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2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9450
Ali Reza Taherkhani, Carl Gilkeson PhD, Philip Gaskell PhD, Rob Hewson PhD, Vassili Toropov PhD, Amin Rezaienia PhD, Harvey Thompson
This paper investigates the optimization of the aerodynamic design of a police car, BMW 5-series which is popular police force across the UK. A Bezier curve fitting approach is proposed as a tool to improve the existing design of the warning light cluster in order to reduce drag. A formal optimization technique based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and moving least squares (MLS) is used to determine the control points for the approximated curve to cover the light-bar and streamline the shape of the roof. The results clearly show that improving the aerodynamic design of the roofs and offer an important opportunity for reducing the fuel consumption and emissions for police vehicles. The optimized police car has 30% less drag than the non-optimized counter-part.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9625
Souhir Tounsi
Abstract In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9075
Rami Abousleiman, Osamah Rawashdeh, Romi Boimer
Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and the unstable fuel prices have increased the sales of electric vehicles. Energy-efficient routing for electric vehicles requires novel algorithmic challenges because traditional routing algorithms are designed for fossil-fueled vehicles. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, alongside the uncertainty make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a solution to the energy-efficient routing problem for electric vehicles using ant colony optimization. Simulation and real-world test results demonstrate savings in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when driven on the generated routes. Real-world test results revealed more than 9% improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when driven on the recommended route rather than the routes proposed by Google Maps and MapQuest.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9076
Ioannis Karakitsios, Evangelos Karfopoulos, Nikolay Madjarov, Aitor Bustillo, Marc Ponsar, Dionisio Del Pozo, Luca Marengo
The aim of this paper is to introduce a complete fast dynamic inductive charging infrastructure from the back-office system (EV management system) up to the Electric Vehicle (EV) (inductive power transfer module, positioning mechanism, electric vehicle modifications) and the EV user (User interface). Moreover, in order to assess the impact of the additional demand of inductive charging on the grid operation, an estimation of the 24-hour power profile of dynamic inductive charging is presented considering, apart from the road traffic, the probability of the need for fast charging, as well as the specifications of the proposed solution. In addition, an energy management system is presented enabling the management of the operation of the inductive charging infrastructure, the interaction with the EV users and the provision of demand response services to different stakeholders.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0242
Yakov Fradkin, Michel Cordonnier, Andrew Henry, David Newton
Ford Motor Company’s assembly plants build vehicles in a certain sequence. The planned sequence for the plant’s trim and final assembly area is developed centrally and is sent to the plant several days in advance. In this talk we present the study of two cases where the plant changes the planned sequence to cope with production constraints. In one case, a plant pulls ahead two-tone orders that require two passes through the paint shop. This is further complicated by presence in the body shop area of a unidirectional rotating tool that allows efficient build of a sequence “A-B-C” but heavily penalizes a sequence “C-B-A”. The plant changes the original planned sequence in the body shop area to the one that satisfies both pull-ahead and rotating tool requirements. In the other case, a plant runs on lean inventories. Material consumption is tightly controlled down to the hour to match with planned material deliveries.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0243
Zhenghui Sha, Veronica Saeger, Mingxian Wang, Yan Fu, Wei Chen
For achieving viable mass customization of products, product configuration is often performed that requires deep understanding on the impact of product features and feature combinations on customers’ purchasing behaviors. Existing literature has been traditionally focused on analyzing the impact of common customer demographics and engineering attributes with discrete choice modeling approaches. This paper aims to expand discrete choice modeling through the incorporation of optional product features, such as customers’ positive or negative comments and their satisfaction ratings of their purchased products, beyond those commonly used attributes. The paper utilizes vehicle as an example to highlight the range of optional features currently underutilized in existing models. First, data analysis techniques are used to identify areas of particular consumer interest in regards to vehicle selection. 
