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Viewing 1 to 30 of 109761
2017-04-11
Technical Paper
2017-01-9176
Jitesh Shukla, A Grinspan, Jeyanthi subramanian
Lifting axles are auxiliary axles that provide increased load carrying capacity in heavy commercial vehicles. Lift axles give better fuel efficiency as well as reduced operational costs by means of increasing the load carrying capacity. These axles are raised when the vehicle is in unloaded condition, thus increasing the traction on remaining wheels and reducing the tire wear which in turn reduces the maintenance cost of the vehicle. Lifting height and force required to lift the whole mechanism are two main considerable factors to design the lifting axle mechanism. Current lifting mechanism in India has single tire with continuous axle. To maintain the draft angle of propeller shaft, continuous axle is unable to lift more after certain height and because of single tire, mechanism has less load carrying capacity up to 6T (Tons) and more tire wear found at turning time.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9452
Wenfeng Zhu
Automotive window seals insulate noise and water leakage, allowing door glass to move smoothly and steadily. Being used repeatedly, it is associated with human sensibility and greatly influences NVH performance. Under high speed driving condition, external aerodynamics leads to additional unsteady load. Its effect on ride comfort attracts increasing interest, which was ignored in previous window seal design. A new method for quantifying and transferring the aerodynamics-induced load on window seal design is proposed. Firstly, by SST (Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model, external turbulent flow field of full scale automotive is established by solving three-dimensional, steady and uncompressible Navier-Stokes equation. With re-exploited mapping algorithm, the aerodynamics pressure on overall auto-body is retrieved and transferred to local glass area to be external loads for seals, thus taking into account the aerodynamics effect of high speed fluid-structure interaction.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9451
Marouen Hamdi, Drew Manica, Hung-Jue Sue
Abstract Brightness, transparency, and color impact critically the aesthetics of polymeric surfaces. They can significantly change the perception of common damages such as scratch and mar. Particularly, subtle mar damage is more dependent on surface perceptual properties. In this study, we investigate the impact of these attributes on scratch and mar visibility resistance of commercialized polymeric model systems frequently used in automotive industry. Twenty subjects were involved in a psychophysical test based on pairwise comparison, and results were treated using multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. A tied ordinal weighted Euclidian MDS model was used to visualize the relational structures of mar perception space. Results show that scratch visibility resistance tends to decrease with dark, more transparent, and green surfaces. Mar perception was reasonably conceptualized by a two-dimensional MDS space.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9450
Ali Reza Taherkhani, Carl Gilkeson PhD, Philip Gaskell PhD, Rob Hewson PhD, Vassili Toropov PhD, Amin Rezaienia PhD, Harvey Thompson
Abstract This paper investigates the optimization of the aerodynamic design of a police car, BMW 5-series which is popular police force across the UK. A Bezier curve fitting approach is proposed as a tool to improve the existing design of the warning light cluster in order to reduce drag. A formal optimization technique based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and moving least squares (MLS) is used to determine the control points for the approximated curve to cover the light-bar and streamline the shape of the roof. The results clearly show that improving the aerodynamic design of the roofs will offer an important opportunity for reducing the fuel consumption and emissions for police vehicles. The optimized police car has 30% less drag than the non-optimized counter-part.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9076
Ioannis Karakitsios, Evangelos Karfopoulos, Nikolay Madjarov, Aitor Bustillo, Marc Ponsar, Dionisio Del Pozo, Luca Marengo
Abstract The aim of this paper is to introduce a complete fast dynamic inductive charging infrastructure from the back-office system (EV management system) up to the Electric Vehicle (EV) (inductive power transfer module, positioning mechanism, electric vehicle modifications) and the EV user (User interface). Moreover, in order to assess the impact of the additional demand of inductive charging on the grid operation, an estimation of the 24-hour power profile of dynamic inductive charging is presented considering, apart from the road traffic, the probability of the need for fast charging, as well as the specifications of the proposed solution. In addition, an energy management system is presented enabling the management of the operation of the inductive charging infrastructure, the interaction with the EV users and the provision of demand response services to different stakeholders.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9075
Rami Abousleiman, Osamah Rawashdeh, Romi Boimer
