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Viewing 1 to 30 of 108026
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0326
Michael Wohlthan, Gerhard Pirker, Igor Sauperl, Andreas Wimmer, Wolfram Rossegger, Norbert Buch
Experimental investigations on an engine test bed represent a significant cost in engine development. To reduce development time on the test bed and related costs, it is necessary to check the quality of measurements automatically whenever possible directly on the test bed to allow early detection of errors. An error diagnosis system should provide information about the presence, cause and magnitude of an error. The main challenge in developing such a system is to detect the error quickly and reliably, yet only errors that have actually occurred should be detected. Thus, a major attribute towards the user acceptance is an explicit predominance of correct findings. Only then the user will maintain a positive attitude towards this tool and sense a clear advantage and support. Investigations on a test bed have shown that the best results can be obtained with a combination of physical methods and statistical methods for error recognition.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0339
Jagankumar Mari, Egalaivan Srinivasan
In heavy commercial vehicle segment in India, driver comfort and feel was largely ignored for long time. With the fierce competition in the recent years and buyer's market trend, has led the designers of heavy truck to focus more on the finer aspects of Attribute refinements. This paper discusses the outcome of steering comfort and feel development in a 12 Ton Truck Steering comfort and feel is defined by parameters like steering effort, manoeuvrability, on-centre feel & response, cornering feel & response, Torque dead band, return ability etc. and is influenced by a long list of components and systems in the truck. The components include Steering gear, linkage geometry, axle geometry, tire etc. This study focuses on the influences of jacking torque and king in friction on the on-centre performance.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0352
Karthik Shanmugam
This paper discusses the novel communication network and components that describe modular wireless vehicle sensor network architecture with focus on security, reliability, openness and usability. In the past decade the cars have evolved from mechanical devices into very complex electro-mechanical systems. Modern cars has plethora of sensors and actuators often connected to the nearest ECU over point to point connections. Making these sensors and actuators wireless greatly simplifies the vehicle network architecture and takes the load off the traditional CAN bus. The proposed architecture uses IPv6 Over Low Power Networks (6LoWPAN) and MQ Telemetry Transport (MQTT) as the building blocks to define the modular in-vehicle wireless sensor network. The 6LoWPAN is the protocol layer for the low power sensor networks defined in RFC4944 by IETF.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0274
Kaarthic Kaundabalaraman
Proper suitability of Bolt preload is a pre-requisite whenever we go for component design change. In this paper we have considered Connecting rod bolt for our analysis, where the design pre-requisite was whether same tightening specification could be carried forward from Normal to Fracture split type. The work focuses on comparison of bolt design parameters, Inertia force, Contact pressure & bearing pressure calculation. RFF factor was used as a parameter to check for the suitability with respect to Engine max permissible speed. A systematic approach, considering guidelines from VDI Standard was used for carrying out related analysis. For improving the quality of judgment, FEA tools along with durability testing was carried out at ARAI. Since the conclusion results were in correlation with the theoretical, in-house software was developed using these equations in the form of Excel macros.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0265
Anoop Chawla, Sukhraj Singh, Sachiv Paruchuri, Aditya Chhabra
The generation of anatomically correct postures of finite element based Human Body Models (HBM) is indispensable for injury prediction in passive safety analysis. HBMs are often underutilized in industrial R&D since these are typically available only in one posture and do not represent the variability in the human postures in an actual vehicle environment. The work presented in the paper is part of a number of tools being developed for this purpose under a European Union project - Piper. It uses a computer graphic based method for positioning an HBM in the desired posture. In the past the technique has been used for repositioning the knee and pelvic joints of the HBM. The technique has been extended to other joints of the HBM. It ensures that the result is anatomically correct while maintaining its mesh quality. Further, the method needs minimal subjective intervention. In the method, a set of contours are first defined on the given model surface.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0355
Lokesh Soni
