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2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2419
Riccardo Amirante, Caterina Casavola, Elia Distaso, Paolo Tamburrano
A simply way measuring the pressure inside cylinder of internal combustion engine is proposed in this paper. It is well known that the in-cylinder pressure is one of the most significant variables describing the combustion status in internal combustion engines. The pressure as a feedback variable allows a closed loop monitoring and control techniques in order to improve engine performance and to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. This control strategy has been limited by costs, reliability and lifetime of the cylinder pressure sensors. The present paper proposes a very simple and low cost experimental device for measuring pressure inside the combustion chamber, developed for engine control and monitoring applications. The sensor exploits the strains measurements of the external wall of cylinder, which is indicative of the pressure information during the combustion process.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2424
Gabriel Ingesson, Lianhao Yin, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestal
In low-temperature combustion concepts such as partially premixed combustion, the ignition delay should be long enough in order to ensure sufficient fuel and air mixing. It is also necessary that the combustion timing is controlled with sufficient accuracy for high thermal efficiency Since the ignition delay and combustion timing are intimately coupled, the decoupling of these two quantities gives rise to an interesting multiple-input, multiple-output control problem. This article investigates model-based simultaneous closed-loop control of the ignition delay and combustion phasing in a multi-cylinder heavy-duty DI engine running on a gasoline fuel mixture. Combustion information is extracted from an in-cylinder pressure sensor, while combustion phasing and ignition delay are controlled by choosing injection timing and controlling the gas mixture temperature and EGR ratio.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2426
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Mattia Venditti, Yixin Yang
New methodologies have been developed to optimize EGR rate and injection timing in diesel engines, with the aim of minimizing fuel consumption (FC), NOx and soot engine-out emissions. The approach entails the application of a recently developed steady-state engine model, which includes the simulation of the combustion process, of the in-cylinder pressure and brake torque, as well as of the NOx and soot emission levels. The released chemical energy was simulated by means of a predictive Heat Release Rate (HRR) model that is based on the accumulated fuel mass approach. The in-cylinder pressure has been simulated by means of a single-zone model, which requires the net energy release as an input. The latter was evaluated starting from the chemical energy release and evaluating the heat transfer of the charge with the walls.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2427
Nicolo Cavina, Andrea Borelli, Lucio Calogero, Ruggero Cevolani, Luca Poggio
The paper presents possible solutions for developing fast and reliable turbocharger models, to be used mainly for control applications. This issue is of particular interest today for SI engines since, due to the search for consistent CO2 reduction, extreme downsizing concepts require highly boosted air charge solutions to compensate for power and torque de-rating. For engines presenting at least four in-line cylinders, twin-entry turbines offer the ability of maximizing the overall energy conversion efficiency, and therefore such solutions are actually widely adopted. This work presents a critical review of the most promising (and recent) modeling approaches for automotive turbochargers, highlighting the main open issues especially in the field of turbine models, and proposing possible improvements.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2429
Enrico Corti, Claudio Forte, Gian Marco Bianchi, Davide Moro
Knocking combustions heavily influence the efficiency of Spark Ignition engines, limiting the compression ratio and sometimes preventing the use of Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) Spark Advance (SA). A detailed analysis of knocking events can help improving the engine performance and diagnostic strategies. An effective way is to use advanced 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation for the analysis and prediction of the combustion process. The standard 3D CFD approach based on RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) equations allows the analysis of the average engine cycle. However, the knocking phenomenon is heavily affected by the Cycle to Cycle Variation (CCV): the effects of CCV (Cycle by Cycle Variability) on knocking combustions are then taken into account, maintaining a RANS CFD approach, while representing a complex running condition, where knock intensity changes from cycle to cycle.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2435