Abstract Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and the unstable fuel prices have increased the sales of electric vehicles. Energy-efficient routing for electric vehicles requires novel algorithmic challenges because traditional routing algorithms are designed for fossil-fueled vehicles. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, alongside the uncertainty make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a solution to the energy-efficient routing problem for electric vehicles using ant colony optimization. Simulation and real-world test results demonstrate savings in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when driven on the generated routes. Real-world test results revealed more than 9% improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when driven on the recommended route rather than the routes proposed by Google Maps and MapQuest.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9625
Souhir Tounsi
Abstract In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9177
N. Obuli Karthikeyan, R. Dinesh Kumar, V. Srinivasa Chandra, Vela Murali
In the modern automotive sector, durability and reliability are the typically pronounced words. Customers are expecting a highly reliable product at low cost. Any product that fails within its useful life tends to lower the customer satisfaction as well as the reputation of the manufacturer. To eradicate this, all automotive components undergo stringent validation protocol in proving ground or lab testing. This project aims at creating an accelerated lab test methodology for steering gearbox bracket by simulating field failure. Potential failure causes were analyzed and road load data acquisition(RLDA) carried out at customer site as well as Proving Ground(PG) to understand the severity of fatigue damage. To simulate the field failure, lab test facility was developed by reproducing similar boundary conditions as in vehicle. Based on cumulative damage analysis, customized lab test sequence was developed and field failure was simulated in the existing design samples.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9175
Yitao Zhu, Makarand Datar, Kalyan Addepalli, Natalie Remisoski
Nowadays, the vehicle design is highly ruled by the increasing customer demands and expectations. In addition to ride comfort and vehicle handling, the Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior of the powertrain is also a critical factor that has a big impact on the customer experience. To evaluate the powertrain NVH characteristics, the NVH error states should be studied. A typical NVH event could be decoupled into 3 parts: source, path, and receiver. Take-off shudder, which evaluates the NVH severity level during vehicle take-off, is one of the most important NVH error states. The main sources of Front Wheel Drive (FWD) take-off shudder are the plunging Constant Velocity Joints (CVJ) on the left and right half shafts. This is because a plunging CVJ generates a third order plunging force with half shaft Revolution Per Minute (RPM), which is along the slip of the plunging CVJ.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9178
Arash E. Risseh, Hans-Peter Nee, Olof Erlandsson, Klas Brinkfeldt, Arnaud Contet, Fabian Frobenius lng, Gerd Gaiser, Ali Saramat, Thomas Skare, Simon Nee, Jan Dellrud
The European Union's 2020 target aims to be producing 20 % of its energy from renewable sources by 2020, to achieve a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 20 % improvement in energy efficiency compared to 1990 levels. To reach these goals, the energy consumption has to decrease which results in reduction of the emissions. The transport sector is the second largest energy consumer in the EU, responsible for 25 % of the emissions of greenhouse gases caused by the low efficiency (<40 %) of combustion engines. Much work has been done to improve that efficiency but there is still a large amount of fuel energy converts to heat and escapes to the ambient atmosphere through the exhaust system. Taking advantage of thermoelectricity, the heat can be recovered, improving the fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1704
D.J. Branagan, A.E. Frerichs, B.E. Meacham, S. Cheng, A.V. Sergueeva
Demand is growing for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in the automotive industry driven by a desire for lightweighting solutions to meet increasingly stringent fuel economy standards. Formability is a critical factor for producing reduced gauge steel parts with the complex geometries required to maintain stiffness. Global formability represents the ability of a sheet material to be deformed under various stress conditions and to be formed into a part without failure. It can be estimated using forming-limit diagrams or ductility measurements from conventional uniaxial tensile tests. However, these tests cannot reliably assess the local formability at the edges or at the internal holes of the blanks during stamping. Numerous correlations have been previously developed to predict local formability such as yield strength to tensile ratio, true strain at fracture, and post uniform elongation but they are often inaccurate – particularly for AHSS grades.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0638
Neerav Abani, Nishit Nagar, Rodrigo Zermeno, Michael chiang, Isaac Thomas
Heavy-duty vehicles, currently the second largest source of fuel consumption and carbon emissions are projected to be fastest growing mode in transportation sector in future. There is a clear need to increase fuel efficiency and lower emissions for these engines. The Achates Power Opposed-Piston Engine has the potential to address this growing need. In this paper, results will be presented for a 9.8L three-cylinder OP Engine that shows the potential of achieving 51%+ brake thermal efficiency (BTE), while simultaneously satisfying 4.0 g/kWhr engine out NOx and 0.01 g/kWhr engine-out soot. The OP Engine architecture can meet this performance without the use of additional technologies such as thermal barrier coatings, waste heat recovery or additional turbo-compounding.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0789