With the increase in number of vehicles and amount of traffic, safety has come out to be a big concern in vehicle’s dynamic stability. There are certain system’s limits beyond which if vehicle is pushed it may become unstable. One of the major areas of research in vehicle dynamics control has been Yaw-rate Control of vehicle. With this situations like vehicle spinning, oversteer, understeer etc. can be addressed. The challenge for the next generations of vehicle control is the integration of the available actuators into a unique holistic control concept. This paper presents the driver reference generator developed for the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control concept. The driver reference generator processes the driver inputs to determine the target vehicle behaviour. The generation of reference behaviour is a key factor for the integrated control design. The driver reference generation is validated on the XUV5OO vehicle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0348
Renny Mathew
On board diagnosis of pre-supply fuel pump control Module with MOSFET’s “Rds_on” as diagnosis element Renny Mathew Senior Hardware Engineer Robert Bosch Engineering and Business Solution ABSTRACT In automotive, on-board diagnosis does the self-diagnosis and the fault reporting. It provides the required level of robustness to the control electronics. The amount of diagnostic information available via OBD as always varied widely depends on the category of vehicle and its usage. Pre supply fuel pump comes with the common rail system it pumps the fuel from fuel tank to the high pressure pump inlet. This paper discuss about the on board diagnosis provided in a pump driver module which has two power transistors used as switching elements for motor control and “Rds_on” of these transistors as the fault diagnosis element. It operates in dual frequency and variable duty cycles, and provide maximum possible diagnostic coverage in all operating modes.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0358
Jonathan Neudorfer, Siva Sankar Armugham, Mathews Peter, Naresh Mandipalli, Karthikeyan Ramachandran, Christian Bertsch, Isidro Corral
As automobiles become increasingly smarter, the need to understand within the automotive software the physical behavior of its parts is growing as well. The laws of physics governing such behavior are mostly formulated as differential equations, which today are usually obtained from various modeling tools. For the solution of such equations, the tools offer several solvers to satisfy the requirements of different problems. E.g. simple and fast explicit low order solvers for non-stiff problems and more complex implicit solvers for stiff problems. Though the modeling and code generation features as available in such tools are desirable for embedded automotive software, they cannot be used directly due to special restrictions with respect to hard realtime constraints. One such restriction is the organization of automotive software in components complying with the AUTOSAR standard which is not widely supported by the modeling tools.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0315
Jyoti Kale, Satish Kumar, Pravin Lavangare, Anand Subramaniam
The Steering system is one of the most safety critical systems in an automobile. With time the durability, reliability, and the fine-tuning of the parameters involved in this subsystem have increased along with the competitiveness of the market. In a competitive market, accelerated testing is the key to shorter development cycles. It is observed that the majority of component manufacturers have a preference on vehicle level testing to achieve their development goals. The vehicle level trials are time consuming and lack the control and repeat ability of a lab environment. This paper describes the development of a steering test rig designed to simulate the disturbances experienced on road within a controlled laboratory environment. The five axis steering rig, would allow simulation of individual road wheel displacement along with steering wheel angle input, and lateral steering rack displacements. The rig also is designed to be adaptable to a range of vehicle categories.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0340
Sarang Bire, Prashant R Pawar, M Saraf
Air suspension systems been used specially in buses and trucks since the 1950s. Now a days these systems are used as a standard fitment and widely used to improve the ride comfort, handling stability and also serves as a medium for better cargo protection, with its feasibility of adjusting height and spring pressure according to the driving conditions and loading scenario as per driver's intent. These system are very well developed for Trucks and buses and have feasibility for adapting for wide range of configuration of suspension system and axle. At same time development of air suspension system for different category of vehicle other than this such as SUV or pickup trucks is not accelerated to extent expected. This work describe realistic approach for development of air suspension for pickup category of vehicle which takes into consideration integrated approach of on road testing and virtual MBD tools.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0081