Gerardo Valentino, Simona Merola, Luca Marchitto, Cinzia Tornatore
The paper reports the results of an experimental investigation carried out in a prototype optically accessible compression ignition engine fuelled with different blends of commercial diesel and n-butanol. Thermodynamic analysis and exhaust gas measurements were supported by optical investigations performed through a wide optical access to the combustion chamber. UV-visible digital imaging and 2D chemiluminescence were applied to characterize the combustion process in terms of spatial and temporal occurrence of auto-ignition, flame propagation, soot and OH evolution. The paper illustrates the results of the spray combustion for diesel and n-butanol-diesel blends at 20% and 40% volume fraction, exploring a single and double injection strategy (pilot+main) from a common rail multi-jet injection system. Tests were performed setting a pilot+main strategy with a fixed dwell time and different starts of injection.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2439
Pablo Garcia, Per Tunestal
In the last decades, emission legislation on pollutant emissions generated by road transportation sector has become the main driving force for internal combustion engine development. Approximately 20% of worldwide emissions of carbon dioxide from fuel combustion come from the transportation sector, and road vehicles contribute up to 80% of those emissions [1]. Light-duty methane gas engines are usually spark-ignited due to similar combustion characteristics for methane gas and gasoline. Since spark ignition requires a low compression ratio to avoid knock problems, gas engines have lower efficiency than diesel engines. A combustion concept that has been successfully applied on large stationary engines and to some extent on heavy-duty engines is dual-fuel combustion, where a compression-ignited diesel pilot injection is used to ignite a homogeneous charge of methane gas and air.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2440
Dávid Kovács, Peter Eilts
A variable air path gives further possibilities regarding the reduction of emissions, fuel consumption and performance increase. One of the possibilities is the Miller cycle, which is known as an effective way to reduce the process temperatures and so the NOx emissions. The present paper discusses the potentials of this strategy for HD diesel engines with the goal of defining, analyzing and quantifying the benefits and the effects caused. The measurements were carried out on a heavy duty single cylinder diesel test engine equipped with an in-house developed camless variable valve actuation system. Further a flexible test environment was required to isolate the effects caused by the adjustment of the valve timing from the other engine parameters. The Miller cycle was investigated in the upper load range by advancing and retarding the intake valve closing. The first part of the investigations shows the isolated effect of the Miller strategy.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2441
Robert Morgan, Andrew Banks, Andrew Auld, Morgan Heikal, Christopher lenartowicz
Diesel fuel injection pressures have increased steadily on heavy duty engines over the last twenty years and pressures as high as 3000 bar are now possible. This was driven by the need to control toxic exhaust emissions, in particular particulate emissions using in-cylinder strategies . With the introduction of efficient aftertreament systems for both particulate and NOx emissions control, there is less demand for in cylinder emissions control especially considering the drive for improved fuel economy. In this paper, we consider the benefit of high fuel injection pressure for a number of emissions control strategies. A test programme was undertaken on a single cylinder heavy duty research engine installed at the University of Brighton, in collaboration with Ricardo. The engine was fitted with the Delphi F2 fuel injection system, capable of 3000 bar injection pressure and multiple fuel injections.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2444
YiLong Zhang, Renlin Zhang, Sanghoon Kook
Soot particles from common-rail diesel engines are so small that can easily penetrate deep into the human pulmonary system, causing serious health issues. In this regard, nano-scale internal structures of diesel soot particles provide useful information about the reactivity and toxicity but little is known about the variations of carbon fringe structures during complex soot formation processes occurring inside the engine cylinder. To fill this gap, this paper presents experimental methods for direct sampling and nanostructure analysis of in-flame soot particles in a working diesel engine. The soot particles are collected onto a lacey carbon-coated grid and then imaged in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). The HR-TEM images are post-processed using a Matlab-based code to obtain key nanostructure parameters such as carbon fringe length, fringe-to-fringe separation distance, and tortuosity.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2443