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0312
ZiQiang Sheng, Pankaj Mallick
For many reasons, the well-known Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) is still widely used by sheet metal forming industry and academia to identify stretching failure. Based on findings from micromechanical studies, a Ductile Failure Criterion (DFC) was proposed. Under proportion strain path assumption, a method to calculate Forming Limit Curve (FLC) by using tension test only is derived from this DFC. The method was validated by calculating FLCs for several sheet metal materials different in grades and initial sheet thickness. The calculated FLCs are further used to predict failure in drawing processe. Comparison shows that the prediction by using those calculated FLCs matches quite well with experimental observations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0292
Ana M. Djuric, Ruth Urbanic
Additive manufacturing process planning is in its infancy. Many new additive manufacturing platforms are being developed using a robotic based system for the positioning. It is proposed to use a collaborative robot solution to teach a ‘median line’ based travel path for a bead deposition based system. In lieu of machining a block to result in a thin-walled component, thin walls can be built up using laser cladding or a similar process to generate a near net shape. Then this can be used as a stock model for machining. The logic for these tool paths is challenging algorithmically, but a process designer may have a solution in mind that it would be easier to teach; hence, integrating collaborative robots as part of the solution to generate the data required for the deposition system. Traditional robot systems require you to know the solution approach, while the manual teaching involves intuition, and personal experience.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0331
Qiuren Chen, Haiding Guo, Katherine Avery, Xuming Su, HongTae Kang
Fatigue crack growth tests have been carried out to investigate the mixed mode fatigue crack propagation behavior of an automotive structural adhesive BM4601. The tests were conducted a compound CMM (Compact Mixed Mode) specimen under load control with 0.1 R ratio and 3Hz frequency. A long distance moving microscope was employed during testing to monitor and record the real time length of the fatigue crack in the adhesive layer. The strain energy release rates of the crack under different loading angles, crack lengths and loads were calculated by finite element method. The pure mode I and mode II tests show that an equal value of mode I strain energy release rate results in over ten times higher FCGR (Fatigue Crack Growth Rate) than the mode II stain energy release rate does. The mixed mode tests results show that under a certain loading angle, the mixed mode FCGR is changed by changing the load, which is contrary to the find in pure mode I and mode II tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0480
Mingde Ding
For structural application, composite parts structure is much more affected by load cases than steel part structure. Engine room bracket of EV, which is structural part and is used to bear Motor Controller, Charger and so on, has different load cases for different EV. Three commonest load cases that are Case 1: bearing 65kg (without suspension part), Case 2: bearing 68kg(including 3.5kg suspension part) and Case 3: bearing 70.1kg (including 5.6kg suspension part). According to topology optimization, structurel 1 was obtained, and then CAE analysis including (strength, stiffness and model) was carried out for abovement three load cases. For Case 1 and Case 2, the analysis result can meet the requirement. However, for Case 3, the stiffness and model analysis result can not satisfy the requirement. To meet the analysis result of Case 3, Structure 1 was optimized and structure 2 was obtained. The CAE analysis was conducted and the results can satisfy the requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0996
Sebastian Gramstat, André Cserhati, Matthias Schroeder
Since particle emissions from combustion engines have been reduced during the last decades, the importance of non-exhaust emission sources, such as airborne brake dust, tyre pollution, etc., is increasing. Unlike the powertrain, a conventional vehicle brake is an open system and the sampling of the emitted particles becomes a complex process. The presented study introduces a particular measurement setup for brake particle emission investigations. Beside a brake dynamometer, two solid particle counting systems (SPCS) were used to determine the emitted particle numbers. It must be mentioned that both devices were modified prototypes with a cut-off of 10 nm. During the studies an 18” two-piston frame-design brake caliper, in combination with low-steel brake linings and cast-iron brake discs, was used. As a first result it is shown that the employed setup and test procedure revealed a stabilised behaviour after a few test runs in terms of emitted particle numbers and friction conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0984
Wenran Geng, Diming Lou, Ning Xu
Recently Hybrid Electric Buses have been widely used in China. In order to study their emissions reduction effects, the exhaust emissions of an in-use diesel-electric hybrid bus have been evaluated both over China City Bus Cycles (CCBC) on chassis dynamometer and on the road using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS). The diesel-electric hybrid bus adopts a coaxial parallel mode hybrid system and is driven by electric motor at 0~20km/h while engine keeps idling. Only if the vehicle speed exceeds 20km/h, engine and electric motor will provide driving force together, which leads to more violent transient conditions of engine. Firstly, exhaust emissions of the diesel-electric hybrid bus and a Chinese V stage bus with traditional powertrain have been tested on heavy chassis dynamometer over CCBC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1089
Jose Grande, Julio Abraham Carrera, Manuel Dieguez Sr