Karthikeyan Nagarajan
In autonomous car development, a realistic driver model is needed to simulate driver behavior of system vehicle and also other vehicles in the traffic simulation environment. The important constraint in developing such models is that the simulation should run in real time reducing computational overheads. In this paper, the proposed driver model comprises of (1) Self-Learning Model Reference Fuzzy longitudinal and lateral controller is designed to develop a basic path following model. This model can adapt to any vehicle parameter variations and also simulated road conditions. The basic driving action is governed by set of fuzzy rules. The driver adapting capabilities to different vehicles or environmental changes are realized using simple self-learning algorithm. This algorithm evaluates the current driver controller performance against closed loop desired reference model and alters the scaling factors of fuzzy variables.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0086
Sanjai Sureshkumar, Subhashree Rajagopal, Anand Subramaniam, Ganesh Nagarajan, Karthik Nagarajan
Abstract With Increasing environmental concerns and high fuel prices, the automotive industry is shifting its focus to electric vehicles (EVs). Electric motor being the heart of an electric vehicle, faces a major design challenge to have optimum performance and structural strength at an affordable cost. Synchronous reluctance motor offers higher power density at low cost since the rotor is free from permanent magnets or field excitation. However, torque fluctuations at low speed is a major concern. This is amended by altering the width of the barriers to improve the saliency ratio which aids in better electromagnetic performance. But, on contrary, the barrier width adjustment has an impact on structural integrity of the motor, eventually affecting the electromagnetic performance. Hence, a tradeoff between the performance and structural strength is necessary to make it more practical for the application.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0219
S Nataraja Moorthy, Manchi Rao, Prasath Raghavendran
Globally the customers are demanding more powerful yet silent vehicles to enhance their daily commuting and goods transportation needs. The current trend in the design is to enhance the engine power without major change in the physical configurations of the engine systems. Increasing the power and torque of the powertrain will have an undesirable and adverse effect on NVH levels. In this research work, a light weight rear wheel drive vehicle was investigated from torsional vibration perspective. The vehicle is powered by a two cylinder engine with turbo charger. The power and torque of the vehicle was increased approximately two times with the help of turbocharger which resulted in increasing the powertrain torsional vibration. This increased vibration was further amplified through inevitable driveline resonances which causes severe vibration at the passenger seat location and steering. Also, the noise levels are above the comfortable zone.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0264
Prashant Pawar, Alen Jose, Hitesh B Chaudhari, Simhachalam Juttu, Nagesh Harishchandra Walke, Neelkanth V Marathe
Virtual modelling of engine and predicting the performance and emissions is now becoming an essential step in engine development for off-road application due to the flexibility in adjusting the combustion parameters and shorter development times. This paper presents an approach where the test bed calibration time is reduced using virtual techniques, such as 1D thermodynamic simulation and 3D CFD combustion simulation for 4 cylinders TCIC engine complying with Stage IIIA emission norms. 1D thermodynamic simulation has played an important role in the early stage development of an engine for selection of engine sub systems like turbocharger, manifolds, EGR system, valve timings etc. The application of 1D Simulation tool for combustion system development and emission predictions, focusing on NOx for off road multi-cylinder Mechanical injection diesel engine is discussed.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0309
Sathish Kumar Prasad, J Prakaash, P Dayalan
Automotive vehicles are subjected to a variety of loads caused by road undulations. The load history data measured from the roads are one of the vital input parameters for physical test as well as virtual durability simulation of vehicles. In general, the automotive vehicles are instrumented and subjected to a variety of driving conditions in diverse roads to obtain representative road load time histories. Acquired road load time history signals from various roads are exhaustive and repetitive in terms of both time length and data size. This results in more computation and virtual simulation processing. Hence it is imperative to reduce the input time signals without compromising on the representation of the actual operating conditions. Signal reduction of measured road load histories for virtual simulation assumes greater significance for durability prediction.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0312
