too much power, and far too expensive to be suitable for the vast majority of the global small engine applications; therefore, some manufacturers have developed smaller and/or unheated versions based on their existing sensors to meet this emerging need. The ability to miniaturize resistive based sensors well below that of traditional Nernst (zirconia based) oxygen sensors affords the opportunity to meet future emissions standards with less of an impact on cost. In this study, a sub-miniature resistance-based narrowband oxygen sensor was developed and its response to various exhaust lambda values was characterized at various temperatures.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Thomas Metzinger, Christoph Raber, Christoph Wittmann
20th Small Engine Technology Conference “New development approach for wet motorcycle clutch systems” The change of the motorcycle market in the last decade ask for “solutions” for the changed requirements. The strong rising bike segment of the emerging markets characterized by one cylinder engines up to 250ccm and 25HP and a focus of low price range of the vehicle in combination with a high sales volume. These bikes normally daily used for individual transportation. On the other side you have the bike segment of the industrial countries in which the bikes used mainly for hobby purposes or as amateur bike racer. The sales volume of these segment consolidated in the last years and have several subgroups like sport bike, touring, off-road and others. All of the segments and subgroups have their individual requirements to the clutch system. Now Schaeffler combine their experience in developing and producing components for small engines and clutch systems for the automotive sector to develop the ideal clutch system for a motorbike.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Giuseppe Danilo Rossi, Sara Gronchi, Matteo Gasperini, Bernardo Celata, Raffaele Squarcini
Electrical oil pumps are used in order to reduce the engine car emissions thanks to the optimization of the absorbed energy and motor efficiency. The present trend to obtain this improvement of the motor efficiency is the electrification of the auxiliary components that can be driven independently from the engine shaft. In this field, the electrical oil pumps are one of the most required components used for automatic transmissions as well as for the main lubrication system. An electrical oil pump is driven by an electric motor with its electronic control system. The electric motor should generate an available torque higher than the total torque requested by the hydraulic mechanism, to allow the pump generating the expected performances. The pump type has been chosen thanks to PPT experience in the development of hydraulic pumps, the “G-rotor” solution, which is a particular shape of gears, is the best compromise in terms of noise, dimensions, robustness and packaging. In order to design an optimized electrical oil pump it is important to evaluate the absorbed torque by the hydraulic mechanism.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Tetsuya Osakabe
As gasoline prices have crept up in recent years, demand for higher fuel efficiency has increased also for motorcycles. Growing attention has been paid to how we can comprehensively improve fuel efficiency by raising the efficiency of the generator and other auxiliary equipment. This paper describes how we improved the power generation efficiency of a single-phase motorcycle generator of outer-rotor type by reducing electric losses (i.e. iron loss and copper loss) and improving magnetic flux through electromagnetic field analysis. Through electromagnetic field analysis, we first distinguished iron loss and copper loss. Then, focusing on the iron loss that we found inferiority, we modified the thickness and material of the stator core and improved power generation efficiency. Another source of iron loss was the non-magnetic protection cover of the magnets in the rotor. We reduced iron loss by drilling holes of that cover into where the magnet and the stator core faced each other and the magnetic flux passed through.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Lakshmy Neela, Klaus Grambichler
Automotive Magnetic Sensor market is expanding day by day serving a lot of automotive applications. Crankshaft sensors are mainly used to monitor the position or rotational speed of the crankshaft, thereby controlling the ignition system timing and enabling misfire detection. Passive VR (Variable Reluctance) sensor and Active Hall effect sensor are the two commonly used low cost sensors in automotive crankshaft applications. An extensive research regarding the functional and physical attributes of both sensor technologies (incorporating innovative designs and different application scenarios) has been performed providing a wide overview of the benefits and ill-effects of both the technologies and a comprehensive guide for customers in sensor selection. Cost is an important factor driving today’s automotive market. Comparison of overall costs of active and passive systems starting with the sensing element, additional circuitry for signal shaping till package and assembly process from system level has been studied in detail.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Giovanni Vichi, Isacco Stiaccini, Alessandro Bellissima, Ryota Minamino, Lorenzo Ferrari, Giovanni Ferrara
A condition monitoring activity consists in the analysis of several informations from the engine and the subsequent data elaboration to assess its operating condition. By means of a continuous supervision of the operating conditions the performance of an internal combustion engine can be maintained at a high level with both long availabilities and design-level efficiencies. The growing use of turbocharger (TC) not only in automotive field but also for off-road small vehicles or for small stationary applications, suggests to use the TC speed as a possible feedback of engine operating condition. Indeed, the turbocharger behaviour is connected to the thermo and fluid-dynamic conditions at the engine cylinder exit: this feature suggests that the turbocharger speed could give useful data about the engine cycle. In this study the authors describe a theoretical and numerical analysis focused on the turbocharger speed in a four stroke turbo-diesel engine. The purpose of this study is to highlight whether the turbocharger speed allows one to detect the variation of the engine parameters.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Takashi ONISHI
