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Viewing 1 to 30 of 104765
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2622
Pranesha Shashwath Kumar K J
Recent incidents of aircraft hijacking and terrorism have raised a need for advanced surveillance mechanism in aircrafts. RFIDs are looked upon for a potential solution but their application inside aircraft is fraught with concerns apropos to radiated EMI, reliability issues and implementation challenges, especially for an aircraft in flight. This paper proposes a mechanism with which this could be accomplished. The mechanism introduces the possibility of using passive-only RFIDs to track people and baggage movement inside an aircraft to form an “actual movement map” of all significant movements. This can be compared with a pre-determined “supposed movement map”. The complexity in formation of “supposed movement map” is delineated in the paper. Passive-only RFIDs have already been approved by FAA to be used in aircrafts when on ground for maintenance purposes.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2623
Craig Battles, Brian Smith, Kurt Webster
Automated manufacturing in aerospace presents many unique challenges, including but not limited to building parts on extremely large scales of size yet with precisions on the order of thousandths of an inch. Localization, or the ability to determine the position of equipment used to build an aircraft part, or estimating the true position of some object relative to a coordinate system relevant for creating a reference basis for movement or other operations, will be explored. Localization results are provided by direct use of metrology systems or derived from data provided by sensor or perception. This document presents a survey of a number of sensor and software packages as well as a cascading localization method required to meet requirements that are anticipated to be germane to wing assembly work cell concepts that are currently being considered to address high rate manufacturing.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2624
Emma C. Benjaminson, Wesley Holleman, Nicholas Farrell
Orbital drilling is already proven to be a critical manufacturing technique that brings significant advantages to the factory floor, and it will be increasingly automated in the coming years. Automation brings sensors, logic controllers and robotics to traditionally manual manufacturing processes. These components do bring benefits to the factory, but in the rush to automate, the mechanical processes themselves are often left behind. Any example of automation is only as good as the mechanical components that are being controlled. By innovating on the fundamental mechanical processes it is possible to realize significant gains in manufacturing rates and overall quality that would otherwise be missed. Orbital drilling is an example of where mechanical innovation can bring greater advantages and opportunities to the factory that automation alone cannot provide.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2625
Anthony Cheruet, Robert Schmitz
In the research of lightweighting solutions, the use of CFRP has dramatically increased during the last two decades to represent today about 50 percent of the materials used in the recent commercial aircrafts. However designers are still facing the challenge to accelerate the insertion of new materials for applications. One of the main challenge concerns the reduction of the material certification time which relies only on experimental procedure. Globally speaking, there is a need for a material definition and certification in a numerical form to meet platform requirement and that allows to reduce cost and development time of new material by replacing manual tests with advanced simulation. A comprehensive simulation process is then proposed and will be described. This process allows to define a complete test matrix in order to generate B-basis allowable for a material system given. Several aspects have to be considered.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2395
Vikhyat Chaudhry
This paper describes the ZENITH Nano-Satellite cum planetary atmospheric entry vehicle, called CanSat, the first Nano-Satellite project that has been developed by Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), India. The satellite will function for monitoring the concentrations of various gases in the atmosphere. For this, the satellite consists of arduino microcontroller interfaced with the various Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gas sensors for measuring the concentrations of various gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxides, ozone, etc. The data obtained from the CanSat will be transmitted to the ground station where all the data will be stored and also the locations will be stored using GPS sensor. The academic goal of this project is to recruit students to the field of space science and technology.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2473
Alessandro Ceruti, Alfredo Liverani, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Unanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are systems composed by an airframe and a Ground Control Station (GCS) capable of remote/autonomous flying. The UAV airframe dimension spans from 0.1 to 20 meters of wingspan, depending on the mission and class (Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) or Medium/High Altitude Long Endurance (MALE/HALE)). The UAV vehicles can be similar to a scale model weighting grams or to a general aviation airplane with a Max Take Off Weight (MTOW) of tons. In all cases, the available internal airframe volume is filled by a multitude of systems including avionics, payload, fuel, engine, servo actuators, wirings, batteries, electronic boards. In case of small UAVs all these systems are miniaturized and compressed in a small form, while in case of large UAVs it can be difficult to immediately find a component or a system. Moreover, the UAV fuselage is typically made by composite materials, and a small number of hutches or doors is available to guarantee a good structural strength.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2475