Sagar Polisetti, Ganeshan Reddy
Twist beam is a type of suspension system which is based on an H or C shaped member typically used as a rear suspension system in small and medium sized cars. The front of the H member is connected to the body through rubber bushings and the rear portion carries the stub axle assembly. Suspension systems are usually subjected to multi axial loads in service viz. vertical, longitudinal and lateral in the descending order of magnitude. Lab tests primarily include the roll durability of the twist beam wherein both the trailing arms are in out of phase and a longitudinal load test. Other tests involve testing the twist beam at the vehicle level either in multi-channel road simulators or driving the vehicle on the test tracks. This is highly time consuming and requires a full vehicle and longer product development time. Limited information is available in the fatigue life comparison of multi-axial loading vs pure roll or longitudinal load tests.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0313
Manoj Kumar Rajendran, Srinivasa Chandra V, Manikandan Rajaraman, Dinesh Kumar Rajappan, Agathaman Selvaraj
In today competitive world, gaining customer delight is the most vital part of an automotive business. Customers' expectations are high which need to be satisfied limitless, to stay in the business. The major expectation of a commercial vehicle customer is a vehicle without failures which involves lower spares cost and downtime. The significance of a suspension system in the new age automobiles is getting advanced. There have been many improvements in the suspension system especially in leaf springs to provide a better ride comfort, and one such modern era implementation is the Parabolic Spring which comprises of fewer leaves with varying thickness from the center to the ends without inter-leaf friction. Study reveals that parabolic spring exhibits better ride comfort, but less life compared to a conventional leaf spring which leads to the increase in downtime of the vehicle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0319
Manikandan Rajaraman, Srinivasa Chandra V, C Karthikeyan
A full-bodied validation of automotive system emphasis on a comprehensive coverage of failure modes of component on one hand and evaluation with full system for the intended function of single component on the other has for long been cumbersome to most commercial vehicle manufacturers. This paper focuses on optimizing the test method in rig testing to relieve the complexity in the structural validation as whole system level. The methodology proposed by authors focuses on accelerating the vibration testing of component by compressing the validation timelines by using CSCPV (Combined Systematic Calculated and Pre Validation) method. This method selects the components of the system for validation by VFTM (Vital Few and Trivial Many) approach from existing testing database failure data and selects the worst predominant failure cases. This CSCPV method uses systematically calculated representing mass from analysis to validate the intended component alone instead of entire system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0306
Nandesh Hubballimath
Battery Box is the housing unit for the Batteries in an automobile. The primary functions are to hold batteries in position and to assist periodic Battery servicing. This unit contributes to vehicle curb weight considerably- it weighs in the range of 80-100 Kg for Heavy Duty commercial vehicles. Typically, battery box is rarely designed with regards to weight, cost, and inherent fool-proofing measures during serviceability. This study provides a methodology adopted to design the Battery Box and its fixation with respect to Vehicle Dynamics and loading conditions. Brief discussions emphasizing design Root Cause Analysis for Field Failure in the Battery Box, selection and optimization of counter measures are enunciated in this paper.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0292
Irshad Mahammad, Vinay Nagaraj, Saurabh Prabhakar
Most of the vehicle’s kinetic energy during braking is absorbed into the brake system in the form of heat energy, which leads to increase in rotor temperature. Multiple braking of the vehicle during running condition on the road can elevate the temperature of the brake rotor to a very high level. Very high brake rotor temperature can lead to thermal judder, cracks, brake fade, wear and reduce the effectiveness of braking of vehicle. Combined CFD and CAE simulation approach could be employed at the early design stage of the vehicle development to evaluate the thermal failures. Improving the cooling flow is one of the key factors to avoid thermal failures in brake system. Cooling of a brake rotor has been evaluated and characterized with a simple lumped capacitance rotor model following with a cooling coefficient of the heat transfer to the surrounding air by convection.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0293
Sachin lambate, Kedar Shrikant Joshi, Gautam Diwan, Pratap Daphal
