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Viewing 1 to 30 of 102101
Technical Paper
2015-01-01
Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu, Edwin K.L. Tam
Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) conducted, to date, of the end-of-life phase of vehicles rely significantly on assumed values and extrapolations within models. The end phase of vehicles, however, has become all the more important as a consequence of increasing regulatory requirements on materials recovery, tightening disposal restrictions, and the rapid introduction of new materials and electronics, all potentially impacting a vehicle’s efficacy for achieving greater levels of sustainability. This article presents and discusses selected research results of a comprehensive gate-to-gate life-cycle-inventory (LCI) of end-of-life vehicle (ELV) dismantling and shredding processes, constructed through a comprehensive and detailed case study, and argues that managing and implementing creative dismantling practices can improve significantly the recovery of both reusable and recyclable materials from end-of-life vehicles. Although the amount of parts and materials recovered and directed for reuse, remanufacturing or recycling may be as much as 11.6% by weight of the ELVs entering a dismantling process [1], greater rates of reuse and/or recycling may be achieved by the strategic management of the ELVs entering the dismantling process according to age.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Naoya Ito, Akira Terashima, Junki Sahara, Takashi Shimada, Masanori Yamada, Akira Iijima, Tomohiko Asai, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Lean burn is a very effective way to substantially improve the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. A major issue involved in applying a lean-burn process to a spark-ignition engine is to secure stable ignition and combustion. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is one technology for accomplishing rapid combustion of a lean premixed air-fuel mixture. However, because the mixture is autoignited by piston compression in an HCCI engine, controlling the ignition timing is a crucial issue. In addition, another issue of HCCI engines is the narrow range of stable operation owing to the occurrence of misfiring at low loads and extremely rapid combustion at high loads. As an approach to resolving these issues, this study focused on the use of low-temperature plasma as an ignition technique for inducing stable autoignition in an HCCI engine. Specifically, the use of a streamer discharge was investigated for controlling HCCI ignition and combustion. A continuous streamer discharge was generated in the center of the combustion chamber of a 2-stroke engine that allowed visualization of the entire bore area.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yudai Yamasaki
Biomass resources have attracted attention for their ability to address global environmental problems and as a potentially clean source of energy. One method of using biomass resources is to supply gasified biomass, which is produced by either a thermochemical or a microbiological reaction, as a fuel for gas engines used in power generation. The problems with using gas fuels in a gas engine, especially syngas produced by a thermochemical reaction, are their lower heat content and the variation in the fuel components. In addition, the enthalpy of syngas has to be exploited to achieve a high thermal efficiency. If this gas is directly supplied to a spark-ignition (SI) engine, such high temperatures can cause knock. On the other hand, HCCI require a pre-mixture at a temperature of approximately 1000 K to achieve auto-ignition with hydrocarbon fuels. These aspects of HCCI engines avoid the knocking that occurs in SI engines using hot syngas. Ultra-lean combustion can be also realized with fuels with a low LHV that contain several non-combustible components, and the enthalpy of syngas contributes to realizing the high-temperature pre-mixture conditions enabling auto-ignition.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Keisuke Mochizuki, Takahiro Shima, Hirotaka Suzuki, Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has attracted a great deal of interest as a combustion system for internal combustion engines because it achieves high efficiency and clean exhaust emissions. However, HCCI combustion has several issues that remain to be solved. For example, it is difficult to control engine operation because there is no physical means of inducing ignition. Another issue is the rapid rate of heat release because ignition of the mixture occurs simultaneously at multiple places in the cylinder. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and propane was observed that the overall combustion process was delayed, with that combustion became steep when injected propane much. This study focused on expanding the region of stable engine operation and improving thermal efficiency by using supercharging and blended fuels. The purpose of using supercharging were in order to moderated combustion. In addition, the purpose of using blended gaseous fuels were find out effective use of gaseous fuels.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Federico Brusiani, Gian Marco Bianchi, Cristian Catellani, Marco Ferrari, Paolo Verziagi, Dario Catanese
