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Viewing 1 to 30 of 102371
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0015
N Anandaraj
Fuel level sensor which communicates the fuel level to the dashboard has significant attention of the driver during vehicle usage. The advanced instrumentation provides lot of information on the dashboard display such as information about fuel level, computing mileage, miles to go or miles to empty, fuel economy, average mileage etc. At present the TFR with float arm type and Reed switch type sensors are being used, to have accurate information for this computing, the present sensors are not supporting due to its limitations like non linearity in the design, measuring in form of steps not continuous. The measurement accuracy of the fuel level sensor needs to be focused to relay on the information of the dashboard instrument. Hence it is become vital to have a sensor with better reliability, accuracy and easy to adaptable.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0017
Ravindra Shah, Swapnil Ghugal, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Anand A Deshpande
In Control algorithm development for typical Engine Management System, various challenges is being faced. To develop a reliable control algorithm, proper environment of testing it in closed loop is required. In such development activity, it is very important to validate the algorithm on the target engine standalone. This can be achieved in engine test cell where the actual engine will be controlled by prototype ECU. But this process has drawbacks like higher testing cost, time consuming, non-reusability of test bed etc. Simulation based plant model development for closed loop ECU testing is an effective technique for such application. Various generic engine models are available for such application, but to suit particular vehicle, this model need to be parameterized. Typically in Indian conditions, variety in engines can be observed in terms of engine capacity, number of cylinder, sensor used etc.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0023
Pranab Das, P.M.V. Subbarao, J.P. Subrahmanyam
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was studied as a means of reducing PM and NOx emission simultaneously while maintaining high thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption. An innovative low cost dual injection strategy is developed to investigate HCCI-DI combustion. This study is focused on the effect of fuel properties and cetane number on HCCI-DI combustion to understand the combustion and emission behavior of a direct injection HCCI engine using double injection strategy with blends of n-heptane and isooctane as fuel. A comparison is also made to understand the behavior and benefits of HCCI-DI combustion over the conventional combustion system. All experiments were carried out at a constant speed of 1350 rev/min and at zero, 15% and 30% of the full load conditions to avoid high knock intensity for high cetane fuel which occurs beyond this operating load condition.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0020
Santhosh Thomas, Deepak Garg, Ajay Kumar, Shailender Sharma
Cycles to cycle variations are always a cause for concern in port fuelled SI engines. Earlier studies in this field suggest that cycle by cycle variations in the position and growth rate of flame kernel has a significant role in the cycle by cycle variations in the pressure curves. Researchers are always interested in understanding the fluid flow and combustion characteristics in a running engine to study these variations in detail. Due to its simplicity in adaptation, fiber optic spark plug enables the researchers to study the effects of charge motion on the developing flame kernel at relatively less cost and effort. In this paper 8 channel fiber optic spark plug was used to measure and understand the flame kernel development. Flush mounted pressure transducer were also installed to measure the in cylinder pressure data so as to analyze various combustion parameters.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0021
Ashish Jain, S S Tikar, S S Ramdasi, S S Thipse, N V Marathe, Porpatham E
The desire for higher fuel economy, improved performance and driveability expectations of customers from engines are gradually increasing along with stringent emission regulations set by the government. Many original engine manufacturing companies are prompted to consider the application of higher function variable valve actuation mechanisms in their next generation vehicles as a solution. The VVA is a generalized term used to describe any mechanism or method that can alter the shape or timing of a valve lift event within an internal combustion engine. The VVA allows lift, duration or timing (in various combinations) of the intake and/or exhaust valves to be changed while the engine is in operation. Engine designers are prompted to consider Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) system because of the inherent compromises with fixed valve events. The major goal of a VVA engine is to control the amount of air inducted into the engine which is a direct measure of torque.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0031
Alberto Boretti, Joseph Scalzo
The paper discusses a novel design of four and two stroke engines having one intake and one exhaust horizontal rotary valve. The rotary valves defines an open passage that may permit up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. This novel design is applied to a naturally aspirated or supercharged two and four stroke engines all gasoline fueled with central direct injection and spark ignition. The engines are modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The novel design produces much larger power densities than the traditional poppet valves revving higher speeds, with reduced frictional losses, and with larger gas exchange areas while also improving the fuel conversion efficiency thanks to the sharpness of opening or closing events.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0032