Exhaust Gas Recirculation system (EGR) has been used for years for NOx emissions control in commercial vehicle applications. Emissions limits are tighter with every regulation while durability requirements are increasing, so EGR systems manufacturers must be able to provide high performance and robust designs even with high thermal loads. Commercial vehicle market is characterized by lower production rates than passenger car programs, but same engine has multiple applications with totally different engine calibrations. In some cases it is necessary to design two or more EGR systems for an engine platform, with the consequent impact on cost and development timeline. The optimal design of and EGR system needs to take into consideration several topics related with performance and durability: efficiency and pressure drop, fouling, boiling, thermal fatigue, vibrations, pressure fatigue and corrosion among others.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1363
James F. Krier, Paul Weindorf
Modern automotive cockpit design trends have increased the number of displays and the locations and manner in how they are packaged. One theme in particular is the packaging of the displays in novel locations that may be marginal in terms of dynamic stability during road load vibrations. Examples of this include mirror or deployable displays that adjust their position in the vehicle. The image of the display may be partially or fully blurred during vibration events which can produce a poor HMI experience. This paper will present the results of a HMI study that that evaluated the readability of different sizes and contrast ratios of TFT color display graphics via jury evaluation during varying vibration acceleration and frequency levels in a controlled lab environment. The result of this study was identification of minimum natural frequencies and maximum acceleration levels for the display mounting structure as a function of display graphics size and contrast ratios.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0112
Mingming Zhao, Hongyan Wang, Xiao Xu, Yutong He
Rear-end accident is one of the most important collision modes in China, which often leads to severe accident consequences due to the high collision velocity. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) System could perform emergency brake automatically in dangerous situation and mitigate the consequence. This study focused on the analysis of the rear-end accidents in China in order to discuss about the parameters of Time-to-Collision (TTC) of AEB and the potential effectiveness. A sample of 84 accidents was in-depth investigated and reconstructed, providing a comprehensive set of data describing the pre-crash matrix. Each accident in this sample is reconstructed and modeled numerically by the simulation tool PC-Crash. In parallel, a model representing the function of an AEB system has been established. This AEB system applies partial braking when the TTC ≤ TTC1 and full braking when the TTC ≤ TTC2.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0246
Sentao Miao, Xiuli Chao, Michael Tamor, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo
Most of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States come from the transportation and electricity generation sectors. In this paper, we analyzed the possibility of cross-sector cooperation to cost-efficiently reduce these emissions. Specifically, we built a bi-level optimization model with renewable energy certificate (REC) purchasing to evaluate the effectiveness of the REC purchasing policy. This policy allows the transportation sector to purchase RECs, which are created by renewable generators built by the electricity generation sector, in order to gain extra emission allowance. We conclude from simulations that REC purchasing policy helps to lower the total cost to society while reducing GHG emissions significantly. Simulation results also show that REC purchasing policy can create electricity capacity beyond demand, which can potentially be used to make clean fuel and further cut emissions from existing fossil fuel powered vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0499
Mingde Ding
Recently, for automotive industry, weight reduction is increasingly needed to improve fuel efficiency and to meet emission requirement. Substituting heavy metallic materials with strong and light composites seems to be the most viable choice to achieve vehicle weight reduction. Because of a high level of styling flexibility and simple process, injection molding is the concern of OEMS. However, injection molding part especially for large part would have large deformation. Therefore, the deformation must be controlled within the requirement during development. According with topology optimization result, we get the structure of IP carrier. The result of moldflow analysis showed that the largest deformation in X direction is 19.4mm, in Y direction is 9.5mm, in Z direction is 13.7mm, which were not satisfy the deformation requirement that was the deformation of the core area must be less than 3mm. By structure optimization, the deformation reduction was obviously.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0843
Jose Pastor, Jose M Garcia-Oliver, Antonio Garcia, Varun Reddy NAREDDY
Recent researches have shown that the use of highly premixed dual fuel combustion reduces pollutant emissions and fuel consumption in CI engines. The most common strategy for dual fueling is to use two injection systems. Port fuel injection for low reactivity fuel and DI for high reactivity fuel. This strategy implies some severe shortcomings for its real implementation in passenger cars such as the use of two fuel tanks. In this sense, the use of a single injection system for dual fueling could solve this drawback trying to maintain pollutant and efficiency benefits. Nonetheless, when single injection system is used, the spray characteristics become an essential issue. In this work the fundamental characteristics of dual-fuel sprays with a single injection system under evaporating engine-like conditions are presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1028