Tobias Johansson, Ola Stenlaas
Typically the combustion in an internal combustion engine is open-loop controlled. The introduction of a cylinder pressure sensor opens the possibility to introduce a virtual combustion sensor. This virtual sensor is a possible enabler for closed-loop combustion control and thus the possibility to counteract effects as engine part to part variation, component ageing and fuel quality diversity. The extent to which these effects can be counteracted is determined by the detection limits of the virtual combustion sensor. To determine the limitation of the virtual combustion sensor a virtual combustion sensor system was implemented based on a one-zone heat-release analysis, including signal processing of the pressure sensor input. Typical error sources in a heavy-duty engine were identified and quantified. The virtual combustion sensor system was presented with flawed signals and the sensors sensitivities to the errors were quantified.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0710
Yilong Zhang, Renlin Zhang, Lingzhe Rao, Sanghoon Kook
Soot particles emitted from modern diesel engines, despite significantly lower total mass, show higher reactivity and toxicity than black-smoking old engines, which cause serious health and environmental issues. Soot nanostructure, i.e. the internal structure of soot particles composed of nanoscale carbon fringes, can provide useful information to the investigation of the particle reactivity and its oxidation status. This study presents the nanostructure details of soot particles sampled directly from diesel flames in a working diesel engine as well as from exhaust gases to compare the internal structure of soot particles in the high formation stage and after in-cylinder oxidation. Thermophoretic soot sampling was conducted using an in-house-designed probe with a lacy transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid stored at the tip.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0657
Lewis Gene Clark, Sanghoon Kook, Qing Nian Chan, Evatt R. Hawkes
This study investigates the effect of injection timing on the high-load combustion performance of a split-injection strategy in a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. Performance parameters derived from in-cylinder pressure data are analysed alongside high-speed natural flame luminosity images in order to obtain relationships between engine output and flame propagation behaviour. Trends in parameters such as indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and total heat release are found to be multimodal; as early injections aid the mixture formation process whereas late injections may lead to an increase in turbulence intensity at the point of ignition. Analysis of the high-speed images provides a further explanation of the observed results through investigating flame propagation speed and global eccentricity (i.e. non-circularity).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0210
Ahmed Imtiaz Uddin, Abd El-Rahman Ali Hekal, Dipan P. Arora, Alaa El-Sharkawy, Sadek S. Rahman
With the increase in demand of fuel efficient transportation system, various efforts have been made to collect waste energies to reduce the fuel consumption and emissions in the automobiles. Currently, in a typical internal combustion engine, approximately one third of the fossil fuel combustion by-product is wasted heat. By collecting the heat emitted through the exhaust systems using heat exchanger concept can be used to increase the passenger heating and comfort during cold ambient conditions as well as reduction of exhaust system surface temperatures. Lower exhaust surface temperature improves the durability of various under-hood and underbody components near the exhaust pipe. In this paper, the effects of integrating a gas/coolant heat exchanger close to the engine catalytic converter on reduction of the exhaust surface temperature for various real-world dynamic driving conditions are presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0215
Mohammad Nahid, Amin Sharfuzzaman, Joydip Saha, Harry Chen, Sadek S. Rahman
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the waste heat and improve driveline efficiency. The final drive unit in light and heavy duty trucks usually consists of geared transmission and differential housed in a lubricated axle. The automotive rear axles is one of the major sources of power loss in the driveline due to gear friction, churning and bearing loss and have a significant effect on overall vehicle fuel economy. These losses vary significantly with the viscosity of the lubricant. Also the temperatures of the lubricant are critical to the overall axle performance in terms of power losses, fatigue life and wear.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0213
Rezwanur Rahman, Sadek S. Rahman
