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2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0003
Chunming Hu, Liu Na MD
In order to analyze the abnormal combustion phenomenon occurred in combustion chamber of the GDI engine, a new method on the integral of heat release rate (IHRR) was proposed in this paper to indicate the energy changing process at knock in the engine cylinder. The energy, which contained most of the band-pass filtered heat released by end gas auto-ignition, in some certain frequency bands at knock was higher than normal combustion and can be used to indicate knock intensity (KI). The testing on a single-cylinder low pressure air-assistant GDI engine was carried out to analyze the linear correlation between IHHR and the Maximum Amplitude Pressure Oscillation (MAPO), and the knock combustion analysis and control based on IHHR were conducted at same time in this paper. Testing data showed that IHRR and MAPO were good linear correlation, which can be convenient and more accurate to investigate the knock process of the GDI engine.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0007
Kento Shimizu, Shuhei Takahata, Kenta Miura, Hideo Shoji, Akira Iijima, Toshimasa Utaka, Kazushi Tamura
Abnormal combustion experiments were conducted in which engine oil additives were mixed into the test fuel in order to investigate their influence on the occurrence of abnormal combustion. A four-stroke side-valve engine that allowed in-cylinder visualization of the combustion flame and light absorption measurements were used in the experiments. Different type of calcium-based engine oil additives were mixed into the primary reference fuel (PRF 50) at the same ratios at which they are found in ordinary automotive engine oil.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0041
Chao-Kai LI, Jia-Siou wu, Yuh-Yih Wu
Today, motorcycle is one of the main noise pollution in Asia. In addition, the design of motorcycle muffler is closely related with how noise is made as the regulation is getting crucial these years. Therefore, Transmission Loss (TL) is an important index to evaluate the characteristic of muffler, but conventional trial and error method results in time wasting muffler tests. In this paper, in order to shorten the development period, Ricardo WAVE software is used to discuss the simulate analysis TL of motorcycle muffler. In this paper uses the huge heavy motorbike (400cc) made from manufacture to simulate TL. Due to the complex interior design of the target muffler which is mainly made of simple elements, this research put simulate analysis on simple elements like single chamber, non-coaxial and insert expansion chamber, clapboard chamber and sound absorbing materials at first place. There are three goals in this research.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0053
Hisato Tokunaga, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Takumi Kawasaki, Akiyuki Yamasaki, Tatsuo Ichige, Tomoyuki Ishimori, Yoichi Sansho
Owing to the recent developments in sensors with reduced size and weight, it is now possible to install sensors on a body of a motorcycle to monitor its behavior during running. The analysis of maneuverability and stability has been performed based on the data resulted from measurements by these sensors. The tire forces and moments is an important measurement item in maneuverability and stability studies. However, the tire forces and moments is difficult to measure directly, therefore, it is a common practice to measure the force and the moment acting on the center of the wheel. The measuring device is called a wheel forces and moments sensor, and it is widely used for cars. The development of a wheel forces and moments sensor for motorcycles has difficulty particular to motorcycles. First, motorcycles run with their bodies largely banked, which restricts positioning the sensors.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0063
Marc Cyrill Besch, April Nicole Covington, Derek Johnson, Nathan Fowler, Robert Heltzel
The aim of this investigation was to improve understanding and quantify the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as an emissions control measure onto cyclic variability of a small-bore, single-cylinder, diesel-fueled compression-ignition (CI) power generation unit. Of special interest were how cycle-to-cycle variations of the CI engine affect steady-state voltage deviations and frequency bandwidths. Furthermore, the study strived to elucidate the impact of EGR addition onto combustion parameters, as well as gaseous and particle phase emissions along with fuel consumption. The power generation unit was operated over five discrete steady-state test modes, representative of nominal 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% engine load (i.e. 0-484kPa BMEP), by absorbing electrical power via a resistive load bank. The engine was equipped with a passive EGR system that directly connected the exhaust and intake runners through a 4mm diameter passage.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0077
Roland Baar
On a worldwide scale, turbocharged four-cylinder engines are the most used ones in automotive industries. Three-cylinder engine is a technical alternative because of its higher thermodynamic potential that is due to higher cylinder displacement. Following this trend, the interest in two-cylinder engines is growing. These do have special demands concerning uniformity and dynamics of oscillating masses and firing order, but also very different conditions for the turbocharger. With two-cylinder engines, the pulsating influence grows and changes the operation of the turbine. In this paper different boosting technologies are compared in small engine applications. Besides of turbochargers the potentials and limits of superchargers and electric chargers as well as their combinations are compared. These technologies show dissimilarities concerning power supply, operation range and efficiency, and these effects have different meaning in small engines.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0079