Raimund Ellinger, Edoardo Morra, Steffen Daum, Johannes Schauer, Gebhard Woentner
Best fuel efficiency is one of the core requirements for commercial vehicles in India. Due to the high Diesel prices this requirement is beside reliability and durability very important for end customers when deciding for a new truck or bus. Consequently it is a central challenge for commercial vehicle OEMs to optimize the whole powertrain, hence match the engine, transmission and rear axle specifications best to the defined application. The consequent high number of possible commercial powertrain combinations of engine, transmission and rear axle specifications requests for an efficient and effective development methodology based on system simulations. With this, the most suitable powertrain specifications, meeting all end customer requirements can be ensured.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0029
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Umashanker Gupta, Swapnil Vyas
Proper sealing of engine is very important parameter in engine design. Even small amount of gas leakage from the engine can affect the overall performance of the engine during operation. There are two important factors in enhancing the efficiency of the sealing of the gasket are right tightening torque of bolts & gasket design. In this study, both the distribution of the contact pressure on the gasket, and the stresses of the cylinder head at different loading conditions, such as cold assembly, hot assembly, cold start, and hot firing, is simulated by commercial tool, based on the finite element method (FEM). The results shows that the efficiency of the sealing of the cylinder head gasket depends on the tightening torque of the hold-down bolts, without taking into consideration any thermal load resulting from the temperature distribution in the cylinder head.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0004
Jitendra Shah
A first step towards autonomous rear-end collision avoidance is to start providing natural support to driver in avoiding collision by steering and braking intervention. The proposed system detects slower-moving and stationary vehicles ahead and classifies the risk of having a rear-end-collision. If the risk is high and there is insufficient space to avoid a collision by braking only, the system helps the driver to steer around the obstacle by steering rear toe angle of the wheels individually. A lot of research already exist in the rear wheel steering but the role of rear wheel steering in collision avoidance is not researched yet in great details. Rear wheel steering is used to increase agility and maneuverability of vehicle at lower vehicle speed and stability of vehicle at higher vehicle speed. In the situation of the high speed rear end collision where steering is more effective than braking the strategy of control design of rear wheel steering needs to be dynamically updated.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0005
Vishakha S Bhagat, Siva Murugesan, Shamsundara B V, Abhay Vijay Mannikar
The paper proposes a design of an Emergency Intimation System (EIS) tailored fit for Indian consumer needs and available infrastructure. EIS is an emergency alert technology devised to assist drivers and passenger in an event of vehicle crash. Majority of deaths are caused by slow accident response time. EIS is aimed to lower this response time and ensure that the required rescue and medical services are made available in time. This device employed to make this emergency alerts will be fitted into the vehicle Electrical and Electronics (E/E) architecture and will have interfaces with crash sensor network, CAN network, GPRS and GPS. In an event of crash this device shall send an SMS to the numbers fed into its memory, comprising of information like Vehicle co-ordinates, airbag deployment status and time stamp. The design of unit makes it capable of retro fitment into the existing vehicles. Key words: Emergency, call, driver assist, design, India
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0002
Saravanakumar Subramanian, Periasamy Thangavel, Fathima Safna M I, Kannan S, Ghodke Pundlik Rambhaji, R Velusamy
In the present scenario, when the vehicle is manoeuvring in the gradient, more clutch and accelerator pedal modulations are needed during stop and go condition. These kinds of pedal modulations are not desirable for many customers as it requires more skilled driving. Failure of doing such actions will even result in engine stalling which becomes an annoyance to such customers. In order to overcome this problem, the low idle speed of the engine can be increased only during the drive off condition. In this paper, we proposed the development and real-time testing of the control algorithm to increase the engine low idle speed during drive off. This proposed algorithm detects the drive off condition and then an offset value is added to increase the low idle speed. Various input conditions are considered to enable or disable the increment of engine low idle speed. The control algorithm has been developed using MATLAB/Simulink tool and tested using ETAS E-HOOKS tool.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0001
Jiji Gangadharan, Shanmugaraj Mani, Krishnan Kutty
ADAS systems have become an inevitable part of most of the modern cars. Their use is mandated by regulations in some cases; and in other cases where vehicle owners have become more safety conscious. Vision / camera based ADAS systems are widely in use today. However, it is to be noted that the performance of these systems is depends on the quality of the image/video captured by the camera. Low illumination is one of the most important factors which degrade image quality. In order to improve the system performance under low illumination, it is required to first enhance the input images/frames. In this paper, we propose an image enhancement algorithm that would automatically enhance images to a near ideal condition. This is accomplished by mapping features taken from images acquired under ideal illumination conditions on to the target low illumination images/frames.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0010