The demand for Hybrid Electrified Vehicles (HEVs) is increasing due to government regulations on fuel economy. The battery systems in a PHEV have achieved tremendous efficiency over past few years. The system has become more delicate and complex in architecture which requires sophisticated thermal management. Primary reason behind this is to ensure effective cooling of the cells. Hence the current work has emphasized on developing a “Physics based” thermal management modeling framework for a typical battery system. In this work the thermal energy conservation has been analyzed thoroughly in order to develop necessary governing equations for the system. Since cooling is merely a complex process in HEV battery systems, the underlying mechanics has been investigated using the current model. The framework was kept generic so that it can be applied with various architectures. In this paper the process has been standardized in this context.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0276
Lev Klyatis
This paper considers the situation in the laboratory testing: different stress types and accelerated testing, including accelerated reliability/durability testing, accelerated life testing, reliability testing, proving grounds, vibration, temperature, voltage, humidity, and others. In comparison with field situation, most of these testing simulate only one or part of the field input influences. One uses often not accurately the theory of physics-of-degradation process or failures for comparison of the field results with laboratory results. Thos situation will be considered with practical examples. It will be demonstrated that often used laboratory testing does not offer the possibility for successful prediction of product performance during service life As a result, there are many complaints, recalls, less profit than was predicted during design and manufacturing. It will be shown how one can improve this situation..
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0629
John Kuo, George Garfinkel
Detailed thermal modeling of liquid-cooled vehicle traction battery assemblies using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis techniques usually involves large models to accurately resolve small cooling channel details. For large battery packs, some of these meshes may exceed current computational capabilities or result in long and expensive computational efforts. Moreover, only steady-state thermal predictions are usually performed, as drive-cycle transient simulations become impractical due to the exceedingly long solving times. To tackle this problem, an innovative segregated method has been developed for thermal analysis of liquid-cooled traction batteries, where battery cells and their active cooling system are divided into three parts: the cell, the cold plate and the interface between them.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0201
Tejas Janardan Sarang, Amar Phatak, Jay Bendkhale
Due to rapidly changing trends in the market, automotive manufacturers are always struggling to release new vehicles with drastically reduced timelines. Therefore, it is very important to constantly optimize the development phases, starting from concept initiation to the final testing of production ready vehicle. The real world tests conducted on vehicles take huge amount of time, since these tests are carried out for large kilometers to periodically analyze tire wear, clutch wear, brake failure etc. Collecting large kilometers of CAN data is also tedious and time consuming due to various unwanted variables which add up during real world tests. In this paper, a technique known as Rescale Range Analysis is adapted to abridge the collection of kilometers data from testing by nearly ten times. This analysis estimates a Hurst coefficient to correlate the entire data with its divided parts. The division factor of the entire data is very crucial for the analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0027
Li Xu, Eric Tseng, Thomas Pilutti, Steven Schondorf
Reversing a vehicle while towing a trailer can be challenging for many drivers, particularly for those who only tow on an occasionally basis. Systems used to assist a driver with backing a trailer typically estimate the heading angle of the trailer relative to that of the vehicle, i.e., the hitch angle. In the current Ford Trailer Backup Assist (TBA) system, the hitch angle is determined utilizing the existing reverse camera with added software in the image processing module. One potential issue for the vision-based hitch angle estimation approach is that environment factors may limit the system usage, since either the camera lenses or the target may be blocked or partially blocked. Furthermore, it is very difficult to apply the vision-based approach to gooseneck or fifth wheel trailers. In this paper, a yaw rate based hitch angle observer is proposed as an alternative sensing solution for TBA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0301
Lu Huang, Ming Shi
Forming limit curve (FLC) is a useful tool to characterize the formability of sheet metals. It can be used as a failure criterion in a laboratory setting or computer simulation for forming/stamping studies and in actual production in a press shop to assess the formability severity. Digital image correlation (DIC) technique has been proved as a potent tool to determine the FLC of sheet metals. Despite of its rising popularity, one of the major technical challenges using the DIC to generate FLC is to accurately pinpoint the onset of localized necking based on DIC data analysis. In addition to the commonly applied ISO 12004-2 standard, a plethora of DIC data analysis approaches have been developed. In this study, five different approaches have been practiced to determine the limit strains at the onset of localized necking, including: ISO12004-2 standard, second derivative, gliding correlation coefficient, linear best fit, and curvature assisted necking zone methods.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0305
