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Technical Paper
2015-01-01
Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu, Edwin K.L. Tam
Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) conducted, to date, of the end-of-life phase of vehicles rely significantly on assumed values and extrapolations within models. The end phase of vehicles, however, has become all the more important as a consequence of increasing regulatory requirements on materials recovery, tightening disposal restrictions, and the rapid introduction of new materials and electronics, all potentially impacting a vehicle’s efficacy for achieving greater levels of sustainability. This article presents and discusses selected research results of a comprehensive gate-to-gate life-cycle-inventory (LCI) of end-of-life vehicle (ELV) dismantling and shredding processes, constructed through a comprehensive and detailed case study, and argues that managing and implementing creative dismantling practices can improve significantly the recovery of both reusable and recyclable materials from end-of-life vehicles. Although the amount of parts and materials recovered and directed for reuse, remanufacturing or recycling may be as much as 11.6% by weight of the ELVs entering a dismantling process [1], greater rates of reuse and/or recycling may be achieved by the strategic management of the ELVs entering the dismantling process according to age.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Simone Vezzù, Carlo Cavallini, Silvano Rech, Enrico Vedelago, Alessandro Giorgetti
The deposition of thick, pore-free and high performances copper alloy matrix composite coatings is a topic of interest for several industrial applications such as friction materials, high mechanical resistance electrical contacts, and welding electrodes. This study investigates the opportunity to use cold spray for the deposition of CuCrZr/Al2O3 cermet coatings on 6060 aluminium alloys. The project’s aim is to investigate the feasibility of producing integral coolers on mechanical parts. This will make it possible to the design of high performance hybrid motorcycles more compact. Fused and crushed alumina and gas-atomized CuCrZr powder blends have been used as initial feedstocks, with compositional weight ratio of 65/35 and 80/20 (ceramic/metal). The deposition process and coating growth have been studied as a function of carrier gas temperature, exploring the range between 200°C and 750°C. Pure CuCrZr alloy coatings have been also deposited for comparison. The coatings have been characterized in terms of microstructure and morphology, coating microindentation hardness, adhesion to the Al alloy substrate, and cohesion.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Tatsuhiko Sato, Hirotaka Kurita, Akemi Ito, Hideyuki Iwasaki
The frictional force generated between an actual monolithic aluminum cylinder block and a piston / a piston-ring in a firing mode was measured with using a newly developed floating liner device for the first case in the world. The improvement of fuel consumption is the most important issue for engine manufactures from the viewpoint of energy and environment conservation. The piston-cylinder system plays quite important role for the reduction of the engine friction. For the improvement of the frictional behavior of the piston-cylinder system, it is beneficial to observe and analyze the frictional waveforms during an engine operation. In order to meet the above-mentioned demand, the renewed floating liner device was developed. In the newly developed floating liner device, the actual cylinder block itself was used as a test specimen, whereas a thin-walled cylindrical sleeve should be used as the test specimen in the conventional floating liner device. The measured single cylinder was an aluminum monolithic type made of hypereutectic Al-17Si alloy using a high pressure die casting process.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Matthew Smeeth
Rolling contact fatigue is a particular type of fatigue that occurs in heavily loaded, non-conformal contacts, such as gears and rolling element bearings. It is primarily a failure mode associated with repeated cyclic loading that generates high local Hertzian pressures, leading to local plastic deformation and substantial surface or sub surface stress. This in turn leads to crack formation and propagation. In some instances this results in sudden and often critical mechanical failure of contacting parts. This failure mode can, to a certain degree, be controlled by the appropriate choice of lubricant; in terms of both the physical and chemical properties of the films formed at the surface. A three contact disc machine has been used to examine the rolling contact fatigue of motorcycle lubricants in such heavily loaded contacts. Three counterface test rings of equal diameter (54mm) are mounted 120° apart with a smaller (12mm diameter) test roller in the centre. Using this configuration, a large number of contact cycles are possible in a short period of time (up to one million per hour), which greatly accelerates the testing test.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Koorosh Khanjani, Jiamei Deng, Andrzej Ordys