Avinash Rajendran Vallur, Yuvaraj Khairate, Chandrakant Awate
In a bid to improve performance and fuel economy keeping in accordance with various regulatory requirements, OEMs across the globe have looked towards hybridization and electrification of vehicles. The increased vigor and enthusiasm shown by auto makers have given rise to numerous electric-hybrid vehicles that have been successfully introduced into the consumer market. Full Hybridization of vehicles often entails the use high performance motors and large battery packs. A viable alternative seems to be the use of low voltage systems, these systems are not capable of running the vehicle totally independent of the engine but only assist the engine through torque boost during periods of high torque demands and regenerative braking to effectively utilize available kinetic energy.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0009
Anusha Baskaran, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu, Krishnan Kutty
Driver safety and Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) is gaining lot of importance these days. In some countries, there are strict regulations in place which mandate the use of certain ADAS features in automobiles. However, as the need for these safety critical systems increases, the challenges associated also increase. These challenges can arise due to technology, human factors, or due to nature. In countries like India, where one can expect different weather conditions with changing geography, the associated challenges are mainly due to the natural factors like haze, fog, rain and smoke. This poses a challenging problem in terms of visibility for the drivers as well as in vision based ADAS; thereby, leading to many fatal road accidents. In this paper, a novel pre-processing technique, which addresses the interesting problem of enhancing the perceptual visibility of an image that is degraded by atmospheric haze, is proposed.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0007
Medha Santosh Jambhale, J Kale, Mangesh Ramesh Saraf, Arunrajkumar Govindhasamy, Karl-Eric Köstlin
ABSTRACT
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0006
Ramsundar K Ganesan, Dilip Krishna Natesan, Arjun Raj, Nambiraj Sekar, Nardhini Shanmuga Sundaram
Obstacle detection is a widely studied field in the automotive industry because of the great importance it assumes in preventing passengers from facing any major accidents. This paper presents an image processing approach to detect obstacles on road using a monocular IR camera. Since potholes and speed breakers are the two major obstacles on roads, the proposed method focuses mainly on detecting them. Shadows are the major challenge in image processing because their presence in the image frame may lead to false results. A simple method to compensate shadows has also been proposed. Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV), developed by Intel is used for implementation of the algorithm. The major target application area could be the powered two wheeler segment in emerging markets where potholes and speed humps lead to accidents. Another application can be to upload the pothole information on to a cloud to provide intelligent navigation information via Global Positioning System (GPS).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0013
Ashwini S. Athreya, Sreenath K R, Deepak Sharma
In the era where governmental agencies are perennially pushing automobile OEMs for reducing harmful emissions and customers looking for vehicles with better fuel economy values, it is imperative on the manufacturers to implement/add new technologies to appease them. Of the many new technologies, the most promising ones are the new control strategies/algorithms which predictively access the road condition, weather, traffic situations and help automobile to function in the most efficient mode. These control strategies/algorithms are termed as “Predictive technologies”. The most common way to assess the benefit of such new technologies is to simulate the vehicle behaviour in conjunction with the existing complex control strategies of Hybrid vehicles, in the simulation environment.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0011
Ilango Panneerselvan, Suresh Arikapudi, Smitan Brahmbhatt, Tanushree Madhugiri, Om Prakash
A complex system like a hybrid electric powertrain requires analysis of all its subsystems to optimally utilize, size components, for performance evaluation and control strategy development. A high fidelity model of those subsystems integrated together can greatly reduce the development cost, time and risks in deviation from the targeted performance, giving a chance for early redefinition of the system. A high fidelity model of a sedan car was developed featuring chassis with longitudinal and lateral dynamics, Suspension with joints & bushes with stiffness, tires calculating longitudinal & lateral forces during vehicle motion, Engine model with combustion & Dynamics of reciprocating and rotating components, Electric motors, Battery system, and gearbox with synchronizers and friction components. Powertrain components were interconnected using 3D rotational flanges.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0049
Amar Deep, Mukesh Kumar
