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Viewing 1 to 30 of 105105
2016-05-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-9144
Marc-Olivier Lacerte, Gabriel Pouliot, Jean-Sébastien Plante, Philippe Micheau
Electric Vehicles (EVs) with single-ratio gearbox provide high levels of smoothness, but using multi-speed gearbox can provide significant benefits in terms of vehicle acceleration, top speed, powertrain cost, mass, and energy consumption. In particular, Automated Manual Transmissions (AMTs) have characteristics of smooth shifts without torque interruption when coupled to a torque bypass clutch. However, conventional friction clutches are not best suited as torque bypass clutches because of their limited controllability and because large amount of heat must be dissipated to slow down the motor during gearshifts. This paper studies the feasibility of a seamless AMT architecture for EVs and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) using an eddy current torque bypass clutch that is highly controllable, robust, low cost, and has no wearable parts.
2016-05-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-9146
Swanand Kulkarni
In a Mild hybrid electric vehicle, a battery serves as a continuous source of energy but is inefficient in supplying peak power demands required during torque assists for short duration. Moreover, the random charging and discharging that result due to varying drive cycle of the vehicle affects the life of the battery. In this paper, an Ultra-capacitor based hybrid energy storage system (HESS) has been developed for mild hybrid vehicle which aims at utilizing the advantages of ultra-capacitors by combining them with lead-acid batteries, to improve the overall performance of the battery, and to increase their useful life. Active current-sharing is achieved by interfacing ultra-capacitor to the battery through a bi-directional boost dc-dc converter.
2016-05-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-9145
Abdullah AL-Refai, Osamah Rawashdeh, Rami Abousleiman
Lithium-Ion batteries are the standard portable power solution to many consumers and industrial applications. These batteries are commonly used in laptop computers, heavy duty devices, unmanned vehicles, commercial airplanes, electric and hybrid cars, cell phones, and many more. Charging these batteries is a delicate process, because it depends on numerous factors such as temperature, cell capacity, and most importantly the power and energy limits of the battery cells. Charging capacity, charging time and battery pack temperature variations are highly dependent on the charging method used. These three factors can be of significant importance in applications with strict charging time requirements or with limited thermal management abilities. In this paper, three charging methods are experimentally studied and analyzed. Constant-current constant-voltage, time pulsed charging method, and the multistage constant current charging method were tested and surveyed.
2016-05-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-9147
Zhiyun Zhang, Miaohua Huang, Yupu Chen, Shuanglong Zhu
In the field of Electric Vehicle (EV), what the driver is most concerned with is that whether the value of the battery’s capacity is less than the failure threshold because of the degradation. And the failure threshold means instability of the battery, which is of great danger for drives and passengers. So the capacity is an important indicator to monitor the state of health (SOH) of the battery. In laboratory environment, standard performance tests can be carried out to collect a number of related data, which are available for regression prediction in practical application, such as the on-board battery pack. Firstly, we make use of the NASA battery data set to form the observed data sequence for regression prediction. And a practical method is proposed to determine the minimum embedding dimension and get the recurrence formula, with which a capacity model is built.
2016-01-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9084
Seyedmohammad Shams, Peng Yang, Rani Elhajjar
The disk spring offers the potential of significant weight savings when designed with continuous fiber reinforced composite materials. The internal stresses in a disk spring are ideally suited for composite material application due to their superior resistance to in-plane and bending stresses. In this study, a composite laminate disk spring is designed, analyzed and fabricated to take advantage of the low specific strength and weight and high damage tolerance of composite laminates. The design of the disk composite spring considers effects of the laminate stacking sequence and the geometric variables on the disk spring’s mechanical performance. A continuum damage finite element analysis approach is used to understand the damage initiation and evolution as a function of applied load. Experimental analysis and a progressive damage analysis based on virtual crack closure technique are performed to evaluate the damage tolerance of the disk spring under fatigue loadings.
2015-11-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9075
Stefan Heitzig, Alexander Weinebeck, Hubertus Murrenhoff
In this paper compatibility studies of biofuel candidates and similar liquids with the elastomeric materials NBR and FKM are presented. The results gained with defined reference elastomers are compared to results gained with the materials used in the technical application. For this purpose test specimen are prepared from fuel hoses and exactly the same material used for shaft seals of fuel pumps. The experimental results are subsequently used to evaluate prediction approaches based on the HSP- and QSPR-method. Finally a comparison of these two approaches is given.