Francesco Cappello, Roberto Sabatini, Subramanian Ramasamy
Accurate and robust tracking of objects is of growing interest among the computer vision scientific communities. The ability of a vision system to detect and track the objects, and accurately predict their future trajectory is critical in the context of mission- and safety-critical applications. Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) are not currently equipped to routinely access all classes of airspace and thus providing the pathway to coexist seamlessly with manned aircraft. Such capabilities can be achieved by incorporating both cooperative and non-cooperative Detect-And-Avoid (DAA) functions, as well an providing enhanced communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) services. DAA is highly dependent on the performance of CNS systems, specifically for Tracking, Deciding and Avoidance (TDA) tasks.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2474
Christopher W. Lum, Alexander Summers, Brian Carpenter, Angel Rodriguez, Matthew Dunbabin
In many parts of the world, uncontrolled fires in sparsely populated areas are a major concern. These small fires can quickly grow to large and destructive conflagrations in short time spans. The damage caused by these wildfires are often a function of the time elapsed between detection of the fire and deployment of firefighting resources. Fires detected relatively quickly can be more easily contained than fires that have been allowed to grow before taking corrective action. Detecting these fires has traditionally been a job for trained humans on the ground or in the air. In many cases, these manned solutions are simply not able to survey the amount of area necessary to maintain sufficient vigilance and coverage. This paper investigates the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for automated wildfire detection. The proposed system uses low-cost, consumer-grade electronics and sensors combined with various airframes to create a system suitable for automatic detection of wildfires.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2477
Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
A number of initiatives are aiming at assessing and reducing the impact of air transport on the environment. This extensive endeavour is soliciting a substantial evolution in the measurement of the environmental impacts and on the assessment of the effective gains attained by the R&D outcomes. Legislation is already being progressively extended in several countries to limit or penalise noise emissions, and analogous regulatory actions can be foreseen with respect to atmospheric pollutants. This research activity is developing laser-based Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems for characterisation of gaseous pollutants and particulate concentrations in high space and time resolutions. The employed measurement principle is based on Differential Absorption LIDAR technique, in a bistatic layout. After the initial feasibility study, two candidate bistatic system layouts have been proposed.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2478
Tobias Kreitz, Riko Bornholdt, Matthias Krings, Karsten Henning, Frank Thielecke
The paradigm shift to focus on an enhancement of existing aircraft systems raises the question which of the many possible incremental improvements results in an advantageous solution still considering all existing requirements. Hence, new methodologies for aircraft system design are a prerequisite to cope with such huge and complex design spaces. In the case of flight control system optimization, major design variables are the control surface configuration and actuation, as well as their functional allocation. Possible architecture topologies have to be verified i.a. with respect to system safety requirements. In this context, flight dynamic characteristics and handling qualities of the fully operational as well as several degraded system states of each topology have to be evaluated and checked against common specifications. Here, a model-based verification of the requirements is favorable, resulting in a rapid reduction of the design space.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2479
Stefan Benischke, Frank Thielecke
Future high lift system configurations without mechanical interconnection of the flaps would allow for novel functionalities. Through a differential setting of the individual flap surfaces, an optimization of aerodynamic performance can be achieved. Single flap drive systems are possible solutions to implement this kind of multifunctional high lift systems. The previously mechanical coupling needs to be replaced by approved equivalent means. This directly results in high demands on control and monitoring of the multiple single drive systems in order to preserve a safe operation. Control strategies for a new concept of a multifunctional high lift system are presented in this paper. The presented concept comprises four single flap surfaces, each driven by a local transmission system powered by a local power control unit. This architecture requires an innovative control strategy for a safe operation of a single drive system as well as synchronous movement of multiple systems.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2481
Rudolf Neydorf
Synthesis of Time Quasi-Optimal Asymptotically Stable Control Laws Rudolf Neydorf The solution of the both synthesis and implementation problems of high-rapid rates control laws is extremely important for the development of automatic control systems of the aircraft. This is due to the high speed of such vehicles. Along with this, it is imperative that control laws provide that system is asymptotically stable, as the basis for the reliability of their controlled motion. Another important objective of the method of synthesis of control laws for aircraft is compulsory compliance with strict limitations on the values of control inputs at the actuation devices. It is equally important that the control laws provides limitations on the state variables of aircraft, such as velocity, acceleration, etc. Pontryagin's maximum principle is aimed at solving such a time-optimal problem with the limited command variable.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2480