Steering column and steering wheel are critical safety components in vehicle interior environment. Steering system is designed to absorb occupant impact energy in the event of crash and reduce the risk of injury to the occupant. This is more critical for non-airbag vehicle versions. To evaluate the steering system performance, Body block impact test is defined in IS11939 and ECE-R12. Nowadays for product development, CAE is being extensively used to reduce development cycle time and minimize prototypes. In order to design the steering system to meet the Body Block performance requirements, a detailed FE model of Body Block impactor is required. The reference data available in SAE J244a is not sufficient to develop a Body Block model that would represent the physical impactor. This paper explains the work done to develop a CAE model from the physical impactor. This includes defining the shape, static and dynamic stiffness and validation with test data.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0369
R Muthuraj, Sundararajan Thiyagarajan, E Vignesh, C Kannan, Deepa Praphu
Overheating in commercial vehicles, even though if it’s in LCV segment, is a problem of high significance. There could be various level of problems that may arise due to heat generation resulting from braking (oversized brake drums left the wheels with lesser packaging clearances for air flow and cooling) and some of them are: 1. Early tire wear /reduction in tire life, 2. Air valve heat damage /air leak issues, 3. Frequent puncture problems, 4. Failure of other mating components and other heat initiated failures. However optimum the vent hole shape in a wheel may be, the air flow in the vicinity of drum periphery and wheel rim ID wouldn’t be sufficient enough because of the lesser clearance and packaging space as mentioned earlier. The basic construction of a wheel with disc welded to rim base ID was apparently modified to integrate the disc and gutter and weld it to rim OD.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0351
Ameya Gambhir, Dhananjay Yadav, Ganesh Pawar
Evolution in Radio Frequency (RF) semiconductor technology has led to highly power efficient devices. A typical automobile keyfob for remote lock-unlock operations operates on 3V lithium coin cell battery having 200 mAh capacity and can last upto 75,000 key press events or two to three years. The typical transmission currents are less than 10 mA while sleep currents are less than 0.1 uA. As the lithium coin cell batteries are not rechargeable, they need to be replaced and safely disposed. Improper disposal of lithium batteries impose risk to the environment as lithium is highly poisonous and reactive. This paper proposes to replace the coin cell battery with a RF energy harvesting circuit involving voltage multiplier circuit consisting of zero bias schottky detector diodes and a hybrid energy storage capacitor. The authors have conducted experiments as well as simulation to evaluate the feasibility of the RF energy harvester replacing conventional coin cell battery.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0349
Rushil Batra, Sahil Nanda, Shubham Singhal, Ranganath Singari
This study is an attempt to develop a decision support and control structure based on fuzzy logic for deployment of automotive airbags. Airbags, though an additional safety feature in vehicles, have proven to be fatal in various instances. Most of these casualties could have been avoided by using seat belts in the intended manner that is, as a primary restraint system. Fatalities can be prevented by induction of smart systems which can sense the presence and differentiate between passengers and conditions prevailing at a particular instant. Fuzzy based decision making has found widespread use due to its ability to accept non-binary or grey data and compute a reliable output. Smart airbags also allow the Airbag Control Unit to control inflation speed depending on instantaneous conditions.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0344
Kartheek Nedunuri, Vivekanand Patnaik, Santosh Lalasure, K. Rajakumar, Rajiv Modi
A 4 wheeled vehicle with X-split brake configuration, in hydraulic circuit failed condition will have a behavior of induced sway due to braking force variation in the front and rear. This paper proposes a novel approach & methodology to predict the effect of brake force distribution variation on the vehicle swaying behavior during circuit failed braking condition. This Study will quantify vehicle sway, caused due to imbalance in brake force distribution during a circuit failed braking event on X Split configuration vehicles. It briefly discusses on a case study about most feasible solution to reduce the vehicle sway by altering the brake force distribution in circuit failed condition alone, without having any change in brake force distribution during service brake condition. It also provides a positive correlation & confirmation through actual vehicle testing.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0327
Onkar Deshpande, Shrikant Rangire