2015-11-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9074
Seung Yeon Yang, Nimal Naser, Suk Ho Chung, Junepyo Cha
Abstract Effects of temperature, pressure and global equivalence ratio on total ignition delay time in a constant volume spray combustion chamber were investigated for diesel fuel along with the primary reference fuels (PRFs) of n-heptane and iso-octane in relatively low temperature conditions to simulate unsteady spray ignition behavior. A KAUST Research ignition quality tester (KR-IQT) was utilized, which has a feature of varying temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio using a variable displacement fuel pump. A gradient method was adopted in determining the start of ignition in order to compensate pressure increase induced by low temperature heat release. Comparison of this method with other existing methods was discussed. Ignition delay times were measured at various equivalence ratios (0.5-1.7) with the temperatures of initial charge air in the range from 698 to 860 K and the pressures in the range of 1.5 to 2.1 MPa, pertinent to low temperature combustion (LTC) conditions.
2015-11-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9076
Nadir Yilmaz, Stephen Davis, Jacob James, Alan Ferry, Bernie Thompson
A tool was developed by Illinois Tool Works (ITW) called the "AutoEKG®FSA" (AutoEKG Fuel System Analyzer) which evaluates combustion quality in an engine by measuring the exhaust pulses of the engine. While many factors are known to influence combustion quality and the wave pattern produced by the instrument, the primary factor in this study was the presence of an asphalt-like material in the air intake system. By examining the waveforms measured by the AutoEKGFSA system before and after carbon cleaning, it has been observed that the engines studied not only run better after the removal of carbon in the system, but the improvements may be measured using this system.
2015-10-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-9018
In this particular field study, the authors have demonstrated that telematics can be used to monitor and improve safe and fuel-efficient driving behavior. Telematics was used to monitor various driver performance parameters: unsafe events (sudden accelerations and hard braking expressed as Yellow and Red events, depending on severity), speeding, engine revolutions per minute (RPM), and fuel economy (miles per gallon). The drivers consisted of two groups: drivers of day cabs and drivers of sleeper cabs. The drivers of both groups were monitored during a baseline period during which no feedback, coaching, or rewards were provided. Then, the drivers of both groups were monitored during an intervention period, during which drivers were provided with feedback, coaching, and rewards.
2015-10-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9019
Jean-Baptiste Gallo, Robert L. Russell, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin
With funding from the California Energy Commission, the California Hybrid, Efficient and Advanced Truck Research Center, contracted with the University of California, Riverside’s College of Engineering to evaluate the performance of a Class 5 battery electric urban delivery vehicle over two standardized driving cycles and a steady state range test on a chassis dynamometer. The test vehicle, a Smith Electric Newton Step Van, was equipped with a proprietary data acquisition system which was set to record a wide variety of vehicle parameters at a 1 Hz sampling period. In addition, the chassis dynamometer was set to measure and record additional parameters. Lastly, a portable J1772 EVSE recorded both grid energy and power at 15 minutes interval. This project provides a controlled test evaluation of the Smith Electric Newton Step Van. It recognizes the vehicle’s potential for a successful delivery vehicle and identifies several important findings and areas that will need further research.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2789
Igor Taratorkin, Alexander Taratorkin, Viktor Derzhanskii
The durability of hydromechanical transmissions of l wheeled chasses (WC), which operate in rugged environment, is limited due to part failure between the engine and the torque converter impeller. In the design under consideration, backlash opening in gears forms the highly nonlinear system and subharmonic resonances, which are not eliminated by existing methods. The research objective is to define methods of reducing hydromechanical transmissions (HMT) dynamic loading of WC, to develop and implement conventional designs providing tuning out of subharmonic resonant oscillations. On the basis of the developed mathematical model the dynamics of the highly nonlinear system is investigated, consistent patterns of resonant mode occurrences are established, which is experimentally confirmed.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2847
Adam Kouba, Jiri Navratil, Bohumil Hnilicka, Patrick C. Niven
Internal combustion engines continue grow more complex every day out of necessity. Legislation and increasing customer demand means that advanced technologies like multi-path EGR, advanced boosting, and aftertreatment systems continue to drive ever-expanding requirements for engine control to improve performance, fuel economy, and reduce emissions. Therefore, controller development and implementation are becoming more costly, both in terms of time and the monetary investment in engine hardware. To help reduce these costs, a sophisticated tool chain has been created which allows a real-time, physical, crank-angle resolved 1D engine model to be implemented on a rapid prototyping ECU which is then used in the control strategy of a running engine. Model-based controllers have been developed and validated to perform as well as or better than controllers using traditional sensors.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2879