Most of the handheld application are equipped with a Two stroke SI engine. The advantage of this engine are known but one of the problem of this applications is to design air cooling system with high efficiency. One of the main problem to cool the two stroke engine for hand held applications like chainsaw, brush cutter, blower and so on is obtain compact design of the application but in the mean time to have the correct air flow in all conditions. This paper describes a CFD methodology to optimize the air flow around the two stroke engine and identify the potential improvement of this system to increase the cooling efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Gen Shibata, Ryota Kawaguchi, Soumei Yoshida, Hideyuki Ogawa
The chemical compositions of market gasolines are different depending on the crude oils, refinery processes of oil refineries, and seasons. The combustion characteristics of HCCI engine are very sensitive to the fuel compositions, and a fuel standard for HCCI is needed to achieve the HCCI vehicles on the market in a future. In this paper, the effects of fuel structures on auto-ignition characteristics and HCCI engine performance were investigated. The engine employed in the experiment is a research, single cylinder HCCI engine with a compression ratio of 14.7. The intake manifold was equipped with a heater system allowing control of intake air temperature up to 150 C at 1800rpm. Thirteen kinds of hydrocarbons, which were 4 kinds of paraffines, 3kinds of naphthenes, and 6 kinds of aromatics, were chosen, and the 20vol% of each pure hydrocarbon was blended with the 80vol% of PFR50 fuel respectively. The HCCI engine was operated with the thirteen kinds of fuels under the same equivalence ratio, and the relative ignitability (the HCCI index, defined in this paper) of each hydrocarbon was calculated from HTHR CA10 and evaluated.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yuma Ishizawa, Munehiro Matsuishi, Yasuhide Abe, Go Emori, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazuhito Misawa, Hiraku Kojima, Kenjiro Nakama
The addressed issue of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines which should be solved is to suppress rapid combustion in the high-load region. Supercharging the intake air so as to form a leaner mixture is one way of moderating HCCI combustion. However, the specific effect of supercharging on moderating HCCI combustion and the mechanism involved are not fully understood yet. Therefore, experiments were conducted in this study that were designed to moderate rapid combustion in a test HCCI engine by supercharging the air inducted into the cylinder. The engine was operated under high-load levels in a supercharged state in order to make clear the effect of supercharging on expanding the stable operating region in the high-load range. HCCI combustion was investigated under these conditions by making in-cylinder spectroscopic measurements and by analyzing the exhaust gas using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that cool flame reactions were induced by increasing boost pressure when gasoline with a Research Octane Number of approximately 90 was used as the test fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Alexander Trattner, Helmut Grassberger, Oliver Schoegl, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger, Helmut Eichlseder, Armin Kölmel, Stephan Meyer PhD, Tim Gegg
One of the most significant current discussions worldwide is the anthropogenic climate change accompanying fossil fuel consumption. Sustainable development in all fields of combustion engines is required with the principal objective to enhance efficiency. This certainly concerns the field of hand-held power tools as well. Today, 2-stroke engines equipped with a carburetor are the most used propulsion technology in hand-held power tools like chain saws and grass trimmers. Present engine technology has to be further developed in order to respond to future challenges such as more stringent environmental legislation as well as fuel consumption targets and more demanding customer needs. Diverse solutions are expected in future like electric propulsion, 4-stroke variants, different fuels (LPG, ethanol, etc.), but for some applications the 2-stroke engine will remain the appropriate technology. The research to date has tended to focus on 2-stroke engines with rich mixture setting. In this paper the strengths and weaknesses of leaner respectively lean (over-stoichiometric) operation of 2-stroke engines are discussed.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Alex K. Rowton, Joseph Ausserer, Marc D. Polanka, Paul Litke, Keith Grinstead