Jesus Benajes, Jaime Martin, Antonio Garcia, David Villalta, Alok Warey, Vicent Domenech, Alberto Vassallo
In the last two decades engine research has been mainly focused on reducing pollutant emissions. This fact together with growing awareness about the impacts of climate change are leading to an increase in the importance of the efficiency over other criteria in the design of internal combustion engines (ICE). In this framework, the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls can be considered as one of the main sources of indicated efficiency diminution. In particular, in modern direct-injection diesel engines, the radiation emission from soot particles can constitute a significant component of the efficiency losses. Thus, the main of objective of the current research was to evaluate the amount of energy lost to soot radiation relative to the input fuel chemical energy during the combustion event under several representative engine loads and speeds. Moreover, the current research characterized the impact of different engine operating conditions on radiation heat transfer.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2445
Carlo Beatrice, Gabriele Di Blasio, Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
In this paper, a detailed combustion and emission analysis is carried out on both metal and optical research light duty diesel engines equipped with up-to-date combustion architecture. Both engines were fed by glycerol ethers mixture (GEM) in blend of 20% v/v within a commercial diesel fuel. The engines run in significant operating points in the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) emission homologation area. The results of the experimental campaign on the metal engine show comparable performances between the diesel/GEM blend and the diesel fuel and demonstrate benefits mainly in terms of soot production and particle size distribution. In particular, the particles diameters of diesel/GEM blend shift toward smaller dimensions and the total number decreases. Moreover, at lower load conditions, the outputs show a worsening of the unburnt mainly ascribable to the fuel characteristics.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2476
Christian Pötsch, Laura Sophie Baumgartner, Daniel Koch, Felix Bernhard, Bastian Beyfuss, Georg Wachtmeister, Donatus Wichelhaus
Alongside with the severe restrictions according to technical regulations of the corresponding racing series (air and/or fuel mass flow), the optimization of the mixture-formation in SI-race engines is one of the most demanding challenges with respect to engine performance. Bearing in mind its impact on the ignition behavior and the following combustion, the physical processes during mixture-formation play a vital role not only in respect of the engine’s efficiency, fuel consumption, and exhaust gas emissions but also on engine performance. Furthermore, abnormal combustion phenomena such as engine knock may be enhanced by insufficient mixture-formation. This can presumably be explained by the strong influence of the spatial distribution of the air-fuel-ratio on the inflammability of the mixture as well as the local velocity of the turbulent flame front.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2478
Johannes Palmer, Mogan Ramesh, Valeri Kirsch, Manuel Reddemann, Reinhold Kneer
Fuel blends are one possible solution to improve the performance of biofuels in engines. Two candidates for a biofuel blend are the linear C8H18O isomers 1-octanol and di-n-butyl ether (DNBE). Both fuels feature an increased amount of oxygen that reduces soot emissions in a diesel engine. However, material properties differ significantly and a different type of spray mixing and combustion is expected. The reduced reactivity of 1-octanol causes a longer ignition delay that allows an extended spray mixing phase for better homogenization. The lower reactivity of 1-octanol comes along with increased HC and CO emissions. DNBE in contrary is more volatile and has a short ignition. The high Cetane number of DNBE makes it an ideal blend component for 1-octanol in order to act as an ignition booster without losing any positive effects in terms of soot emissions.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2477
Ezio Mancaruso, Renato Marialto, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Massimo Cardone
Blends of propane-diesel fuel can be used in direct injection diesel engines to improve the air-fuel mixing and the premixed combustion phase, and to reduce pollutant emissions. The potential benefits to use propane in Diesel engines are both environmental and economic; furthermore, its use does not require changes to the compression ratio of conventional diesel engines. The present paper describes an experimental investigation of injection process for different liquid preformed blends of propane-diesel fuel in an optically accessible Common Rail diesel engine. To operate with a blend of propane–diesel fuel slight modification of the injection system were required. Pure diesel fuel and two propane-diesel mixtures at different mass ratio have been tested (20% and 40% in mass of propane named P_20 and P_40).