Controlling Variable Coolant Temperature in Internal Combustion Engines and Its Effects on Fuel Consumption Koorosh Khanjani ; Roehampton Vale Campus, Kingston University, Friars Avenue, London SW15 3DW; K1155703@kingston.ac.uk; Tel: +44 (0)208 417 4730; Jiamei Deng ; Roehampton Vale Campus, Kingston University, Friars Avenue, London SW15 3DW; J.Deng@kingston.ac.uk; Tel: +44 (0)208 417 4712; Andrzej Ordys ; Roehampton Vale Campus, Kingston University, Friars Avenue, London SW15 3DW; A.Ordys@kingston.ac.uk; +44 (0) 208 417 4846; Abstract: Increasing the efficiency and durability of internal combustion engines is one of the major concerns of engineers in development of modern road vehicles. Emission legislations are becoming stricter each year forcing manufacturers to deploy sophisticated engine control strategies to transfer more of the fuel chemical energy into power output. Internal combustion engines have now been equipped with electronic engine management control units which consist of precise measurements and performance by means of various sensors and actuators.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Klaus Stuhlmüller
In a microcontroller-operated ignition process, the combustion is dependent on three important criteria: Spark burn duration, ignition voltage, and ignition spark energy. These criteria must be adapted exactly to the engine's individual requirement profile to ensure optimal combustion. In each operating state and operating environment, optimum ignition is ensured by continuously analyzing sensor values. Engine manufacturers continue to be faced with the challenge of ensuring that the machine runs as smoothly and quietly as possible. Increased spark duration and higher energy of the ignition spark enable improved combustion of the gasoline-air mixture in the combustion compartment. This article describes an electrical ignition process using an array of multiple coils and a magnetic generator that is rotating in sync with the machine. During this process the magnetic field temporarily flows through the coils and generates a sequence of magnetic flow variations per rotation. This induces corresponding half-waves of alternating voltage in the coils of the ignition module.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hideyuki Ogawa, Gen Shibata, Yuhei Noguchi, Mutsumi Numata
Simultaneous reductions of NOx and particulate emissions as well as the improvements in the thermal efficiency and the engine performance with emulsified blends of water and diesel fuel are reported. A reduction in combustion temperature and promotion of premixing with larger ignition delays due to vaporization of the water in the fuel has been suggested as the mechanism. However, details of the combustion process and the mechanism of the emission reduction is not fully elucidated. In this research diesel like combustion of emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel in a constant volume chamber vessel was visualized with high speed color video and analyzed with a 2-D two color method. The shadowgraph images were also recorded and the rate of heat release was obtained from pressure data in the combustion chamber. An emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel (JIS. No. 2) with 26 vol% water and 4 vol% surfactant was used as the test fuel, and the diesel fuel in the emulsion without water and the surfactant was used as a reference.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Naoya Ito, Akira Terashima, Junki Sahara, Takashi Shimada, Masanori Yamada, Akira Iijima, Tomohiko Asai, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
Lean burn is a very effective way to substantially improve the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. A major issue involved in applying a lean-burn process to a spark-ignition engine is to secure stable ignition and combustion. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is one technology for accomplishing rapid combustion of a lean premixed air-fuel mixture. However, because the mixture is autoignited by piston compression in an HCCI engine, controlling the ignition timing is a crucial issue. In addition, another issue of HCCI engines is the narrow range of stable operation owing to the occurrence of misfiring at low loads and extremely rapid combustion at high loads. As an approach to resolving these issues, this study focused on the use of low-temperature plasma as an ignition technique for inducing stable autoignition in an HCCI engine. Specifically, the use of a streamer discharge was investigated for controlling HCCI ignition and combustion. A continuous streamer discharge was generated in the center of the combustion chamber of a 2-stroke engine that allowed visualization of the entire bore area.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Federico Brusiani, Gian Marco Bianchi, Cristian Catellani, Marco Ferrari, Paolo Verziagi, Dario Catanese