In the past few decades, use of energy resources in industrial and transportation sector have reached to its peak resulting in depleting resources and environment squalor. Vegetable oils, which have properties comparable to diesel fuel, are considered promising alternative fuels for unmodified diesel engines. However, high viscosity of vegetable oils is a major challenge which could be reduced by blending with alcohols. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of Orange peel oil and n-butanol blends as an alternative fuel for CI engine. Various blends of butanol with Orange peel oil were prepared on volumetric basis and named as B10OPO90 (10% n-butanol and 90% Orange peel oil), B20OPO80 (20% n-butanol and 80% Orange peel oil), B30OPO70 (30% n-butanol and 70% Orange peel oil) and B40OPO60 (40% n-butanol and 60% Orange peel oil). All blends were found homogenous and various physico-chemical properties were evaluated in accordance to relevant standards.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0052
Ashish Jashvantlal Modi, Dhiren Patel
As concerned with the IC engine now a day’s energy conservation and higher thermal efficiency are the main issues. As there is a big amount of heat loss in atmosphere due to which the efficiency is lower for the standard engine. There is one possible solution to reduce such problem by converting the conventional CI engine in to the LHR engine. For the current work the performance and emission characteristics are evaluated for the twin cylinder ceramic coated water cooled CI engine using blends of diesel and neem bio diesel. For the present work the bio-diesel was prepared in laboratory from non-edible vegetable oil (neem oil) by transesterification process with methanol, where potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used in as a catalyst. Inside Cylinder of combustion chamber, Piston top surface (crown) and valve faces were coated with the Magnesium Zirconate (MgZrO3).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0048
Hans Juergen Manns, Maximilian Brauer, Holger Dyja, Hein Beier, Alexander Lasch
Title: Diesel CNG – The Potential of a Dual Fuel Combustion Concept for lower CO2 and Emissions – Authors: Juergen Manns, Dr. Maximilian Brauer, N.N. Future regulations for passenger cars will no longer focus on emission reduction only but also on reducing CO2. The use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in combustion engines is one solution which provides benefits in CO2 and in exhaust gas emissions at the same time. The conversion of Gasoline engines to CNG operation is well known. In this paper however – the operation of a passenger car diesel engine in Diesel - CNG dual fuel mode is investigated. The paper describes the experimental setup and measurement procedure that was chosen to assess combined Diesel - CNG combustion. Results for emissions, fuel economy (CO2), engine noise and combustion stability will be presented for different operating points on a research single cylinder engine.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0047
Darshan Jain, Saravanan Kumarasamy, K. C. Vora
Abstract:- Jatropha curcus.L, which is often referred to as “Jatropha” is a plant that produces seeds with high oil content. The plant can be grown on low fertile land with no intensive water supply. The seeds are toxic and are non-edible which make it an important source for producing bio-diesel in developing countries. The Jatropha seeds consist of kernels enclosed by shells. The maximum oil content of the seed is present in white kernels.There are different types of expelling methods such as Mechanical extraction, Solvent extraction and Enzymatic extraction.The study was conducted with hand driven mechanical expeller which is most conventional way of extracting oil from seeds and with mechanical efficiency of 60-80% for single pass. The study includes various combinations of parameters like seed treatment, sun drying, pre-heating, soaking at different temperatures and different de-hulling compositions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0044
Sambhaji Keshaw Jaybhay, Prasanna Nagarhalli, Suresh Tadigadapa, Sangeet Hari Kapoor
Context- In order to enhance fuel efficiency in buses an energy efficient air conditioning system should be deployed. This will lead to reduced parasitic load on the engine and translate into direct fuel saving. Fuel prices are increasing day by day; along with rapid depletion of fuel sources. Alternate fuels like CNG need investments in infrastructure, which is not available easily everywhere. Therefore fuel saving is vital. In case of air conditioned vehicles, the parasitic load mainly consists of power consumed by air conditioning compressor to pump the refrigerant and by blower motors and condenser fans for movement of conditioned air and heat removal respectively. Furthermore roof mounted bus air conditioning systems weigh in the range of 150-220kg (approx.) adding to the payload Necessity- Now days, most mid-size air conditioned buses are equipped with aftermarket solutions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0037
Kartik Kulkarni, Ayush Sood
The heat losses through exhaust gases and the engine coolant contribute significantly towards reduction in thermal efficiency of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine. This largely impacts the fuel economy and power output. Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) has proven to be an effective method of overcoming these challenges. A Rankine cycle is a reverse refrigeration cycle that circulates a working fluid through the four basic components namely the pump, evaporator, turbine and condenser. It is a popular WHR approach in automotive applications with varying levels of success in the past. As the heat transfer capability in organic working fluids is greater than the conventionally used inorganic fluids, the former is used to capture maximum waste heat from low grade heat sources such as the automobile engine. A dual-loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is proposed for a heavy duty IC Engine with working fluids R245fa and R236fa for the High Temperature (HT) and Low Temperature (LT) loops respectively.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0038
Suramya Naik, Fabien Redon, Gerhard Regner, John Koszewnik