Daniel Bharathy, Ganesh Paramasivam
Venting for a diesel tank is an essential requirement to keep the tank stable by breathing in during suction & breathing out the excess pressure created inside because of vaporization. Vent valves with inappropriate specs affects the rate of supply of fuel during vacuum built up of pressure resulting in tank explosion or causes damage to the user during filling. Capacity of the tank, ambient temperature, environment, Return line temperature and application are the factors contribute in finalizing the venting specification. Considering these factors, study has been done on a metal & plastic fuel tank for a commercial vehicle application. Venting specification has been finalized for both plastic & metal tanks analytically. Vent valves developed and validated to meet the functional & durability requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1636
Lukas Preusser
Problem Already in the initial design failure mode analysis of this relatively young feature it became clear that an accurate sensor reading is critical to the performance of the heated steering wheel system. As the temperature reception capability of the human palm is very distinct, small deviations [≤0.1°??/??] from the targeted wheel temperature may be registered as "getting too hot" or "remaining too cold". As per industry standard, heated wheels only utilize a single sensor input to the temperature control circuitry, making it even more important for the sensor to reflect the current surface temperature. Certainly the sensor must be placed where it neither can be seen nor felt, decoupling surface from the sensor's temperature. Production tolerances for sensor placement on the heater mat along with heater mat placement tolerances relative to the armature's position add to the decoupling issue, causing unacceptably high or low steering wheel surface temperatures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1604
Christina Michael, Badih Jawad, Liping Liu, Vernon Fernandez PhD, Sabah Abro, Craig Zinser, Dave Guidos
The objective of this research is to develop a component based enhanced production process after End of Line (EOL) testing. This process will add more quality validation evaluations, but will not require any disassembling of the parts or damage to them. It will help the suppliers to avoid scrap and rework parts as well as General Motors (GM) to reduce warranty and recalls. An Enhanced Production Process was implemented in March, 2016 at a supplier in Mexico. The Enhanced Audit Station implementation is to ensure that the supplier is satisfying the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) requirements. The most important four components are: Touch Appearance Lighting and Color (TALC), Appearance Approval Report (AAR), Dimensional Checks, and Function Testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1704
D.J. Branagan, A.E. Frerichs, B.E. Meacham, S. Cheng, A.V. Sergueeva
Demand is growing for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in the automotive industry driven by a desire for lightweighting solutions to meet increasingly stringent fuel economy standards. Formability is a critical factor for producing reduced gauge steel parts with the complex geometries required to maintain stiffness. Global formability represents the ability of a sheet material to be deformed under various stress conditions and to be formed into a part without failure. It can be estimated using forming-limit diagrams or ductility measurements from conventional uniaxial tensile tests. However, these tests cannot reliably assess the local formability at the edges or at the internal holes of the blanks during stamping. Numerous correlations have been previously developed to predict local formability such as yield strength to tensile ratio, true strain at fracture, and post uniform elongation but they are often inaccurate – particularly for AHSS grades.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1707
C. Matthew Enloe, Jason Coryell, Jeff Wang
Retained austenite stability to both mechanically induced transformation and athermal transformation is of great importance to the fabrication and in-vehicle performance of automotive advanced high strength steels. Selected cold-rolled advanced high strength steels containing retained austenite with minimum tensile strengths of 980 MPa and 1180 MPa were pre-strained to pre-determined levels under uniaxial tension in the rolling direction and subsequently cooled to temperatures as low as 77 K. Room temperature uniaxial tensile results of pre-strained and cooled steels indicate that retained austenite is stable to athermal transformation to martensite at all tested temperatures and pre-strain levels. To evaluate the combined effects of temperature and pre-strain on impact behavior, stacked Charpy impact testing was conducted on the same steels following similar pre-straining in uniaxial tension.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0101
Alexandru Gurghian, Francois Charette
This paper presents the implementation of a 1/10th scale track with multiple vehicles that serves as a framework used for introducing new employees, interns or groups of student to autonomous vehicle and ADAS technologies. The framework allows new generations of potential engineers to experience software development at the intersection between computer science and engineering. Additionally, the framework can serve as a gentle and exciting introduction to automotive software development. The proposed system is based on an off the shelf 1/10th scale remote controlled car and is equipped with an Intel NUC, a full-fledged computer powered by an Intel i7 processor, providing sufficient compute power for computationally expensive perception and control algorithm. Steering and throttle actuators are accessible through a microcontroller connected to the Intel NUC via USB, which also acts as a safety controller that allows to override control signals with a remote control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0247
N. Khalid Ahmed, Jimmy Kapadia