As internal combustion engines (ICEs) decrease in displacement, their cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio increases. Examining power output of ICEs with respect to cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio shows that there is a dramatic change in power scaling trends at approximately 1.5 cm-1. At this size, thermal quenching becomes the dominant thermal loss mechanism and performance and efficiency characteristics suffer. Furthermore, small ICEs (>1 cm-1) have limited technical performance data compared to ICEs in larger size classes. Therefore, it is critical to establish accurate performance figures for a family of geometrically similar engines in the size class of approximately 1.5 cm-1 in order to better predict and model the thermal losses as well as other phenomena that contribute to lower efficiencies in small ICEs. The engines considered in this scaling study were manufactured by 3W Modellmotoren, GmbH. In particular, they are the 3W-28i, 3W-55i, and 3W-85Xi which have a cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio of 1.81 cm-1, 1.46 cm-1, and 1.28 cm-1 respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Joseph K. Ausserer, Alexander Rowton, Keith Grinstead, Paul Litke, Marc D. Polanka
In this work, in-cylinder pressure was measured in a 55 cc single cylinder, 4.4 kW, two stroke, spark ignition engine. Engines of this size are common in handheld power tools, hobbyist aircraft, and more recently, commercially developed remotely piloted aircraft operated by the government and military. Literature data on adapting performance measurements developed for larger engines to engines of this size is sparse. This work focuses on evaluating two different methods for measuring in-cylinder pressure, a critical parameter for combustion analysis, matching power plants to airframes, and engine optimization. In-cylinder pressure measurements were taken using two different pressure transducers to determine if the performance differences between the two transducers are discernible in a small, spark ignition engine. A Kistler brand measuring spark plug was compared to a Kistler brand flush mount high temperature pressure sensor. Both sensors employ a piezo-electric pressure sensing element and were designed to measure indicated mean effective pressure and to detect knock at high temperature engine conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefan Krimplstätter, Franz Winkler, Roland Oswald, Roland Kirchberger
Graz University of technology has presented several applications of its 2-stroke LPDI (low pressure direct injection) technology in the previous years (SAE Paper No´s.: 2005-32-0098, 2006-32-0065, 2008-32-0059, 2010-32-0019). In order to improve the competitiveness of the 2-stroke LPDI technology, an air cooled 50cm³ scooter application has been developed. All previous applications have been liquid cooled. The application demonstrates the EURO 4 (2017) ability of the technology and shows that the 2S-LPDI technology can also be applied to low cost air-cooled engines. Hence the complete scooter and moped fleet can be equipped with this technology in order to fulfil on the one hand the emission standards and on the other hand the COP (conformity of production) requirements of Euro 4 emission stage. The paper will present the Euro 4 results of the scooter and describe the very simple conversion process of the existing carburetor engine to the LPDI version. Euro 4 results can be achieved with conventional exhaust system architecture known form nowadays Euro 2 applications.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Manikandan T, S Sarmadh Ameer, A Sivakumar, Davinder Kumar, R Venkatesan, VenkataKalyana kumar
The proposed paper is on advanced vehicle information panel which shall display instant mileage zone in which the user is operating with inputs from engine crank sensor and vehicle speed sensor alone. And moreover, gear assistance and throttle assistance through visuals is provided. Mileage data for different engine loading at different Speeds is pre-calculated at standard conditions and fed into a micro-controller. In real time, the engine loading, by means of intelligent software, is sensed by engine crank sensor and based on the pre-fed value, the mileage zone of the vehicle at that particular instant is to be displayed using an information panel. Based on the relation between speed sensor and engine crank sensor when the vehicle is running, the gear in which the vehicle is running is to be calculated. For a vehicle running in a certain gear and in certain speed, the ideal engine loading and mileage zone is predefined. So when the user is riding in a certain gear with certain engine load, the micro controller compares that with the programmed data which is the ideal condition data, and assists the user, in case the rider is not riding the vehicle as per the ideal data, by gear up/down prompt or throttle up/down prompt by means of the said information panel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Alessandro Franceschini, Emanuele Pellegrini, Raffaele Squarcini