Daisuke Fukui, Yoshinari Ninomiya
With the remarkable rise of gas price and the global air pollution, measures to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emission have become the urgent need in the motorcycle industry following automobile. For the improvement of the engine thermal efficiency that is one of those problems, there is a well-known fact that various research and development are continued from the past. We recognize that the coexistence of the high mobility and fuel efficiency performance of the Community-Based small motorcycles are demanded in the developed country not only developing countries. And we recognize that the coexistence of driveability and emission control of recreation and sports motorcycles is demanded. However, in the development of the engines for small motorcycles, due to differences in engine speed range, emission control, cost, infrastructure, we need some different approaches from the automobile engines which are full of advanced technologies.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0013
Yuya Higuchi, Hiroto Tanaka, Hyota Hoshino, Munehiro Matsuishi, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
It is difficult to control the ignition timing of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines because they lack a physical means of igniting the mixture. Another issue of HCCI engines is their narrow operating range owing to the occurrence of misfiring at low loads and extremely rapid combustion at high loads. As a possible solution to these issues, this study focused on the generation of a streamer discharge using nonequilibrium plasma as a means of assisting HCCI combustion. A four-stroke air cooled single cylinder engine was used in this study. A primary reference fuel (PRF) was used as the test fuel. The streamer discharge was continuously generated in the combustion chamber region during 720 degree interval from the intake stroke to the exhaust stroke using a spark plug.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0033
Tiago J. COSTA, Mark Nickerson, Daniele Littera, Jorge Martins, Alexander Shkolnik, Nikolay Shkolnik, F. P. Brito
This paper describes the method used for heat transfer measurement and prediction on the LiquidPiston XMv3 small rotary engine at its current state of development. A 1D engine model (GT-POWER) and a 3D CFD model (CONVERGE), were coupled together with the objective of quantifying the engine heat transfer losses inside the combustion chamber. Experimental data was used to validate and calibrate the 1D engine model. Parameters used in calibration include heat transfer constants, and equivalent critical orifice for “atmospheric” and “inter-chamber” leak areas. These parameters were calibrated to match experimental motoring traces, and then lumped in with heat release parameters while fitting firing traces. The GT-Power model results were used as boundary conditions for the CFD modelling. A detailed chemistry combustion model (SAGE) was used to better calculate flame front propagation and flame quenching at the engine walls, relevant for a predictive heat transfer modelling.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0058
Makoto Hasegawa, Takanobu Kaneko
ISO 26262, a international functional safety standard of electrical and/or electronic systems for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. And it is expected that motorcycle will be included in its scope at the next revision scheduled in 2018. Prior to its revision, Publicly Available Specification, ISO/PAS 19695 was published in 2015 and this is the adaptation of ISO 26262 for motorcycles. It is foreseen that the essences of this PAS will be the main potion of the revision of ISO 26262 related to motorcycle inclusion. Exposure is one of the factor that determines Motorcycle Safety Integrity Level (MSIL) defined in the PAS. It indicates the probability of the state of an operational situation that can be hazardous with the E/E system malfunction.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0092
Tomokazu Kobayashi, Kazuyuki Kosei, Sadaaki Ito, Satoshi Iijima
Due to its body configuration, the engines of scooter type two wheeled vehicle are not directly exposed to the ram air. The cylinder head and the parts in the proximity therefore are cooled by the air blown from the cooling fan directly attached to the crankshaft. That means that the amount of cooling air depending on the engine speed is always supplied to the engine regardless of the engine condition being cold or hot. Also, the cooling capacity is designed so as to prevent any thermal problems even under the highest-temperature conditions. Accordingly, just after cold start or during running under a low load condition, the engine is operated under an over-cooled condition in many cases. When operated under an over-cooled condition, the fuel economy generally becomes poor. Such a phenomenon is attributable to an increase of friction loss from the increase of oil viscosity along with a lowering of oil temperature.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0091
Peter Niedermaier
Modern motorcycle engines have numerous variable components and a powerful motor management required to meet the high customer expectations and the legislative requirements for the different target markets regarding exhaust and noise emissions (e.g. Euro-4 and Euro-5). These demands require increasing development efforts to identify the optimal combinations of components and control parameters. BMW Motorrad is a leading OEM with a diverse vehicle range requiring the engineers to develop and optimize many engine applications. This bandwidth ranges from one-cylinder engines to straight-six engines, which require very diverse operating strategies. In order to identify the motor-individual performance as a function of different component designs and the corresponding control parameters extensive test bench trials are necessary. In the development of motorcycle engines, these tests are typically executed manually, which is very time-consuming.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0027