Most of the handheld application are equipped with a Two stroke SI engine. The advantage of this engine are known but one of the problem of this applications is to design air cooling system with high efficiency. One of the main problem to cool the two stroke engine for hand held applications like chainsaw, brush cutter, blower and so on is obtain compact design of the application but in the mean time to have the correct air flow in all conditions. This paper describes a CFD methodology to optimize the air flow around the two stroke engine and identify the potential improvement of this system to increase the cooling efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Sei Takahashi, Hideo Nakamura, Makoto Hasegawa
The International Standard ISO26262 “Road vehicles - Functional safety” was published in 2011. Safety is one of the key issues of future automobile development. System safety is achieved through a number of safety measures, which are implemented in a variety of technologies. ISO26262 provides an automotive-specific risk-based approach and uses ASILs to specify applicable requirements so as to avoid unreasonable residual risk. The International Standard ISO26262 divides the Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASIL) into four stages (from level A to D). In this paper we consider the suitable determination of the Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSIL) when the ISO26262 is applied to motorcycles. We will show that an unreasonable risk area for motorcycles becomes smaller when compared with that of an automobile for the following two reasons. (1) The seating capacity of a motorcycle is less than that of an automobile, and thus the damage from a motorcycle accident is also smaller than those of automobile accidents.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Alex K. Rowton, Joseph Ausserer, Marc D. Polanka, Paul Litke, Keith Grinstead
As internal combustion engines (ICEs) decrease in displacement, their cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio increases. Examining power output of ICEs with respect to cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio shows that there is a dramatic change in power scaling trends at approximately 1.5 cm-1. At this size, thermal quenching becomes the dominant thermal loss mechanism and performance and efficiency characteristics suffer. Furthermore, small ICEs (>1 cm-1) have limited technical performance data compared to ICEs in larger size classes. Therefore, it is critical to establish accurate performance figures for a family of geometrically similar engines in the size class of approximately 1.5 cm-1 in order to better predict and model the thermal losses as well as other phenomena that contribute to lower efficiencies in small ICEs. The engines considered in this scaling study were manufactured by 3W Modellmotoren, GmbH. In particular, they are the 3W-28i, 3W-55i, and 3W-85Xi which have a cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio of 1.81 cm-1, 1.46 cm-1, and 1.28 cm-1 respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Ludek Pohorelsky, Pavel Brynych, Jan Macek, Pascal Tribotte, Gaetano De Paola, Cyprien Ternel
The objective of this paper is to present the results of the GT Power calibration with engine test results of the air loop system technology down selection described in the SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0831.Two specific boosting systems were identified as the preferred path forward: (1) Super-turbo with two speed Roots type supercharger, (2) Super-turbo with centrifugal mechanical compressor and CVT transmission both downstream a Fixed Geometry Turbine. The initial performance validation of the boosting hardware in the gas stand and the calibration of the GT Power model developed is described. The calibration leverages data coming from the tests on 2 cylinder 2-stroke 0.73L 45kW diesel engine. The initial flow bench results suggested the need for a revision of the turbo matching due to the big gap in performance between predicted maps and real data. This activity was performed using Honeywell turbocharger solutions spacing from fixed geometry waste gate to variable nozzle turbo (VNT). New simulations results recommend VNT as it offers a higher potential to reduce BSFC with increase power and low end torque output than the original matching.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Daniele Barbani, Niccolò Baldanzini, Marco Pierini
Motorcycle accidents are a serious road safety issue in the European Union (EU). Several projects to increase motorcycle safety were funded by the EU within the FP7 (Seventh Frame Program). Many others are likely to be funded within H2020 (Horizon 2020) as well as by national projects of each member state. In this context, numerical simulations play a strategic role since they can be a powerful tool to simplify, assist and speed up the work of the engineers. During the last years, the authors have presented the development and validation of FE models for complete crash test scenarios (i.e. motorcycle with an anthropometric test dummy that impacts against a car) and their use to evaluate head and neck injuries. During the validation phase the authors observed some variability in the results. While variability of the input parameters is a fact in real world crash test, the extent of the variability in the results has to be estimated and assessed in order to improve the design process of safety devices.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Gokul Meenakshi Sundaram, Shankapal S R PhD, Nagarjun Reddy M.