Nowadays the challenge in design auxiliary device for automotive small engine is focused on the packaging reduction and on the increase of the performances. This requirements are in contrast to each other and in order to fulfil the project specifications, new and more refined design tools and procedures need to be developed. This paper presents a calculation loop developed by Pierburg Pump Technology Italy S.p.a. (PPT). It supports the design of a variable displacement oil pump component for engine applications. The work is focused on the fatigue life evaluation of a joint, which transmits the drive torque from the engine to the oil pump. The aim of the procedure is to calculate the onset of the surface fatigue phenomenon in the hexagonal joint which drives the oil pump, taking into account the axes misalignment and the flat to flat clearance. The study has involved several matters, experimental measures, CFD, MBA and FEM analyses. A calculation procedure has been set up in order to consider all the necessary loads applied on the joint.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Ludek Pohorelsky, Pavel Brynych, Jan Macek, Pascal Tribotte, Gaetano De Paola, Cyprien Ternel
The objective of this paper is to present the results of the GT Power calibration with engine test results of the air loop system technology down selection described in the SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0831.Two specific boosting systems were identified as the preferred path forward: (1) Super-turbo with two speed Roots type supercharger, (2) Super-turbo with centrifugal mechanical compressor and CVT transmission both downstream a Fixed Geometry Turbine. The initial performance validation of the boosting hardware in the gas stand and the calibration of the GT Power model developed is described. The calibration leverages data coming from the tests on 2 cylinder 2-stroke 0.73L 45kW diesel engine. The initial flow bench results suggested the need for a revision of the turbo matching due to the big gap in performance between predicted maps and real data. This activity was performed using Honeywell turbocharger solutions spacing from fixed geometry waste gate to variable nozzle turbo (VNT). New simulations results recommend VNT as it offers a higher potential to reduce BSFC with increase power and low end torque output than the original matching.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Luiz Carlos Daemme, Renato Penteado, Fatima zotin PhD, Marcelo errera PhD
Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective The motorcycle sales have improved consistently during the last decade mostly in developing and BRICS countries. There are many reasons for it such as their low cost and less fuel consumption comparing to cars, associated to the economic growth on those cited countries. New emissions limits have been reduced and the use of gas after treatment devices is widely present in new models. Additionally Flex Fuel motorcycles have been offered to the market and a combination of diverse gasoline/ethanol blends and their effect on the emissions still an open issue to be fully understood. The objective of the paper is to present recent results regarding regulated and unregulated emissions from a Flex Fuel motorcycle fuelled with 4 different gasoline/ethanol blends. Methodology One motorcycle was fuelled with gasoline blended with 22, 61 and 85% ethanol. Additionally a 100% ethanol fuel was used. Regulated emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) have been measured with 7000 series Horiba benches.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Andrew Smith, James Howard Lee, Robert Garrick, Daniel Piekarski, Kenneth Krapf, John Bulzacchelli
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is rapidly becoming one of the best potential alternatives for replacing traditional gasoline or diesel for engines. Engines burning natural gas can operate nearly identically to traditionally fueled models with only minor changes in engine control and fueling parameters. Natural gas produces fewer emissions and can be run at higher compression ratios without exhibiting pre-detonation due to its high octane number [1]. This investigation examined combustion and exhaust gas emissions of natural gas in a twin cylinder, four-stroke cycle, 750 CC engine. Three rounds of testing were conducted to evaluate the effects of fuel, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), and Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) on engine emissions. The v-twin engine, a Kohler Command ProCH749 with Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI), was naturally aspirated, fitted with natural gas injectors, external EGR valve, and an increased compression ratio (CR) of 13.8:1. The EGR rates, Revolutions Per Minute (RPM), load, and torque of the engine were varied to investigate the engine's emissions, combustion pressure, and combustion rates through combustion software produced by TFX.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
In Europe the next level of emission regulation for motorcycles, Euro IV, is on the verge of introduction, followed by Euro V around 2021. Together with the new emission regulation the ECE R 40 testing cycle will become obsolete and the more realistic WMTC will be introduced. Current catalytic solutions consist of so called three way catalysts (TWC) that are able to reduce the emissions of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons below the regulatory emission limit. These catalysts mostly contain platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) in different relations and concentrations. Another important component is the so-called oxygen storage material (OSC) that is compensating the fluctuations in lambda during acceleration and deceleration. Currently existing catalyst formulations must be modified to fulfil the more stringent emission limits with simultaneous consideration of a more realistic test cycle. In this paper we will present the modification of an existing Euro 3 catalytic formulation for a 690cc motorcycle.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jan Czerwinski, Markus Kurzwart, Andreas Mayer, Pierre Comte