Alexander Winkler, Gernot Grabmair
Vehicle dynamics control (VDC) for motorcycles had a fast growth during the last 10 years. The available technologies comprise curve-safe ABS and traction control (TC) systems, anti-wheelie control right up to comprehensive motorcycle stability systems including even more control functions. VDC systems rely on real-time information about the current motorcycle dynamic state. Thus motorcycles are equipped with additional sensor units, namely MEMS inertial measurement devices, capable of gathering accelerations and angular rates. Utilizing model-based estimation theory enables the determination of the necessary information about the in-plane and out-of-plane motion, e.g. the motorcycle lean angle. The consumer market MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes features include low-cost and small footprint, however there are considerable sensor errors to bear with, e.g. noise and bias.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0046
Stephan Schneider, Marco Chiodi, Horst Friedrich, Michael Bargende
The proposed paper deals with the development process and initial measurement results of an opposed piston engine for the use in a Free Piston Linear Generator (FPLG). The FPLG, which is being developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is an innovative internal combustion engine for the generation of electrical power. With its arrangement, the piston freely oscillates between the compression chamber of the combustion unit and a gas spring with no mechanical coupling like a crank shaft. A linear alternator converts the kinetic energy of the moving piston into electric energy. The virtual development of the novel combustion system is divided into two stages: One the one hand, the combustion system including e.g. a cylinder liner, pistons, cooling and lubrication concepts has to be developed.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0037
Christian Zinner, Reinhard Stelzl
The internal combustion engine is still the most important propulsion system for the individual mobility. Especially for the application of motorcycles and recreational vehicles is the extra ordinary high power density crucial. Today, these engines are mainly 4-stroke natural aspirated MPFI engines. The main difference to the automotive sector is the abandonment of all cost intensive technologies, like variable valve timing, intake air charging or gasoline direct injection. The need for further investigations and implementation of new technologies is given due to the very high share of total road transport emissions of motorcycles and the introduction of the emission limits of EURO5 in 2020. One possibility to reach the future emission limits is the downsizing strategy. For this the potential for emission and fuel consumption reduction is well known.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0072
Fino Scholl, Paul Gerisch, Denis Neher, Maurice Kettner, Thorsten Langhorst, Thomas Koch, Markus Klaissle
One promising alternative for meeting stringent NOx limits while attaining high engine efficiency in lean-burn operation are NOx storage catalysts (NSC), an established technology in passenger car aftertreatment systems. For this reason, a NSC system for a stationary single-cylinder CHP gas engine with a rated electric power of 5.5 kW comprising series automotive parts was developed. Main aim of the work presented in this paper was maximising NOx conversion performance and determining the overall potential of NSC aftertreatment with regard to min-NOx operation. The experiments showed that both NOx storage and reduction are highly sensitive to exhaust gas temperature and purge time. While NOx adsorption rate peaks at a NSC inlet temperature of around 290 °C, higher temperatures are beneficial for a fast desorption during the regeneration phase. Combining a relatively large catalyst (1.9 l) with a small exhaust gas mass flow leads to a low space velocity inside the NSC.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0009
Yuki Takamura, Keito Agui, Hirotaka Suzuki, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest as a combustion system that offers the advantages of high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion system owing to the lack of a physical means of initiating ignition like the spark plug in a gasoline engine or fuel injection in a diesel engine. Moreover, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the cylinder, it produces an enormous amount of heat in a short period of time, which causes greater engine noise, abnormal combustion and other problems in the high load region. The purpose of this study was to expand the region of stable HCCI engine operation by finding a solution to these issues of HCCI combustion.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0011
Keito Agui, Yuki Takamura, Hirotaka Suzuki, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
This study focused on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion, which is regarded both in Japan and abroad as a promising combustion system for achieving highly efficient and clean internal combustion engines. With HCCI combustion, the premixed mixture of fuel and air supplied to the cylinder is autoignited by piston compression. Because a lean premixed mixture is burned in HCCI combustion, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) can be reduced simultaneously. Moreover, an HCCI system enables the engine to achieve higher thermal efficiency because it can operate stably at a sufficiently high compression ratio in a lean premixed combustion regime induced by autoignition. However, HCCI combustion has formidable unresolved issues. One is the difficulty of controlling the ignition timing owing to a lack of a physical means of igniting the mixture.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0083