A well rated vehicle should have good handling (maneuvering) and stability characteristics. In India, three wheeled vehicle (Auto –rickshaws) play a major role in low cost transportation and thus there is a huge population of them, particularly in urban areas. Auto -rickshaws are low speed vehicles and can easily be maneuvered in city narrow lanes. Hence these vehicles should exhibit stability as well as handling well at low speeds. Stability of vehicle is affected while maneuvering, and maneuvering (handling) gets affected due to wobbling of front wheel. The present work focuses on improving wobbling of a three wheeled vehicle. The problem was approached by carrying out a literature review and identifying the wobbling control equation. Parametric studies were done through simulation to understand their effect on wobbling. The wobbling frequency of front structure of three wheeled vehicle found to be 4 Hz corresponding to a vehicle speed of 20km/h. It was essential to reduce the wobbling frequency corresponding to a speed lower than 10 km/h.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Alessandro Franceschini, Emanuele Pellegrini, Raffaele Squarcini
Nowadays the challenge in design auxiliary device for automotive small engine is focused on the packaging reduction and on the increase of the performances. This requirements are in contrast to each other and in order to fulfil the project specifications, new and more refined design tools and procedures need to be developed. This paper presents a calculation loop developed by Pierburg Pump Technology Italy S.p.a. (PPT). It supports the design of a variable displacement oil pump component for engine applications. The work is focused on the fatigue life evaluation of a joint, which transmits the drive torque from the engine to the oil pump. The aim of the procedure is to calculate the onset of the surface fatigue phenomenon in the hexagonal joint which drives the oil pump, taking into account the axes misalignment and the flat to flat clearance. The study has involved several matters, experimental measures, CFD, MBA and FEM analyses. A calculation procedure has been set up in order to consider all the necessary loads applied on the joint.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Rita Di Gioia, Giovanni Bonandrini
In the next future, improvements of direct injection systems for spark-ignited engines are necessary for the potential reductions in fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions. The admission and spread of the fuel in the combustion chamber is strictly related to the injector design and performances, such as to the fuel and environmental pressure and temperature conditions. In this paper the spray characterization of a GDI injector under normal and flash-boiling injection conditions has been investigated. A customized sensing of the injector nose permitted the temperature control of the nozzle up to 90 °C while a remote-controlled thermostatic device allowed the fuel heating from ambient to 120 °C. An axially-disposed, 0.200 mm in diameter, single-hole injector has been used with l/d ratio equal to 1 and static flow@100 bar: 2.45 g/s, using iso-octane as mono-component fluid. A 1.0 ms duration single pulse strategy has been adopted at the injection pressure of 10 MPa. The spray evolved in a quiescent optically-accessible vessel pressurize at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3 MPa at ambient temperature of the gas (N2).