Giorgio Gaviraghi
Developing the MAAT (Multibody advanced airship for transport ) project concept, a cruiser-feeder airship, all green, transportation system, financed by the European Union in the frame of the FP 7 research plan, we realized that is possible to explore future potential developments of the basic concepts , the multibody transportation system, also for regular aircrafts with most implications and issues that the new concept may raise.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2482
Riko Bornholdt, Tobias Kreitz, Frank Thielecke
The trend towards all-electric aircrafts leads to an increased complexity and extent of the electrical power system and its interactions with adjacent systems. These interactions need to be analyzed in detail, to identify safety bottlenecks as well as beneficial synergies. Consequently, the system specific design paradigm has to be dissolved, to utilize the full potential of more-electric applications. In this regard, an approach to investigate the interactions between the power systems and innovative flight controls of a regional aircraft is pursued at the Hamburg University of Technology. In a first step, flight dynamics analyses were conducted to identify the distinct requirements for the flight controls. The design of electrically actuated flight controls and an electrical power system architecture for the regional aircraft shall be presented in the intended paper.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2484
Michele Trancossi
This paper focuses on the key problem of future aeronautics: which relates on energy efficiency and environmental footprint on a scientific point of view. Reducing emissions and increasing the energy efficiency would be both a key element to propel the market and increase the diffusion of personal aerial transport against ground transportation. Novel vehicle concepts and systems will be necessary to propel this innovation which could revolutionize our way of moving. This paper approach an energetic preliminary design of a vehicle concept which could fulfill this social and cultural objective. Low cost energy efficient vehicles, which could be suitable for personal use with an high economic efficiency and without needs of airports, seem actually a real dream. Otherwise, is it a feasible goal or a scientific dream? But an first and second principle based design through constructal law could allow to reach those goals.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2486
Greg Kilchenstein, Matthew Juarez
ABSTRACT
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2483
Rudolf Neydorf, Sergey Novikov, Nikita Kudinov
Last years has revived interest in the use of aircraft that use aerostatic flight, principally it is airships. This interest is increasing from year to year. Together with it increases and the number of problems related to the construct of such airships, and with flight controls. One of the problem consist in the airship orientation control with the low-speed flight (takeoff, landing, air loitering and so on.). Low speed isn't allow to control the roll or pitch of the aircraft using the aerodynamic control.. Search of the ways solution of the problem led to constructive change of the ballonets system. Some types of airships began to equip with systems of the many ballonets. However such system is needing the automatic control of the state variables of each ballonet separately. Creation and analysis of its mathematical model shows that the problem of automatic control of system of the many ballonets is very difficult.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2485
Mark Benjamin Geiger
Powered hand tools have become essential to a range of industrial operations since their introduction in the late 1800s. However, progress often comes with risk. A range of potential hazards associated with power tool use include noise, a range of ergonomic stresses and physical safety hazards. One of the less publicized risks is hand-arm vibration, previously called Raynaud’s Syndrome of occupational origin, a neurovascular disease associated with intense and prolonged exposures to vibration – most commonly from powered hand tools. Despite initial US reports in the early 1900s, the disease has remained under-recognized in the US. European Union regulations have created an increased awareness of hand-arm vibration disease and demand for low-vibration powered hand tools, while the US has lagged in this regard. (See additional resources)* The wide range of vibration (and noise) created by alternative products performing the same function makes initial product selection critical.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2488
Derek L. Mickelson
In the aircraft design process there are the occasional bolted joints with opposing surfaces that are not parallel to each other. This can necessitate manufacturing to machine a spot face into the structural surfaces for the bolt head and nut to seat on. Typically this process is done manually by two workers with all process verification being done visually. Additionally, the nature of airplane structure often requires one worker to be inside a confined space to monitor the process. With this in mind, a tool was requested to reduce the number of workers required, remove workers from confined spaces and ensure a robust method for process validation. The critical technology that would have to be developed was a device that could fix itself into an existing hole, measure the surface of which the hole exited and then machine a spot face into that surface to a specific calculated depth. The device would only require a single operator to install and start the machine in a given hole.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2487
Dara Childs