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2484
Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Alberto Rinaldini
An interesting alternative to the first or second generation of biodiesels is the oil derived from microalgae. Biofuels from microalgae are classified as third generation, both because they do not compete with food crops in land use, as done by the first generation, and for their distinguishing properties such as: very rapid growth rate, high CO2 fixation capability and high content of lipids. While the use of first generation biodiesels on different types of compression ignition engines is well documented in the open literature, much less information is available on algal fuels. In fact, the influence on combustion and pollutant emissions is not definitively assessed, depending on the combination of the specific features of both fuel and engine. The aim of this paper is to analyze the combustion process in an industrial engine fueled by an algal Biodiesel, blended with standard Diesel fuel.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2485
Tamara Ottenwaelder, Thomas Raffius, Christian Schulz, Philipp Adomeit, Gerd Grunefeld, Stefan Pischinger
In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this reason in this paper a blend out of 1-octanol and di-n-butylether and pure di-n-butylether are investigated in comparison to n-Heptane as diesel- like fuel. The alternative fuels have a different combustion behavior particularly concerning important combustion parameters like ignition delay and mixture formation. Especially the formation of pollutants like nitrogen oxides in the combustion of alternative fuels is of global interest. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is important to design new engine geometries or implement a new calibration of the engine. In previous measurements in a single cylinder engine was it found out that both alternative fuels form nearly no soot emissions.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2482
Wolfgang Mühlbauer, Sebastian Lorenz, Dieter Brueggemann
In view of finite fossil energy sources and discussions about CO2 as a main cause for climate warming, a scientific and engineering challenge is to replace fossil by alternative diesel fuels. Relating to more strict European emission standards, diesel engines have to meet strong limits for particulate number emissions. Biogenic diesel fuels of the first generation like biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters from rapeseed, soybean and palm oil) are under critical discussion. Its production is even in direct competition with foodstuff and needs extended cultivated areas. Therefore, many research groups have worked on the production of biogenic fuels of the second generation in the last few years. These fuels could be derived from cellulosic sources like plant material, which is not used for foodstuff production. According to recent studies, di-n-butyl ether (DNBE) is one of the promising second generation biofuels, which could be synthesized via etherification of n-butanol.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2490
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Ethanol is the most promising alternative fuel for spark ignition (SI) engines. Typically, it is blended with gasoline. However, in the last years great attention is paid to the dual fueling, ethanol and gasoline are injected simultaneously. This paper aims to analyze the better methods, blending or dual fueling, to best exploit the potential of ethanol in improving engine performance and reducing pollutant emissions. The experimental activity was carried out in a small displacement single cylinder engine, representative of 2-3 wheel vehicle engines or of 3-4 cylinder small displacement automotive engines. It was equipped with a prototype gasoline direct injection (GDI) head. The tests were carried out at 3000 rpm, 4000 rpm and 5000 rpm full load. The investigated engine operating conditions are representative of the homologation urban driving cycle. The gaseous and particle emissions were measured at the exhaust by means of a gas analyzer and a smoke meter.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2488
Martin Pechout, Ales Dittrich, Martin Mazac, Michal Vojtisek-Lom
Butanol, which can be produced from biomass, has been suggested as an alternative to ethanol, due to its higher energy density, lower oxygen content and more favorable hygroscopic and corrosive properties. In the Czech Republic, E85 is widely sold at fuel stations despite a minimum of registered flexible-fuel vehicles. It is therefore used in ordinary vehicles, both with and without aftermarket control units. The potential of ordinary automobiles to run on butanol, and the associated effects on exhaust emissions, has been therefore investigated. A Škoda Felicia car with a throttle body injection and a Škoda Fabia car with a multi-point port injection has been run on gasoline and mixtures of gasoline with ethanol, with n-butanol, and with isobutanol (2-methyl-1-propanol), containing up to 85% of alcohol by volume. An auxiliary control unit has been used with higher alcohol content. On each fuel, both cars were driven multiple times along a local test route.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2500