Electrified vehicles including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) made by Ford Motor Company are fitted with a telematics modem to provide customers with the means to communicate with their vehicles and, at the same time, receive insight on their vehicle usage. These services are provided through the “MyFord Mobile” website and phone applications, simultaneously collecting information from the vehicle for different event triggers. In this work, we study this data by using Big Data Methodologies including a Hadoop Database for storing data and HiveQL and Pig Latin scripts to perform analytics. We present electrified vehicle customer behaviors including geographical distribution, trip distances, daily distances and annual usage factor. We also compare temperature distribution of trips with the EPA-MOVES database. We discuss the process of extracting information from this data that can be used to further refine future design.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0258
Mark Brudnak, James Walsh, Igor Baseski, Bryan LaRose
Laboratory based durability simulation has become an increasingly important component of vehicle system design validation and production release. It offers several advantages over field testing which has driven its adoption in the automotive and military sectors. Among these advantages are 1) repeatability, 2) earlier testing, 3) isolation of subsystems or components and 4) ability to compress and/or accelerate the testing. In this paper we present time-domain methods and techniques adapted, implemented and used at TARDEC to reduce the time required to perform a laboratory durability test of a full vehicle system, subsystem or component. Specifically, these methods approach a durability schedule holistically by considering all events/surfaces, repeats and channels of interest. It employs standard Generic Stress Life (GSL) approach, utilizing rain flow cycle counting and a minimum-average method of identifying portions of the events which are less severe.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0494
Michael Christian Haverkamp, Anja Moos
A variety of senses is involved in customer perception of the vehicle interior. Beside the visual appearance, touch feel, sounds when touching surfaces, perception of surface temperature and smell provide essential contributions to a holistic, multisensory experience. When touching the steering wheel or seat materials, the haptic activity generates sounds, which provide essential information about the material quality. Psycho-acoustic parameters like loudness, roughness and sharpness communicate specific material features to the user. Furthermore, many customers prove the material by knocking on the surface with fingers or the whole hand. Measurement of the acoustic sensitivity of materials can be operationalized for benchmarking and optimization of trim. The perceived temperature of metallic surfaces depends on thickness of galvanized layers. For objective evaluation, a measurement device has been developed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0638
Neerav Abani, Nishit Nagar, Rodrigo Zermeno, Michael chiang, Isaac Thomas
Heavy-duty vehicles, currently the second largest source of fuel consumption and carbon emissions are projected to be fastest growing mode in transportation sector in future. There is a clear need to increase fuel efficiency and lower emissions for these engines. The Achates Power Opposed-Piston Engine has the potential to address this growing need. In this paper, results will be presented for a 9.8L three-cylinder OP Engine that shows the potential of achieving 51%+ brake thermal efficiency (BTE), while simultaneously satisfying 4.0 g/kWhr engine out NOx and 0.01 g/kWhr engine-out soot. The OP Engine architecture can meet this performance without the use of additional technologies such as thermal barrier coatings, waste heat recovery or additional turbo-compounding.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1269
Xian Wu, Shuxian Zhang
Studies have shown that under in-plane impact loading, negative Poisson's ratio of honeycomb sandwich structure has a good energy absorption compared with the conventional cellular sandwich structure. So, it can be used to protect the key components and the crew from being hurt in the crash accidents. In the design of collision avoidance, both of the energy absorption and the deformation should be considered. In this paper, we designed a honeycomb structure with density gradient which had a good behavior in crashworthiness. Based on the honeycomb sandwich structure with negative Poisson's ratio, we changed the density gradient of the core and studied the energy absorption and the deformation of the structure under impact loading. First, we divided the core into three layers which had different densities. And each layer had the same thickness and the same kind of material. Then, we gave the different permutation and combination of the three layers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1366
Jeffrey Muttart, Swaroop Dinakar, Jeffrey Suway, Michael Kuzel, Timothy Maloney, Wayne Biever, Toby Terpstra, Tilo Voitel, David Cavanaugh, T.J. Harms
More than half all pedestrian fatalities occur at night. To address this problem, in the 1950s through 1970s Blackwell conducted considerable research that showed that a way to account for the limitations related to drivers’ expectancies at night would be to limit a driver’s time to view the forward roadway. The reduced information during the limited exposure time became a surrogate for the limited information available to on-road drivers at night. With the release of the SHRP-2 naturalistic database, we are able to see how drivers responded to in-road obstacles at night such as animals, bicyclists, pedestrians, and tree limbs. Using the naturalistic response data as a baseline, safe closed road recognition methodology was developed. The closed road study built upon the early nighttime recognition work by Blackwell, the observers were allowed to view the forward roadway for 1 or ¼ second.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 109580