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Antonio Agresta
NVH simulations for an automotive component industry represents a convenient mean to compare different solutions and make decisions on design choices based on the predictions of the component vibro-acoustic behavior. This paper presents the work carried out by the Modeling & Simulation Department of Continental Automotive Italy Spa in cooperation with LMS Italy Srl and the Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering of University of Pisa aimed at the vibro-acoustic characterization and comparison of two fuel rails assemblies (FRAs) by mean of simulations in Ansys Workbench & LMS Virtual.Lab. These simulations required a preliminary finite element (FE) modal analysis on the FRAs. To verify the reliability of the FE models, an experimental modal analysis was performed on one of the two fuel rails in free condition. The correlation between FE and test models highlighted some differences: a sensitivity study proved that the differences depend on the modeling of some brazed joints. The results of the following NVH simulations were checked by performing an acoustic impact test on the two FRAs in free condition inside an anechoic chamber.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jonathan Tenenbaum, Michael Shapiro, Leonid Tartakovsky
Two-phase jets are found in a variety of applications, including ink-jet printers, spray cooling, etc. Fuel sprays in internal combustion engines is an application of particular interest because of its direct influence on engine performance, energy efficiency and pollutants formation. Many phenomenological models have been proposed to quantify the temporal behavior of spray properties such as spray penetration with time, spray dispersion angle and cross-sectional averaged fuel concentration. However, most of the existing models have the limitation of providing a one-dimensional description and are thus unable to adequately describe the spatial point-wise spray distribution, in particular the local fuel concentration and mixture velocity. The aim of this study is to develop a more elaborate spray model which allows for calculation of spatial local fuel concentration and mixture velocity. The model is based on the single-phase steady-state laminar axisymmetric jet flow field solution by Schlichting, which is applied for a two-phase jet in the limit of dilute fuel concentration.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza, Danilo D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta Panza
In the present work, an Auto Regressive (AR) model and a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied on vibrational signals, acquired by an accelerometer placed on the cylinder block of an internal combustion engine, for knock detection purposes. To this aim, vibrational signals are acquired on a four cylinder Spark Ignition engine for different engine speeds and spark advances. The same analysis is executed by also using the traditional MAPO (Maximum Amplitude of Pressure Oscillations) index, applied on the in-cylinder pressure waveforms. The results of the three methods are compared and in depth discussed to the aim of highlighting the pros and cons of each methodology. In particular, the problem of fixing a constant threshold level for each running condition is afforded and solved. The examples presented show the capability of the vibration based detection algorithms in accurately monitor the presence of heavy or soft knock phenomena, and to determine its intensity. Therefore, the possibility of implementation in modern on-board control units is foreseen, as well.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Christian Schweikert, David Witt, Dirk Schweitzer, Marco Nicolo, Liu chen
The market potential for products such as scooters and small motorcycles is already self sustaining. However, other applications for small engines can be more fragmented with a wide variety of requirements for the engine control unit. Consequently, the engine control unit is designed to accommodate more features than are necessary for a given application to cover a broader market. The flip side of this approach is to design the engine control unit for a limited application reducing the market size. Neither approach creates a cost efficient product for the producer. It either supplies the market with an electronic control unit that has features not being utilized (wasted costs) or a unit that has limited capabilities reducing the economies of scale (higher costs). When these designs are developed using discrete components these inefficiencies are exacerbated. Integration of these functions at the semiconductor level can mitigate these costs, improve the thermal performance or expand the functional capabilities to include additional vehicular control aspects in the electronic control unit.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Christian Steinbrecher, Bastian Reineke, Wolfgang Fischer, Henning Heikes, Thorsten Raatz
Equipping low cost 2-wheelers with engine management systems (EMS) enables not only a reduction of emissions but also an improvement in fuel consumption and system robustness. These benefits are accompanied by initially higher system costs compared to carburetor systems. In order to reduce the system costs, intelligent software solutions are developed at Bosch, which enable a reduction of the necessary sensors for a port fuel injection system (PFI) and furthermore provide new possibilities for combustion control. One example for these intelligent software solutions is model based evaluation of the engine speed signal. By use of the information in this signal, characteristic features like air charge, indicated mean effective pressure (imep) and combustion phasing are derivable. The present paper illustrates how these features could be used to reduce the system costs and how to improve the fuel consumption and system robustness. Especially in the low cost segment the system robustness is challenged by significant bike-to-bike variations in e.g. compression ratio or valve timing.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yuichi Seki, Keito Negoro, Norimasa Iida, Katsuya matsuura, Hiroshi Sono