The progressing exhaust gas legislation for on- and off-road vehicles includes gradually the nanoparticle count limits. The invisible nanoparticles penetrate like a gas into the living organisms and cause several health hazards. The present paper shows some results of a modern chain saw with & without oxidation catalyst, with Alkylate fuel and with different lube oils. The measurements focused specially on particulate emissions. Particulates were analysed by means of: gravimetry (PM), granulometry SMPS (PN) and differential analysis of filter residue. In this way the reduction potentials with application of the best material were indicated. It has been shown that the particle mass (PM) and the particle numbers (PN), which both consisting almost exclusively of unburned lube-oil, can attain quite high values, but can be considerably influenced by the lube oil quality and reduced with an oxidation catalyst.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Sayaka Yasoshina, Ryo Saito
With environmental issues such as global warming getting acute, the demand of engine exhaust gas emission reduction is increasing. The purpose of this study is the reduction of exhaust gas emissions for small size generators by using after-treatment device. The requirement of small size generators are portability, so they must be lightweight and compact. After-treatment device should be housed in the compact package. And sometimes generators are used near a house, so CO discharge amount should be a little under the condition of fuel rich mixture for high specific power. To meet these conditions, a catalytic converter with secondary air induction is adopted. Secondary air is used for oxidization of CO. However before this study, sufficient amount of secondary air couldn’t be inducted because of the shortage of minus pressure in exhaust pipe which caused by high-load operating and the shortness of an exhaust pipe. But high-load operating is inevitable in generator and adoption of a long exhaust pipe is impossible to compact casing.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Saager Paliwal, Alex S. Bare, Katherine J. Lawrence, Marc Anderson, Glenn Bower
This study looks at the application of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalytic nanoparticle suspension to the surface of the combustion chamber as well as the addition of hydrogen gas to a 216 cc spark ignited four-stroke, air cooled, carburated gasoline engine as a possible low-cost technique for lowering engine-out emissions. The experiments were conducted on two identical XG4000 Generac gasoline powered generators using two, four and six 500 watt halogen work lamps to load the engine. One generator was used as a control and the second had key components of the combustion chamber coated with the catalytic suspension. In addition to the coating, both engines were fed a hydrogen and oxygen gas mixture created by an external electrolyzer and tested at low, medium and high loads. The electrolyzer created approximately 1 liter/minute of STP gas production from 40.2 amps of current from a 12 VDC power supply. Using an unmodified engine as a control set, the following three conditions were tested and compared; addition of hydrogen only, addition of coating only, and addition of hydrogen to the coated engine.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Manivel R, Ayyappan PR, Yazharasu A
Diesel being the main transport fuel, developing countries like India spends lot of money to import petroleum. And the use of petroleum based fuels increased in the recent years is the main contributor to the urban air pollution. Finding a suitable alternative to diesel is an urgent need. Biofuels are renewable, can supplement petroleum based fuels. Due to pressure on edible oils, non-edible oil of Pongamia Pinnata (karanja) and Jatropa Curcas are evaluated as diesel fuel extender. Pongamia pinnata based bio-diesel (PBD) is receiving increasing attention in India because of its potential to increase the rural employment and relatively low impact on environment. Diesel engines running on PBD are found to emit higher oxides of nitrogen. In this work a single cylinder constant speed (1500 rpm) water cooled four stroke direct injection diesel engine with compression ratio 17 is selected for the experimental investigations to model the performance and emission characteristics fuelled with plain Diesel and Pongamia Biodiesel blends PBD10 (10% Pongamia Biodiesel and 90% Diesel) and PBD20 (20% Pongamia Biodiesel and 80% Diesel) with different cooled EGR rates (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%).