Increase in customer awareness for better vehicle noise together with strict pass-by noise limits have compelled the automotive industry to improve the overall vehicle noise performance. Out of various contributors to the overall vehicle noise, tail pipe noise is the major contributor. There is a need of efficient tail pipe noise measurement process for tuning the exhaust system. Modified methodology was proposed as conventional methodologies have limitations considering Indian scenario. In modified methodology tail pipe noise is measured during pass by noise test. This paper describes the comparative study of both methodologies with measurement results. Advantages and disadvantages of both measurement methodologies are also discussed.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0338
Harish Sonawane, Gaurav Paliwal, Swejal Jain, Umashanker Gupta
Tractor-semitrailers make up large proportion of heavy commercial vehicles, handling stability of tractor-semitrailers is critical to driving safety. Handling behavior of Tractor-semitrailers is complex and depends on various parameters. This paper presents a mathematical approach & multi body dynamics(MBD) simulation based study to gain an insight as to, how changes to different parameters of the articulated vehicle affect it's handling behavior and thus to obtain an optimized design in terms of vehicle handling. A Full vehicle multi body dynamic model is created and steady state cornering maneuvers are performed on simulation tool MSC ADAMS/View for calculating understeer gradient using constant radius test method. Various parameters affecting understeer gradient are identified, studied and their relative effect on understeer gradient is measured. These critical parameters were then optimized using MSC ADAMS/View tool to achieve the desired handling targets.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0322
Saktheeswaran Kasinathan, Sreenivasa Gupta, Husain Agha, Rajiv Modi
In any industry, early detection and mitigation of a failure in component is vital for feasible design changes or development iterations or saving money. So it becomes pivotal to capture the failure mode in an accelerated way. This theory poses many challenges in devising the methodology to validate the failure mode. In real world, vehicle head lamp is exposed to all possible kinds of harsh environments such as variable daily ambient, rain, dust and engine compartment temperature ...etc. This brings rapid thermal stress onto headlamp resulting into warpage cracks. On vehicle, this failure is typically observed after 20-25k kms in a span of 3-4 months of running. Any corrective action to re-validate the design change or improvement will need similar timelines in regular way to test, which is quite high in product development cycle. In this paper, we emphasize on accelerated test cycle to generate the failure mode within 12-15days on vehicle level test and 4-5 days on bench level test.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0320
Pravin Lavangare, Ashutosh Jahagirdar, Parag Mengaji, Manish Karle, Anand Deshpande, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Ashok Kulkarni, Sreekumar Uthaman, Amol Dere
Automotive clutches form the most important component in the drive line which acts both as torque transmitter and as a fuse. Testing clutches, in the vehicle assembly, poses certain limitations. In this context the automotive clutch, as a component, needs to be evaluated to determine various performance parameters like wear, load loss, slipping torque, slipping time etc. to meet desired design, performance and durability requirements. It is very important to simulate engine and vehicle conditions in terms of operating environment, speed and load accurately while evaluating above parameters. This creates lot of challenges to design and develop a test rig capable of evaluating complete clutch performance. Very limited options are available for such test rigs worldwide. In India, no manufacturer provides such indigenous test rigs. Developing an indigenous, cost effective clutch test rig was the need of the hour.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0237
Bhupesh Agrawal, Mohit Varma, Chandrashekhar Sewatkar
High temperatures in the surface mounted permanent magnet (SMPM) synchronous motor adversely affect the power output at the motor shaft. Temperature rise may lead to winding insulation failure, permanent demagnetization of magnets and encoder electronics failure. Prediction and management of temperatures at different locations in the motor should be done right at the design stage to avoid such failures in the motor. The present work is focused on the creation of Lumped Parameter Thermal Network (LPTN) and CFD models of SMPM synchronous motor to predict the temperature distribution in the motor parts. LPTN models were created in Motor-CAD and Simulink which are suitable for parameter sensitivity analysis and getting quick results. Air is assumed to be a cooling medium to extract heat from the outer surface of motor. CFD models were useful in providing elaborate temperature distribution and also locating the hot-spots. Correlation models by both the methods, viz.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 108026