Nic van Vuuren, Gabriele Brizi, Giacomo Buitoni, Lucio Postrioti, Carmine Ungaro
One of the favored automotive exhaust aftertreatment solutions used for nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions reductions is referred to as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), which comprises a catalyst that facilitates the reactions of ammonia (NH3) with the exhaust nitrogen oxides (NOx). It is customary with these systems to generate the NH3 by injecting a liquid aqueous urea solution, referred to as AUS-32, and also known under its commercial name of AdBlue® in Europe, and DEF – Diesel Exhaust Fluid – in the USA. The urea solution is injected into the exhaust and transformed to NH3 by various mechanisms for the SCR reactions. Understanding the spray performance of the AUS-32 injector is critical to proper optimization of the SCR injection system. Results were previously presented from imaging of an AUS-32 injector spray under hot exhaust conditions at the injector spray exit for an exhaust injection application.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2493
Mario Milanese, Mario Bonansone
Low Carbon fuels will play a relevant role in the transportation sector contributing, over the powertrain technology progress, to mitigate global CO2 emissions. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), mainly composed by methane, is one of the best candidate thanks to its chemical composition and to its wide diffusion and use. Blending Hydrogen in Natural Gas could represent a further step for a better CO2 footprint (considering renewable or biohydrogen) but also to optimize the combustion process, increasing the engine thermal efficiency and reducing pollutant formation. On the other hand, capability to automatically adapt the engine parameters to variable concentrations of Hydrogen in Natural Gas (in the range from 0% to 40% by volume) is a mandatory step to maintain engine performance, emissions and efficiency.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2532
Reinhard Ratzberger, Thomas Kraxner, Jochen Pramhas, Klaus Hadl, Helmut Eichlseder, Ludwig Buergler
The continuously decreasing emission limits lead to a growing importance of exhaust aftertreatment in diesel engines. Hence methods for achieving a rapid catalyst light off after engine cold start and for maintaining the catalyst temperature during low load operation will become more and more necessary. The present work evaluates several valve timing strategies concerning their ability for doing so. For this purpose simulations as well as experimental investigations were conducted. A special focus of simulation was on pointing out relevance of exhaust temperature and mass flow for these thermomanagement tasks. An increase of exhaust temperature is beneficial for both heat up catalyst and maintaining catalyst temperature. In case of the exhaust massflow, high values are advantageous only in case of a catalyst heat up process, while maintaining catalyst temperature is supported by a low mass flow.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2525
Luigi De Simio, Sabato Iannaccone, Michele Gambino, Veniero Giglio, Natale Rispoli, Gianluca Barbolini, Dario Catanese, Marco Ferrari, Walter Lo Casale
This paper presents an experimental study on a 2-stroke SI engine, used on small portable tools for gardening or agriculture, aimed to identify possible correlations between parameters related to ionization current and air/fuel mixture richness, considering different fuels and spark plug wear. This, to realize a simple system to control the engine parameters and adapt them to engine aging and fuel type changing. The engine was fed with commercial gasoline, low octane number gasoline, alkylate gasoline and a blend of 80% gasoline and 20% ethanol. In all tests carried out with varying engine speed and spark advance the ionization signal was characterized by a single peak, resulting in the impossibility of distinguishing chemical and thermal ionization. All data collected were analyzed looking for correlations between all the available data of CO emissions and several characteristic parameters obtained from the ionization signal.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2533
Mirko Bovo, Joop Somhorst
The focus on engine thermal management is rapidly increasing due to the significant effect of heat losses on fuel consumption, engine performance and emissions. Thermal management is particularly relevant during the engine warm-up process. Engines are complex, multifunctional, highly three dimensional machines for which it is particularly challenging to model all relevant heat interactions. A modern approach to the study of engine heat balance is the use of numerical simulations. See for example [A New Tool to Perform Global Energy Balances in DI Diesel Engines, SAE 2014-01-0665]. A challenge is to implement in the model, with adequate time-space resolution, all relevant systems (e.g. cooling, oil), the geometrical complexity and the boundary conditions. This work presents the realization, calibration and verification of a high space resolution 3D complete engine heat balance model, including all relevant components.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2534