This work investigates effects of gas inhomogeneity induced by droplets of fuels and oils on the auto ignition timing and temperature in the direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) engine by means of detailed numerical calculation using multi zone model. Recent researchers pointed out that droplets are made of fuels and oils which mix on the cylinder liner and released from the cylinder liner. During the compression stroke released droplets reach the auto ignition temperature before flame propagation induced by spark ignition. It is called Pre-ignition. When pre-ignition occurring, sometimes severe oscillation which is called Super-knock happens and damages the engine severely. In combustion chamber, there is inhomogeneity caused by temperature and mixture distribution. As for temperature, it is very hot in the center of the combustion chamber, while mixture around the cylinder liner is a relatively low temperature under the influence of the coolant. Concerning fuel distribution, it is caused by direct injection of fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Claudio Annicchiarico, Renzo Capitani
In a Formula SAE, as for almost all racecars, suppressing or limiting the differential action of the differential mechanism is the technique mostly adopted to improve the traction exiting the high lateral acceleration corners. The devices carrying out this function are usually called LSD, “Limited Slip Differentials”, which unbalance the traction force distribution, generating as a secondary effect a yaw torque acting on the vehicle. If the differential action is electronically controlled, this yaw torque can be used as a torque vectoring technique to affect the attitude of car. The yaw torque introduced by an electronically controlled LSD (also called SAD, “Semi-Active Differential”) could suddenly change from oversteering (i.e. pro-yaw) to understeering (i.e. anti-yaw), depending on the riding conditions. Therefore, controlling the vehicle attitude with a SAD could be quite tricky, and its effectiveness could be low if compared to the common torque vectoring systems, which usually act on the brake system of the car.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Tomomi Miyasaka, Kenta Miura, Norikuni Hayakawa, Takashi Ishino, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazushi Tamura, Toshimasa Utaka, Hideki Kamano
Supercharged direct-injection engines are known to have a tendency toward abnormal combustion such as spontaneous low-speed pre-ignition and strong knock because they operate under low-speed, high-load conditions conducive to the occurrence of irregular combustion. It has been hypothesized that one cause of such abnormal combustion is the intrusion of engine oil droplets into the combustion chamber where they become a source of ignition. It has also been reported that varying the composition of engine oil additives can change susceptibility to abnormal combustion. However, the mechanisms involved are not well understood, and it is not clear how the individual components of engine oil additives affect autoignition. In this study, abnormal combustion experiments were conducted to investigate the effect on autoignition of a calcium-based additive that is typically mixed into engine oil to act as a detergent. The experiments were performed with a single-cylinder 4-cycle gasoline engine using a primary reference fuel (PRF 50) into which the calcium salicylate (CaSa)-based detergent was mixed at various ratios.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Kazushi Tamura, Toshimasa Utaka, Hideki Kamano, Norikuni Hayakawa, Tomomi Miyasaka, Takashi Ishino, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Prevention of abnormal combustion is a longstanding problem on spark-ignited engines. Engine oils leaked into combustion chambers have been reported to cause abnormal combustion through auto-ignition followed by knock. Since spontaneous ignition temperature of engine oils is in general much lower than that of fuels due to the difference of carbon number of their hydrocarbon contents, it appears that base oil composition is major determinant of engine oil-induced auto-ignition. However, the latest study showed that engine oil additive chemistry strongly affects the frequency of pre-ignition, a type of abnormal combustion caused by auto-ignition before a spark plug fires. To better understand combustion and improve engine technology, we need to clarify the mechanism of contribution of engine oil additives to abnormal combustion. When engine oils enter in a combustion chamber, non-volatile engine oil additives such as metallic compounds should be deteriorated and deposited on the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Rajarajan Kesavelu, Rajagopalan V R, V Lakshminarasimhan, Pramod S Mehta, S R Chakravarthy