Michael Zisser, Hans-Juergen Schacht, Reinhard Stelzl, Bernhard Schweighofer, Hannes Wegleiter, Stephan Schmidt, Jakob Trentini, Jan-Philipp Banzhaf, Tim Gegg
In order to fulfill future regulations regarding emissions and CO2 reduction, the small engine market inclines to migrate from carburetor systems to cleaner, more efficient electronic ignition controls and electronic fuel injection systems. When implementing such mechatronic systems in small engine applications, one has to consider specific boundary conditions like the lack of relevant sensors, limited possibilities in terms of space and of course the necessity to keep the costs as low as possible. Especially in the non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) segment, the absence of sensors makes it difficult to apply standard electronic control systems, which are based on engine related input signals provided by sensors. One engine related signal, which even the simplest engine setup provides, is some form of the crankshaft speed since it is essentially for the functionality of the engine.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0029
Shohei Suzuki
In the development of motocrosser, the parts which compose the vehicle body especially in the frame receive the heavy loads when it lands on the ground, and high stress generate. Therefore, some problems such as deformation, crack emanating, brocken damage, etc occur occasionally. It took times and costs to take measures for these problems. To solve these problems and to reduce the development term and costs, we developed the method of Jump Landing Simulation. This Jump Landing Simulation enables to measure the vehicle position, which is moving momentarily, easily with high accuracy by introducing "Image Position Measureing Method.". Also, it succeeded to predict the occuring stress with high accuracy.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0005
Kotaro Takeda, Shimada Takashi, Yuki Yoshida, ZhiMin Lin, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
One of the main issues of high efficient Spark Ignition (SI) engine is knocking. In addition, the extremely rapid combustion that occurs under a high load in an HCCI engine prevents the stable operating region from being expanded. It is known that abnormal combustion occurs in an HCCI engine accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations resembling knock in spark-ignition (SI) engines. In this study, experiments were conducted in which images of SI and HCCI combustion were obtained using the same test engine and frame rate. A two-stroke engine that allowed visualization of the entire bore area was used in this study. In the visualization experiments, the condition in the cylinder was photographed directly with a high-speed camera through a quartz observation window installed in the top of the cylinder head. Photographs were taken at a speed of 54000 frames/s and a resolution of 256 x 256 pixels.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0043
Bernhard J. Graf, Christian Hubmann, Markus Resch, Mehdi Mehrgou
Beside hard facts as performance, emissions and fuel consumption especially the brand specific attributes such as styling and sound are very emotional, unique selling prepositions. To develop these emotional characters, within the given boundary conditions of the future pass-by regulation, it is necessary to define them at the very beginning of the project and to follow a consequent development process. The following paper shows examples of motorcycle NVH development work on noise cleaning and sound engineering using a hybrid development process combining front loading, simulation and testing. One of the discussed solutions is the investigation of a piston pin offset in combination with a crankshaft offset for the reduction of friction. The optimization of piston slap noise as a result of the piston secondary motion was performed by simulation. As another example a simulation based development was performed for the exhaust system layout.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0001
Franz Winkler, Roland Oswald, Nigel Foxhall, Oliver Schoegl
Rotax high performance engines are used in many different BRP powersports applications. In several of these applications 2-stroke engines play an important role. The direct injection technology is a key technology for 2-stroke engines to fulfil both the customers’ request for high power and the environmental requirements concerning emissions and efficiency. As the load spectrum differs from one application to the other, it was interesting to find out if different injection technologies can answer the needs of different applications more efficiently regarding performance but also economic targets. Therefore, the results of the Rotax 600 cm³ E-TEC (direct injection system) engine are compared to the same base engine but adopted with the SDI (semi direct injection) technology and the LPDI (low pressure direct injection) technology. The comparison is done by a 17 points measurement program representing different engine speeds and load cases.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0062
Yusuke Miyata
Recently, large market of industrial machinery is formed across Asian countries due to the mechanization of industries. In China and India, where further economic growth is expected, tighter exhaust emissions regulations are phased in for industrial diesel engines with the rise of environmental awareness. On the other hand, high durability, low fuel consumption and low cost are earnestly requested for those engines. While diesel engines with mechanical direct fuel injection system have potential to meet their demands at high levels, it is difficult to achieve both low-fuel consumption and low-exhaust emissions.  To exhibit these performances, it is important to keep good condition of combustion even under high EGR rate. We adopted high pressure fuel supply pump, and concave fuel cam profile which realize high injection rate for promoting atomization of injected fuel.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0064