With mounting pressure on Indian manufacturers to meet future fuel economy and emissions mandates—including the recently passed Corporate Average Fuel Consumption (CAFC) standards for light-duty vehicles—many are evaluating new technologies. However, to provide an economically sustainable solution, these technologies must increase efficiency without increasing cost. One promising solution to meet both current, and future, standards is the opposed-piston engine. Widely used in the early 20th century for on-road applications, the opposed-piston engine was eventually removed from on-highway applications due to challenges with emissions and oil control. Recent advancements in computer-aided engineering tools combined with state-of-the-art engineering practices have enabled Achates Power to develop a modern opposed-piston diesel engine architecture that is clean, significantly more fuel efficient and less expensive to manufacture than today’s four-stroke engines.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0034
Tushar Kanikdale, Shankar Venugopal
We present a framework for creating and analyzing future scenarios that are relevant to automotive engines in India. We propose an approach to enable us to continuously capture the diverse inputs from an ever changing external environment and be agile in responding to the changes. We have illustrated the application of future scenarios building process to IC engines used in commercial vehicles. We have designed a critical technologies / parameters dashboard for the commercial vehicle industry to continuously monitor the evolution of the scenarios. The critical parameters are assigned current and future probabilities to visualize plausible alternative futures.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0238
Arpit Kulshrestha, Nalin Rawat
During the conceptualization of vehicle, it is big challenge for automotive manufacturer to design a vehicle which has an excellent aesthetic looks as well as meet the stringent vehicle regulations. In the vehicle styling, bumper plays an important role in deciding of the contemporary looks of the vehicle. To improve customer satisfaction, it is important to design a bumper which provides feeling and sense of durability. In addition, bumper should sustain low-speed impact and protects the peripheral components such as parking lights, headlamps, hood, back door and safety related installed equipments like Rear parking camera, parking sensors, etc. Bumper should be dent resistant and be able to regain its original shape on removal of the applied load. An elegant design of bumper should be light weight with high strength. This paper explains about a new CAE methodology developed to simulate the real life loading condition of bumper and to calculate the deformation in the bumper.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0239
Azeez Ahmed, Gopalakrishna Deshpande, Varghese Manu Varghese, Ramakrishnan R, Prakash Prashanth Ravi
Caterpillar Engine Development Test cells consist of expensive test and measurement systems. They also demand trained and skilled labour to ensure good quality data. Effective utilization of these test cells are a key enabler to meet stringent emission while meeting project time and cost targets. Engine Design process and tools when used effectively in the Engine Development can increase efficiency and lower test cell operation cost substantially. The paper discuss examples of this application in the area of Engine Install, Sensitive Instrumentation installation/assembly Example 1 With a vast catalogue of engines manufactured by Caterpillar, the test peripherals and engine mounting systems need to be designed and developed for specific engine size, horsepower etc. A conventional pallet system is not feasible for the installation of higher displacement engines because of its size.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0240
Avinash Dhole, Chetan Raval, Rishi Shrivastava
In commercial vehicles which generally have large capacity fuel tank, sloshing of fuel and its effect on the tank structure is very important aspect during fuel tank design. Dynamic pressures exerted by the fuel on baffles, end plates and tank shell during sloshing can lead to failures and fuel leakage problems. Fluid structure interaction simulation of automotive fuel tank sloshing and its correlation with physical test is demonstrated in this study. During physical sloshing test of 350 L fuel tank, cracks were observed on center baffle and spot weld failures developed on fuel tank shell. Same sloshing test was simulated for one sloshing cycle using fluid structure interaction approach in LS Dyna explicit FE solver. Water was used instead of fuel. Mesh free smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is used to represent water as it requires less computational time as compared to Eulerian or ALE method.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0241
Maria de Odriozola, Ignacio Lázaro, Adria Ferrer
Safety is one of the main criteria that is taken into account by new vehicle buyers. Therefore, manufacturers must achieve excellent results in all safety requirements to ensure a successful new vehicle model launching. Additionally, the current safety requirements in the European market are more demanding than ever, especially in consumer tests, as new dummies and crash configurations are being introduced. This paper focusses on the new dummy that will be introduced in the new Euro NCAP Side Impact Testing protocol in 2015, the WorldSID. Furthermore, special attention has been paid on the comparison between this dummy and the dummy that is being currently used, the EuroSID II. For many years, all Side Impact Crash Test studies have been put into practice considering the results achieved from the EuroSID II dummy. The introduction of the WorldSID to the crash test world has become a milestone not only for vehicle manufacturers but also for crash test laboratories.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 102371