In an era of vigorous engine R&D in automobile industry, there is need to meet stringent fuel economy and emission norms. For this purpose, the understanding of in-cylinder flow processes is critical as they are central to engine combustion and its associated effects. The optical access engines with laser based diagnostics have proved useful for investigating intricacies of in-cylinder motions. Single cylinder engines with smaller bore (< 60 mm) are quite popular on two-wheeler vehicles in Asian countries particularly in India. Though wider optical investigations have been carried out on larger bore engines, not much published works are available on the smaller bore engines close to production series. In this study, an optical engine is developed based on Bowditch design for a mass manufactured 110 cc, 4 stroke, air cooled SI engine used on motorbikes. The over-squared indigenously developed spark-ignited optical engine is designed to have a complete optically-transparent piston crown and a cylinder liner made of quartz.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Norikuni Hayakawa, Kenta Miura, Tomomi Miyasaka, Takashi Ishino, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji, Kazushi Tamura, Toshimasa Utaka, Hideki Kamano
Spontaneous low-speed pre-ignition, strong knock and other abnormal combustion events that occur in supercharged direct-injection engines are viewed as serious issues. The effects of the engine oil and the components of engine oil additives have been pointed out as one cause of such abnormal combustion. However, the mechanisms involved have yet to be elucidated, and it is unclear how the individual components of engine oil additives influence autoignition. This study investigated the effect on autoignition of boundary lubricant additives that are mixed into the engine oil for the purpose of forming a lubricant film on metal surfaces. A high-speed camera was used to photograph and visualize combustion through an optical access window provided in the combustion chamber of the 4-cycle naturally aspirated side-valve test engine. Spectroscopic measurements were also made simultaneously to investigate the characteristics of abnormal combustion in detail. Combustion experiments were conducted using a primary reference fuel (PRF 50) to which various zinc dithiophosphate (ZnDTP)- and molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC)-based additives were added in volumetric ratios ranging from 0-0.7% as typical boundary lubricant additives.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Abhinav Tomar
The original diesel engine is a four-stroke, Ford diesel engine with a compression ratio of 22.9:1. In order to accommodate CNG in diesel engine, the compression ratio has to be reduced to prevent knock. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method using ANSYS simulation software is used for this purpose. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of different compression ratio on the performance of a diesel engine operating on a dual fuel system using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as the main fuel. The engine performance will be investigated in terms of the mixing quality of CNG and air before injection of diesel fuel, temperature and pressure distribution. Based on the simulation results, the optimum compression ratio chosen to operate the CNG-diesel engine without knock is 16.6:1. At this compression ratio, the engine can operate until the normal operating load condition where the wall temperature is 373 K before the engine was knocking.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Vinoth Balaram Ranganathan, Rajarajan Kesavelu, Adrian Spencer, Andrew Wood
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has great potential to reduce CO2 emissions as compared to the well established Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology. It is one of the familiar GDI strategies to have more than one injection in a single engine cycle and it is termed as split injection. Understanding the fuel spray characteristics in GDI technology is essential for achieving better combustion process. In this context, A.Wood [1] studied the spray characteristics of a multi-stream, split-type, Continental injector using shadowgraphy and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurement techniques on an atmospheric test rig. Atmospheric test rig is not very representative of actual in-cylinder conditions. However, the optimisation of GDI engine requires a thorough understanding of fuel spray characteristics under engine -relevant operating conditions. As an extension of the work done by A.Wood, in the present study, the spray characteristics of a three-hole multi-stream GDI injector from Continental is analysed by spraying the fuel into an optical chamber under conditions closer to in-cylinder pressure and temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Ken Naitoh, HIrotaka Sagara, Taro Tamura, Taiki Hashimoto, yoshiyuki Nojima, Masato Tanaka, kentaro kojima, Kenya Hasegawa, Takuya Nakai, Taiki Ikoma, Shouhei Nonaka, Tomoaki Kubota
In our previous reports based on computational experiments and fluid dynamic theory, we proposed a new compressive combustion principle for an inexpensive, lightweight, and relatively quiet engine reactor that has the potential to achieve thermal efficiency over 50% even for small combustion chambers having less than 100 cc. This level of efficiency can be achieved with colliding supermulti-jets that create complete air insulation to encase burned gas around the chamber center. The P-V diagram for this engine concept is between the Otto and Lenoir cycles. We originally developed two small prototype engine systems for gasoline. First one having one rotary valve for pulsating the intake flow and also sixteen nozzles of jets colliding is for examining combustion occurrence. As this prototype has no pistons, the bore size can be varied easily between about 50mm and 15mm. Experimental data basically indicates combustion occurrence. Next, we developed the second one having a strongly-asymmetric double piston system with the supermulti-jets colliding, although there are no poppet valves.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 102046