Liang Huang, Charles Yuan
This paper focus on the design approach of mapping the equivalent bead to the physical bead geometry. In principle, the physical character and geometry of equivalent bead is represented as restraining force (N/mm) and a line (bead center line). During draw development, the iterations are performed to conclude the combination of restraining force that obtains the desired strain state of a given panel. The objective of physical bead design to determine a bead geometry that has the capacity to generate the same force as specified in 2D plane strain condition. The software package ABAQUS/CAE/iSight is utilized as primary tool. In the approach, the bead geometry is sketched and parameterized in ABAQUS/CAE and optimized with iSight to finalize the bead geometry. This paper also discuss the special consideration of lock bead design.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0311
Pedro Stemler, Anoop Samant, Dennis Hofmann, Taylan Altan
The capabilities of the servo press for varying the ram speed during stroke and for adjusting the stroke length are well known. Also during the blanking operation, the servo can help to slow down the press at the critical moment of blanking without losing overall productivity. The overall objective of this study is to determine, for a selected sheet material and hole diameter, the servo press motion that possibly could provide the “Best” possible blanked/sheared edge quality to improve the Hole Expansion Ratio (HER) in hole flanging. The specific objectives are to determine the effect of ram (blanking) speed upon the edge quality, and the effect of multiple step blanking (as much as possible with the servo press available) using several punch motions, during one blanking stroke. The material used in these studies was 1.4 mm thick 780 MPa TRIP steel and the blanked hole had a diameter of 75 mm.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1358
Hyunbin Park
We present a novel rear-view side mirror constructed with an external lens and a planar mirror to improve both aerodynamics as well as blind spot of vehicles. We have designed the exterior lens with a free-form optical design technique to display the undistorted image on the planar mirror. The manufactured prototype of the mirror has the maximum protrusion length of 7.0 cm from the vehicle body with the field of view angle of 40 degrees for a passenger’s side, and of 15 degrees for a driver’s side, respectively. The proposed side mirror provides an alternative solution to replace conventional side mirrors in compliance with the FMVSS regulation of the rear-view side mirror of vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0829
Gina M. Magnotti, Caroline L. Genzale
The atomization and initial spray formation processes in direct injection engines are not well understood due to the experimental and computational challenges associated with resolving these processes. Although different physical mechanisms, such as aerodynamic-induced instabilities and nozzle-generated turbulence and cavitation, have been proposed in the literature to describe these processes, direct validation of the theoretical basis of these models under engine-relevant conditions has not been possible to date. Recent developments in droplet sizing measurement techniques offer a new opportunity to evaluate droplet size distributions formed in the central and peripheral regions of the spray. There is therefore a need to understand how these measurements might be utilized to validate unobservable physics in the near nozzle-region.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1668
Amin Emrani, Steve Spadoni
In this paper, Smart Step-Down Convertor is introduced as a power supply to power a device which operates at a voltage below the power net voltage while protecting the power net and the device against faults as well. In the proposed architecture, each Smart Step-Down Converter is connected to the battery or the power source with the nominal voltage (e.g. 48V) and it provides a programmable output voltage that can be set to the rated voltage of the electric load coupled to it. The rated voltage of electric loads can be equal or lower than the nominal voltage. The proposed system with Smart Step-Down Converters has several advantages compared to other multi-voltage system architectures. First, the 12V battery and 12V power distribution box are eliminated, resulting in not only material savings but also solving some packaging challenges.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1665
Qigui Wang, Peggy Jones, Yucong Wang, Dale Gerard
With the increasing use of aluminum shape castings in structural applications in the automotive and aerospace industries, assurance of cast product integrity and performance has become critical in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, the latest understanding of the relationship between casting quality and mechanical properties of aluminum castings is summarized. Newly developed technologies for alloy design, melting and melt treatment, casting and heat treatment processes in aluminum casting are reviewed. Robust design and development of high integrity aluminum castings through Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) approach is also discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1274
Jason M. Luk, Hyung Chul Kim, Robert De Kleine, Timothy J. Wallington, Heather L. MacLean
This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 109761