Evandro Silva
In recent years the commercial vehicle industry, specifically the heavy duty truck product line, has seen a rapid increase in the replacement of pure mechanical systems by electronic controlled systems. Engine, transmission, brakes, lighting, clusters, etc. are all monitored and/or controlled electronically. The adoption of electronic systems created a substantial change in the complexity of our products. Currently Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) displayed on instrument clusters, in the majority of the cases, are no longer generated by a single sensor/component failure, instead these DTCs are triggered by a system monitor flag, result of a below average performance or a failure of an entire system. This new level of complexity makes it very difficult for the current diagnostic methods and tools, to identify what is causing the equipment to operate below ideal conditions.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2895
Prasad Vegendla, Tanju Sofu, Rohit Saha, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Long-Kung Hwang
This paper investigates the aerodynamic influence of multiple on-highway trucks in different platooning configurations. Complex pressure fields are generated on the highways due to interference of multiple vehicles. This pressure field causes an aerodynamic drag to be different than the aerodynamic drag of vehicle in no traffic condition. In order to study, the effect of platooning, three-dimensional modeling and numerical simulations are performed using STAR-CCM+® commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. The aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles are analyzed in five different platooning configurations with two and three vehicles in single and multiple lanes. A significant Yaw Averaged Aerodynamic Drag (YAD) reduction is observed in both leading and trailing vehicles. It is noted that YAD is based on the average result of three different yaw angles at 0, -6 and 6o. In single lane traffic, YAD reduction is up to 8% and 38% in leading and trailing vehicles, respectively.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2860
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to power train calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive effect. The disruptive impact can be realized when AI application finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users. For example, automation of vehicle or machine operation can dramatically improve the efficiency. However, there is still a gap between the current technologies and the one that can fully enable the vehicle or machine intelligence including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2866
Saeil Jeon, Stacey Spencer, Paul Joiner
Lightweight solution is one of the keywords that we see every day. Developing smart, light and durable materials is one focal area that is inevitable to be done in the ground transportation sector. Another angle to look for is the protection and beautification of the substrate finish where surface treatment technology stands out. Combining both aspects is crucial in the industry for customer satisfaction. Recycled carbon fibers are used to form the reinforcement in the composite side, where they are infused or mixed with the matrix materials either in SMC (Sheet Mould Compound) or BMC (Bulk Mould Compound) format, depending upon the application. Glass fibers are usually used for the practical application, however considering further weight cut on the component, carbon fibers cannot be overlooked for their superior mechanical properties. However, due to the cost of carbon fibers many times the application may be over-designed.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2867
Sanket Pawar
Off-road commercial vehicles work for extended duration of time in the field on daily basis, typically more than 10-12 hours a day. Due to this, they need to spend substantial amount of time working in dark conditions in remote areas without compromising on efficiency and safety aspects. At such places proper lighting conditions are not available and off-road vehicles are bestowed with the task of fulfilling this need on their own. To secure safety, sufficient visibility is required around the vehicle. Due to their massive size and height, these off-road commercial vehicles need several high power work lights on each side of the vehicle to ensure flooding of the area around it with light thereby creating suitable working conditions for operator. Work lights consume high amperage of current. Higher the intensity of light higher would be the rating of the light in terms of wattage. Since, the battery voltage is fixed; it is the sinking current of the light that increases with wattage.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2871
Mounika Katragadda, Kalyan Deepak Kolla, Venkata Suresh Yaparala
Fatigue that is induced due to vibration is known as vibration induced fatigue. There are two approaches to evaluate this, viz., time & frequency domain. A straight forward and widely used method is rainflow counting technique in time domain. This counting algorithm is readily available and apart from the time history, it needs only one variable input (number of stress ranges). In case of longer time histories, time domain approach may consume lot of time and resource, which shifts our interest towards frequency domain methods. In frequency domain, Dirlik's method is proven to be robust and gives closer results to time domain. Since Dirlik's approach is probabilistic, there are different variables (such as stress ranges, scaling factor for RMS value to predict maximum stress etc.) to be considered for cumulative fatigue damage evaluation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2851