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Naveen Kumar M G, J M Mallikarjuna, B Sadesh
Although there are many vehicles running on road in India with conventional mixer based Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) fueling and vapor LPG injection systems, they are not much beneficial in terms of fuel economy, running cost, maintenance and also emissions. These fueling systems have their own limitations like improper fuel flow control, leakages, difficult to operate at constant throttle openings due to many reasons. Hence it is very much essential to go for the new way of injecting fuels in different form into the intake manifold or combustion chamber to get the maximum benefits of those fuels at different operating conditions of the engine. Hence there is a new method of injecting LPG, is injecting in its liquid form into the intake manifold. Since LPG is pressurized to maintain it in a liquid form, after injecting it into intake manifold at high pressure compared to gasoline injection, it expands to become gas. During expansion it takes heat from the surroundings, it decreases the temperature at the injection sight and also in its surroundings.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Elena Rebesco, Pietro Scorletti, Daniele Terna
The small gasoline engines are widely used as prime movers in the urban areas. For this reason great efforts have been paid to improve their efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions because of the non-uniform mixture preparation and piston wetting. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. In this sense, ethanol is becoming even more attractive for spark ignition fuels as more resistant to knock phenomena due to its higher octane number. Moreover, ethanol is also expected to play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. It was investigated two operating condition representative of the typical EUDC.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Bernardi, Marco Ferrari, Dario Catanese
Many two stroke engines for hand-held applications are equipped with muffler that contain a catalyst in order to reduce exhaust gas emissions. However, one of the main problems, is to mantain the performances of the catalyst over time; this often leads to the adoption of systems with increased culling oversized issues related to weight , dimensions and temperature . One of the major causes of degradation of the catalyst is derived from elements of poison present in the oil mixture. This study showed the results obtained by comparing different types of oils of mixture, through durability tests carried out on an engine of a brush cutter .
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Akiko Tanaka, Ikue Sato
Southeast Asian Nations are large scale markets for motorcycles and the market size is still growing. Moreover, the volume of plastic parts used for those motorcycles is increasing with growing popularity of scooter-type motorcycles. Accordingly, decorative features applied for plastic coverings are increasingly important to enhance the attractiveness of exterior designs of those motorcycles. Under these circumstances, we had adopted the magnetically-formed decorative painting and applied to a mass-production motorcycle model sold in Thailand in 2008. The magnetically-formed decorative painting is the method in which the designed patterns are formed by painting the material that contains flakes movable along with the magnetic lines of force, while applying an auxiliary attachment to the backside of the parts for generating magnetic fields, such as magnetic sheet trimmed to fit the shape of ornamenting designs. The magnetically-formed decorative painting offers three-dimensional appearance even though its actual surface has no protuberances or dents.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Ahmed Hamouda, Ahmed Abdel-Rehim
As the world is going through an evolutionary development in most of the science fields, there was an essential and exceptional demand for higher efficiency power generators to recover the thermal losses. Recently thermoelectric materials have attracted extensive attention for this purpose. The recent advancement in nanotechnology has a remarkable impact on thermoelectric materials development. This resulted in nano structured materials whose thermoelectric properties exhibit a great challenge to its bulk form, such as Silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Silicon nanowires are promising thermoelectric materials as they offer large reductions in thermal conductivity over bulk Si without significant decrease in the electrical conductivity. In the present work silicon nanowires have been implemented in fabricating a thermoelectric device which can be employed in different applications, such as engines, to recover part of the energy lost in these applications. Out of the many methods proposed to produce Nanowires, the most recent one which is the wet chemical etching method has been adopted in the present work.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Mohamed El morsy, Gabriela Achtenova