Jochen Bregar, Adrian Rienäcker, Marcus Gohl, Gunter Knoll
Increased quantities of fuel in the engine oil pose a major challenge to the automotive industry in terms of controlling the oil aging and the wear caused by dilution. Due to a lack of methods to calculate the oil-fuel-composite transport across the ring pack, predicting the fuel ratio in the oil sump has been an extremely challenging task for engine manufacturers. An accurate and computationally efficient simulation model is critical to predict the quantity of fuel diluted in the oil in an early stage of development. In this work, the complex composite transport across the piston ring pack was reduced to a simple transport model, which was successfully implemented into a multi-body simulation of the ring pack. The calculation domain was partitioned into two parts, the ring grooves and the piston lands. Inside the grooves the oil flux caused by the pumping and squeezing action of the piston rings was calculated using the Reynolds equation.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2536
Julien Bouilly, Francois Lafossas, Ali Mohammadi, Roger Van Wissen
Reducing pollutant and CO2 emissions while increasing customer comfort is a continuous challenge that requires more and more sophisticated technologies. However, it is often difficult to know in advance the benefit of a technology without having its prototype parts and/or knowing the optimal control strategy. In order to meet these challenges, TME has developed a vehicle thermal model in AMESim to evaluate the benefits of an Active Grille Shutter (AGS) on fuel consumption. The vehicle model is based on a C-Segment vehicle powered by a 1.4L Diesel engine. The complete oil and coolant circuits are modeled as well as a friction model based on engine coolant temperature. The entire model was validated on NEDC at -7°C and +25°C and achieved an accurate estimation of the fuel consumption, coolant and oil temperatures.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2548
Florian Tschopp, Tobias Nüesch, Mu Wang, Christopher Onder
The growing needs for road transportation lead to an increase of vehicles on the roads. Most of the vehicles are still based on the conventional propulsion concept relying on a gasoline or a diesel engine only. Depending on the type of fuel used, pollutant emissions are an additional concern associated with this conventional technology. Hybrid electric vehicles are considered to be a reasonable approach to reduce fuel consumption and possibly also pollutant emissions. However, due to the intermittent operation of the engine, the effectiveness of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems in this type of vehicles has to be studied carefully. This paper deals with the problem of obtaining the optimal energy and emission management strategy for a diesel hybrid electric vehicle. The vehicle is assumed to be equipped with a SCR device for the removal of harmful NOx emissions.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2414
Vesselin Krassimirov Krastev, Gino Bella, Gennaro Campitelli
Scale-resolving turbulence modeling for engine flow simulation has steadily increased its popularity in the last decade. In contrast to classical RANS modeling approaches, LES-like approaches are able to resolve a larger number of unsteady features of the flow. This capability allows in principle to produce accurate CFD predictions of some key aspects related to the engine development and optimization, such as cycle-to-cycle variations in a modern DI engine. However, since multiple simulated engine cycles are required to extract reliable flow statistics, the high spatial and temporal resolution required by pure LES represents a severe limit to its wider application in studies on realistic engine geometries. Hybrid URANS-LES methodologies can thus become a potentially attractive option to preserve the scale-resolving capability in the core regions of the flow but at significantly lower overall computational costs compared to standard LES.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2416
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
An investigation on the spray penetration and soot formation process in a research diesel engine has been carried out by means of the quasi-dimensional multizone diagnostics tool developed at Politecnico di Torino. The computation integrates the non stationary variable-profile 1D spray model developed at Sandia National Laboratory with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model of the combustion process. Based on the experimentally-derived injection rate and in-cylinder pressure time histories, the tool is capable of calculating the mixing process dynamics of the fuel parcels with the unburned gas, the equivalence ratio of the mixture zones as a function of time, the rate of combustion and the in-chamber mass and temperature evolutions of the different zones, which are used for the subsequent implementation of the submodels for evaluating the emission formation processes in the combustion chamber.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 104525