Keiya Nishida, Takeru Matsuo, Kang Yang, Youichi Ogata, Daisuke Shimo
The injection amount per stage in the multiple injection strategy is smaller than the conventional single-stage injection. The research of the spray mixture formation and the combustion characteristics with a small injection amount is being meaningful. In this study, the effect of the injection amount (0.27mg, 0.89mg, 2.97mg) under 100MPa injection pressure and the effect of injection pressure (100MPa, 170MPa) under different injection amount (0.27mg, 2.97mg) on the spray and mixture formation characteristics were studied based on the vapor and liquid phase concentration distributions in the fuel spray by using the tracer LAS technique. In order to satisfy the requirements for the LAS test fuel, the tracer LAS technique was adopted. The spray was injected used a single-hole nozzle with a diameter 0.133mm into the high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0004
Muhammad Amin
In the current situation of automobile industry where engineers are focusing on making more efficient fuel engines that are not only efficient but more reliable.Engineers all around world are working on this kind of technologies which includes adding turbo chargers,more efficient transmission and variable compression ratio. Variable compression ratio can be easily through special designed pistons that saves upto 20% fuel and is more powerful than conventional engines.It can adjust the compression ratio based on driving conditions giving the maximum fuel economy.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0080
Christian Steinbrecher, Haris Hamedovic, Andreas Rupp, Thomas Wortmann
Engine management systems combined with fuel injectors allow a precise fuel metering for a robust combustion process. Stricter emission legislations increase the requirements for these port fuel injection systems (PFI), whereas the price is still the main driver in the emerging low cost 2-wheeler market. Therefore, a holistic mechatronic approach is developed by Bosch, which allows an improved fuel metering over life time and furthermore provides new possibilities for diagnosis without changing the injector itself. This example of an intelligent software solution provides the possibility to further improve the accuracy of the opening duration of an injector. By use of the information contained in the actuation voltage and current, the opening and closing times of the injector are derivable.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0017
Mengying Yang
Pure electric vehicle becomes one of the important development direction of electric vehicles because it can truly achieve "zero emissions".Power battery as the only energy storage element of pure electric vehicle directly affects the performance of pure electric vehicle.The lithium-ion battery has the advantages of high specific energy, long cycle life, low self discharge rate, and so on,and it has become the preferred battery of pure electric vehicles. Along with the charge and discharge, lithium-ion battery pack will generate a lot of heat in the normal operation of the electric vehicle, the internal temperature of the battery pack will be rising and the distribution of temperature is not uniform if the heat can not be dissipated in time, which reduces the performance of the battery, even cycle life and safety.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0095
Guo-Rong Wun, Cheng-Tse Chuang, Yong-Fu Syu, Chia-Sheng Wang, Yuh-Yih Wu
In this research, with proposed design of hydraulic-controlled variable valve lift system, a feed pump is used to supply the low-pressure oil into the hydraulic pump which will compress low-pressure oil as high-pressure oil and pumps the high-pressure oil into the hydraulic cylinder. In the meanwhile, the intake valve opened in accordance with the plunger is pushed by the hydraulic cylinder. To achieve the change of intake valve lift, a DC motor connected with the control rack that is used for controlling oil-drain time of the hydraulic pump. In addition, a solenoid valve is installed in order that the intake valve will be closed quickly without controlling the drain flow when the maximum valve lift is reached. Commonly, the throttle is not required with variable valve lift system, but the throttle is kept for engine start. Hence, except for engine cranking condition, the throttle maintains in wide open (WOT) under different test conditions.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0025
Govardan Daggupati, Bapanna Dora Karedla, Chandan Bansilal Chavan, Gagandeep Singh Risam
In two wheelers the front suspension system is mounted on chassis by two steering bearings which are lubricated ball type angular contact bearings with significant radial force components. These bearings are designed to withstand maximum vehicle loads for target durability. Maximum load carrying capacity depends on the number and size of the balls, bearing size and material. For target durability with designed load carrying capacity, the ball contact pressure, bearing preload plays a major role as compared to other design parameters. Geometry parameters and maximum load defines contact pressure for given bearing design. But in two wheelers due to nature of usage and road conditions, the peak loads are dynamic and geometry based design calculations may not yield the most optimal bearing design. In this work the bearing ball race profile design is optimized by using dynamic bearing contact profiles by using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 107829