Through PULSE platform for vibration analysis, which is developed as an advanced solution for vibration measurements was developed the robust diagnostic concept (RDC). The PULSE setup is designed to help in fault diagnosis of vehicle gearbox -the main part of vehicle powertrain-. Time Domain, Continuous Wavelet Transformation Technique (CWT), FFT and Order analysis measurements are used for detection of an artificial pitting defect in gear by tracking the gearbox response at accelerated speed and different load. The test stand is equipped with three dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves as internal combustion engine, the output dynamometers introduce the load on the flanges of output joint shafts. The pitting defect is manufactured on the tooth side of gear of the fifth speed on the intermediate shaft. Temperature effect on the vibration measurements has been also investigated to study its effect on the fault diagnosis. The presented concept has an important application in the field of mechanical fault diagnosis.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefania Falfari, Claudio Forte, Federico Brusiani, Gian Marco Bianchi, Giulio Cazzoli, Cristian Catellani
Faster combustion and lower cycle-to-cycle variability are the two mandatory tasks in the naturally aspirated engines for lowering the emission levels and for increasing the efficiency. Generally speaking the promotion of a stable and coherent tumble structure is largely believed in literature to enhance the in-cylinder turbulence accelerating combustion process. In small PFI engine layout and weight constraints limit the adoption of more advanced concepts. The turbulence generation process is strictly related to the tumble vortex deformation process: during the compression stroke the tumble vortex is deformed, accelerated and its breakdown in smaller eddies leads to the turbulence enhancement process. The prediction of the final level of turbulence for a particular engine operating point is crucial during the engine design process because it represents a practical comparative means for different engine solutions. The tumble ratio parameter value represents a first step toward the evaluation of the turbulence level at ignition time, but it has an intrinsic limit.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Rita Di Gioia, Giovanni Bonandrini
In the next future, improvements of direct injection systems for spark-ignited engines are necessary for the potential reductions in fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions. The admission and spread of the fuel in the combustion chamber is strictly related to the injector design and performances, such as to the fuel and environmental pressure and temperature conditions. In this paper the spray characterization of a GDI injector under normal and flash-boiling injection conditions has been investigated. A customized sensing of the injector nose permitted the temperature control of the nozzle up to 90 °C while a remote-controlled thermostatic device allowed the fuel heating from ambient to 120 °C. An axially-disposed, 0.200 mm in diameter, single-hole injector has been used with l/d ratio equal to 1 and static flow@100 bar: 2.45 g/s, using iso-octane as mono-component fluid. A 1.0 ms duration single pulse strategy has been adopted at the injection pressure of 10 MPa. The spray evolved in a quiescent optically-accessible vessel pressurize at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3 MPa at ambient temperature of the gas (N2).
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Bernard Alsteens PhD
Automotive design is going through one of its most profound changes. Fuel prices and growing environmental concerns have made efficiency the biggest prerogative in vehicle design. Manufacturers of hybrid, electric and conventionally-powered vehicles are experimenting with new designs and materials to decrease weight, or mass, and improve economy. In fact reducing mass is where today’s efficiency battle is being fought. Composite materials can bring significant weight saving in the design. These materials are one of the solutions offered to the designers to achieve new fuel efficiency regulation. New challenge arises in term of design optimization and manufacturing. Shifting from a metal to composite paradigm requires a dedicated tool for composite design in order to take into account the specific composite behavior. Material performance varies widely over the entire part mainly due to the process and the corresponding microstructure. Classical design tools are not able to describe accurately the local composite material behavior, leading to introduction of safety factors and lack of confidence in the design.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 102101