1. The main issues and conclusions. All of diesel engines over 19 kW horse power in North America, which are mainly used for agriculture, landscape and construction application, are required to reduce further Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particle Matter (PM) by EPA emission regulation. Especially, it is necessary to reduce PM emission up to one-tenth as conventional. In addition to improve combustion in the engine, it is needed to add the engine exhaust-gas aftertreatment device to reduce PM emission. Then it is essential to prevent increasing NOx emission by improving combustion. We developed the 1.5 L non-road IDI (In-Direct Injection) diesel engine with mechanical fuel injection system, which met EPA Tier 4 regulation. This paper introduces the techniques to achieve lower exhaust emissions, those are newly-developed exhaust-gas aftertreatment system. 2. The process by which the conclusions were reached. Techniques for lower exhaust emissions It is important for small industrial diesel engines to be compact to install machineries.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hiroki Ikeda, Norimasa Iida, Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Umehara, Takayuki Fuyuto
A combustion method called Noise Cancelling Spike (NC-Spike) Combustion has been reported in the co-author’s previous paper, which reduces combustion noise in pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) with split injection. This NC-Spike Combustion uses interference of the following “spike” of pressure rise (heat release) on the preceding peak of pressure rise. The overall combustion noise was reduced by lowering the maximum frequency component of the noise spectrum. The period of this frequency is two times of the time interval between the two peaks of the pressure rise rate. This maximum load range of conventional PCCI combustion is limited by the combustion noise, since the maximum pressure rise rate increases as the amount of injected fuel increases. The NC-Spike Combustion has a potential to extend of the operating range of PCCI combustion. In this paper, we investigates feasibility and controllability of the two-peak heat release rate during high temperature heat release by adding fuel in the adiabatic compression process of pre-mixed gas.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yuzuru Nada, Yusuke Komatsubara, Thang Pham, Fumiya Yoshii, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi
In this study, we investigated relationship between flame behaviors and NOx emissions using a rapid compression machine incorporating a small combustion chamber with a bore diameter of 60 mm and a displaced volume of 100 cc. A total gas sampling device was used to measure the NOx concentration in total gases existing in the combustion chamber at a designated time, which allows the evaluation of NOx production rate in combustion process. Temporal temperature distributions in the chamber were measured with high speed 2-color thermometry. Two types of injectors with 4 and 8 injection holes were used in the experimental trials. Gas oil (JIS #2) was used as the fuel, and injected into the chamber at pressures of 100 MPa and 160 MPa. Ambient pressures at fuel injection timing were set to 4 MPa and 8 MPa in order to investigate the effect of supercharging on combustion behaviors in the chamber. The temperature of ambient air was kept constant at 850 K in all experimental trials. A NOx concentration measured with the total gas sampling device increases at a stage of diffusion combustion following after a premixed combustion stage.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Alex K. Rowton, Joseph Ausserer, Marc D. Polanka, Paul Litke, Keith Grinstead
As internal combustion engines (ICEs) decrease in displacement, their cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio increases. Examining power output of ICEs with respect to cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio shows that there is a dramatic change in power scaling trends at approximately 1.5 cm-1. At this size, thermal quenching becomes the dominant thermal loss mechanism and performance and efficiency characteristics suffer. Furthermore, small ICEs (>1 cm-1) have limited technical performance data compared to ICEs in larger size classes. Therefore, it is critical to establish accurate performance figures for a family of geometrically similar engines in the size class of approximately 1.5 cm-1 in order to better predict and model the thermal losses as well as other phenomena that contribute to lower efficiencies in small ICEs. The engines considered in this scaling study were manufactured by 3W Modellmotoren, GmbH. In particular, they are the 3W-28i, 3W-55i, and 3W-85Xi which have a cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio of 1.81 cm-1, 1.46 cm-1, and 1.28 cm-1 respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Joseph K. Ausserer, Alexander Rowton, Keith Grinstead, Paul Litke, Marc D. Polanka
In this work, in-cylinder pressure was measured in a 55 cc single cylinder, 4.4 kW, two stroke, spark ignition engine. Engines of this size are common in handheld power tools, hobbyist aircraft, and more recently, commercially developed remotely piloted aircraft operated by the government and military. Literature data on adapting performance measurements developed for larger engines to engines of this size is sparse. This work focuses on evaluating two different methods for measuring in-cylinder pressure, a critical parameter for combustion analysis, matching power plants to airframes, and engine optimization. In-cylinder pressure measurements were taken using two different pressure transducers to determine if the performance differences between the two transducers are discernible in a small, spark ignition engine. A Kistler brand measuring spark plug was compared to a Kistler brand flush mount high temperature pressure sensor. Both sensors employ a piezo-electric pressure sensing element and were designed to measure indicated mean effective pressure and to detect knock at high temperature engine conditions.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 102045