Regulatory emission requirements as well as owning and operating cost are primary market drivers for OEMs and component suppliers to focus on more efficient machine technologies. As a result, new technologies are being developed in the area of Hydraulics, Power Trains, Electronics, Engines and controls of these subsystems and components. Some of the technology potentials have been known for quite some time but were only just partially commercialized. Examples of these technologies are: more efficient and electrically controlled hydraulic systems, CVT transmissions, electric drives, reduction in engine speeds including their integration. Although automotive industry has been leading technology developments, in the recent decade significant work has been done in the off-highway applications.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2888
Devadatta Mukutmoni, Tristan Donley, Jaehoon Han, Karthik Mahadevan Muthuraman, P. David Campbell, Tom Mertz
Design and evaluation of construction equipments and vehicles constitute a very important but expensive and time consuming part of the engineering process. This is especially so because of the large number of variants and the relatively small production volume of each variant leading to large costs of engineering and design of vehicles as a proportion of total sales. A simulation based methodology could potentially reduce the cost and time of the entire design process. In this study, we look into an alternative simulation based approach to the design process. However, given the enormity of the task, we limit the scope of this investigation to design evaluation and improvement for thermal considerations only. In particular, thermal evaluation of the electronic control units are looked into.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2854
Timothy Opperwall, Andrea Vacca
Hydraulic systems have an important role in both on and off-highway vehicles. Designing for improved noise performance of fluid power systems is an essential part of improving current systems and opening up new areas where fluid power can bring improvements in efficiency and performance. As the technology advances and spreads to lighter applications, the noise generation and propagation due to hydraulic components becomes a primary design concern. The present research includes development of acoustic radiation models for noise radiation from hydraulic pumps and motors. The need for new methods for identification of noise sources and transmission is evident in order to direct future modeling efforts. Discovering the key features of noise generation from both simulation and experimental techniques allows for improved techniques to improve the noise performance of fluid power components and systems.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2728
Paul C. Cain
OEM benefit: Vehicle manufacturers desire continuous feedback in monitoring key safety sub-assemblies. In this application, engineers are calculating the remaining brake pad life by monitoring the current thickness of the brake pad friction material. This information is used in scheduling preventative maintenance activities and avoiding safety incidents. Unplanned machine down time and field repair costs in earthmoving equipment is cost prohibitive. This technology allows OEM's to have high confidence, continuous feedback on this critical vehicle safety feature avoiding expensive, unplanned repairs and improving field "up time" performance. Application challenge: Developing a reliable linear position sensor that is suitable for continuous monitoring of brake pad material thickness in a high pressure, high temperature, high vibration and contaminated environments typical of large construction (earthmoving) vehicles.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2881
Dhruv Gupta, Vasu Kumar, Soumya Roy, Naveen Kumar
The danger posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Man’s energy requirements are touching astronomical heights. The natural resources of the Earth can no longer cope with it as their rate of consumption far outruns their rate of regeneration. The automotive sector is without a doubt a chief contributor to this mayhem as fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. The harmful emissions from vehicles using these fuels are destroying our forests and contaminating our water bodies and even the air that we breathe. The need of the hour is to look not only for new alternative energy resources but also clean energy resources. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2901
Shaoyun Sun, Genghua Liao, Qiang Fu, Kelong Lu, Jing Zhao, Zhengzheng Li, Jiaquan Chen, Guang Shi, Sacha Jelic, Bo Li
Trucks are designed to carry heavy load, which implies high demanding design criteria for save operation. Heavy load means a lot of energy is needed to displace the load. During a stop, the kinetic energy is transferred into heat, which can be problematic in case of excessive proportions and/or when the heat cannot be removed from the system properly. The brake system therefore needs to be designed such to be able to absorb large of amount of heat and transfer the heat out of its system by either convection, conduction and/or radiation. All three heat transfer modes play an important role since the drum brakes of trucks are not much exposed to external airflow, a significant difference from disk brakes of passenger cars analyzed in previous studies. This makes it a complex heat transfer problem which is not easy to understand. Numerical methods provide insight by visualization of the different heat transfer modes.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Cost-reduction and cost competitiveness have emerged as major strategic tools to an enterprise and are being used all over the world to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value-creation by enriching the planet, people and the economy should be the key drivers leading to cost-reduction strategies in any business. The main objectives of this paper are to explain the Processes and Principles of Cost-reduction in technology-transfer to low-cost emerging economies to achieve sustainable cost-reduction and create a culture of cost-consciousness throughout an organization. DivgiWarner has not only designed and developed but has also been practicing unique processes of cost-reduction utilizing various tools as, 1. Value Analysis and Value Engineering 2. Cost-reduction through productivity improvement 3. Supply Chain Management ( SCM) 4. Lean Manufacturing 5. Total Quality Management (TQM) 6. Control over fixed Costs 7.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2878
Peter Subke, Michael Eberl
SAE J1939 is the synonym for a CAN-based in-vehicle network for heavy-duty road-vehicles (trucks and buses) and non-road mobile machinery (NRMM). The SAE J1939 standards collection consists of 18 parts and 2 digital annexes. SAE J1939-21 (Data Link Layer) describes the data link layer using the CAN protocol with 29-bit identifiers, SAE J1939-73 (Application Layer – Diagnostics) includes the specification of diagnostic messages (DMs). The software components of external test equipment can be described by software interfaces (APIs). ISO 22900 (Modular Vehicle Communication Interface) contains the description of the D-Server that comes with the D-Server API for the diagnostic application and the D-PDU API for the connection to the in-vehicle network (e.g. CAN). ISO 22901-2 (D-PDU API) references SAE J1939-73 and SAE J1939-21 as “Truck and Bus CAN”. D-Server based external test equipment is powered by data which is described in ODX.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2845
Qi Chen
Recent years have witnessed an increase in the number of electrical loads being driven by semiconductor devices in the body control module or BCM rather than by relays in a typical truck with a 24V vehicle power net. This paper presents the major challenges caused by the higher voltage class of the truck supply and the longer cables, followed by an analysis of some key issues related to the design of truck BCMs to drive different loads. It offers some general guidance on practical design issues to BCM designers, such as an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of different BCM architectural topologies, how to make a choice between a relay or a semiconductor driver, knowledge of the requirements of semiconductors used in truck applications etc.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2891
The passive flow control using Jet Boat Tail is applied to a generic truck model to investigate the drag reduction effect. Wind tunnel testing is conducted with a CFD simulation using Large Eddy Simulation(LES). The truck model has the dimension of 220mmx200mmx150mm in the length, height and width direction respectively. The test speed is 30m/s. The wake flow field is measured in wind tunnel by 3D stereo Particle Image Velocimetry. The model is tripped to trigger the fully turbulent boundary layer. The wake width and depth is substantially reduced and indicates a significant drag reduction. The LES resolves the unsteady transient flow field with vortex shedding and coherent vortex structure. The jet boat tail shows an effect of suction of the boundary layer at the end of the truck model and it substantially thinners the boundary layer. The LES shows a drag reduction of 13% up to the realistic truck Reynolds number.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2880
Fabio Luz Almeida, Philip Zoldak, Marcos de Mattos Pimenta, Pedro Teixeira Lacava
The use of numerical simulations in the development processes of engineering products has been more frequent, since it enables us to predict premature failures and to study new promising and valuable concepts. In industry, numerical simulation usually has the function of reducing the necessary number of validation tests before spending huge amount of resources on alternatives with less chance to succeed. In the context of an economically committed country, the matter of cargo transportation is of great importance, since it affects the trading of consumer goods between cities, states and their flow towards exportation. Thus, the internal combustion (ICE) Diesel cycle engines play an important role in Brazil, since they are extensively used in automotive applications and commercial cargo transportation, mainly due to their relevant advantage in fuel consumption and reliability.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2886
Kebing Tang, Li He, Yao Zhao, Heinz Friz, Bo Li
The development of a new Dongfeng Heavy truck had very strict targets for fuel consumption. As the aerodynamic drag plays a crucial role for the fuel consumption, a low drag value had to be achieved. It was therefore essential to include evaluation and optimization of the aerodynamics in the development process. Because wind tunnel facilities were not available, the complete aerodynamics development was based on digital simulation. The major portion of the aerodynamic optimization was carried out during the styling phase where mirrors, sun visor, front bumper and aero devices were optimized for drag reduction. For optimizing corner vanes and mud guards, self-soiling from the wheel spray was included in the analysis. The aero results did also show that cooling air flow rates are sufficiently high to ensure proper cooling. During the detailed engineering phase an increase of the drag above the target required further optimization work to finally reach the target.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 105105