The Remarkable Developments in Turbomachinery Rotordynamics During the Last Quarter of the 20th Century
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2490
Sylvain Guerin, Sylvain da Costa
The quality requirement for drilling operation in aerospace industry associated to the different material layers of the recent aircraft design is one of the most challenging issues for manufacturing engineers who want to design system for one-shot drilling operation. We have developed and validated in production a handheld electrical tool which is able to accurately monitor the drilling parameter and to adjust the drilling conditions to specific material in the stack-up. This “Smart Driller” achieves quality and performances equivalent to those obtained by the most advanced heavy automated drilling systems at a small portion of weight and cost.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2489
Philippe Le Vacon, Fabien Albert, Thomas Buisson
The NC template developed by AIRBUS GROUP Innovations, is a light and low cost five axis drilling machine, dedicated to the assembly of hybrid (CFRP/Al/Ti) aircraft structure. This solution aims to replace the current process where operators move the drilling units from one hole to another. It’s providing a high level of flexibility compared to drilling templates with a special interest during the ramp up phase of new A/C program, because it has just to be reprogrammed if fasteners positions change. The NRC can also be reduced due to limitation of operators, because one operator can manage several grids. The architecture of the machine is made up of a Cartesian table having a tool holder carriage on which is fixed a normality module with a standard ADU (Advanced Drilling Unit). The normality module has 3 axes (Z and two rotations) which give the capability to operate on double convex curvatures, flat up to 1500 mm radius.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2492
Michael Assadi, Brian Stewart, Samuel Dobbs, Sean Hollowell, Joseph Elsholz
Developing the most advanced panel assembly line for very high production rates required an innovative and integrated solution, relying on the latest technologies in the industry. Looking back at over five decades of commercial aircraft assembly line, a clear and singular vision of a fully integrated solution was defined. The execution was focused on co-developing the automation, tooling, material handling and facilities while limiting the number of parties involved. Using the latest technologies in all these areas also required a development plan that included pre-qualification at all stages of the system development.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2491
Paul Haworth, Donald Peterson, Curtis Hayes
A new high speed forming process for fatigue rated index head rivets used in wing panel assembly using ball-screw based servo squeeze actuation has been developed. The new process is achieved using a combination of force and position control and is capable of forming to 40,000 lbs at rates of up to 200,000 lbs/second whilst holding the part location to within +/- 10 thousandths of an inch. Multi-axis riveting machines often have positioning axes that are also used for fastener upset. It is often the case that while a CNC is used for positioning control, another secondary controller is used to perform the fastener upset. In the new process, it has been possible to wrap the control of the upset process into the machine CNC and thus eliminating any separate controllers. The fastener upset force profile is controlled throughout the forming of the rivet by using a closed loop force control system that has a load cell mounted directly behind the stringer side forming tool.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2493
Dan Vaughan, David Branson, Otto Jan Bakker, Svetan Ratchev
This paper evaluates the capability of adaptive fixtures to identify their suitability for implementation into aircraft wing manufacturing and assembly. The inherently complex aerospace industry requires a step change in its capability to achieve the production ramp up required to meet the global demand. To react to the inevitable differences between the measured dimension and the design definition, adaptive fixtures are utilised to improve process capability and therefore reduce non-conformance. However, the current utilisation of adaptive fixturing in the aerospace industry is low. To understand the potential benefits of these fixtures, an examination of the current academic practices and an evaluation of the existing industrial solutions is presented. The key enabling technologies are identified, their current technology readiness is evaluated and a technology road map for effective industrial implementation is discussed.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2494
Benjamen D. Hempstead, Scott Smith
Aircraft assembly systems which require tooling or machinery to pulse or move between multiple positions within a factory can be positioned with high repeatability without high performance foundations or sweeping out large areas of floorspace. An example shows a system of large left and right-hand frames which are positioned at 3 sequential manufacturing steps and then recirculated to the start of production via a central return aisle. The frames are 41 ton actual weight and are 72’ long, similar to a rail car. The system achieves rectangular motion for the recirculation path. The supporting and moving system incorporates low-cost rail in a floor with minimal preparation and simple to use controls. The system is also easily reconfigured if the manufacturing system needs to be altered to meet rate or flow requirements.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2496
Lucy Agyepong, Marcus Rafla, David Tomlinson, Karl-Otto Strömberg, Alan Howarth
There is the need to strive towards more advanced aircraft with the use of materials such as composites, and a desire to improve efficiency by achieving and maintaining laminar flow over a large proportion of the aircraft wing. Due to the high tolerances required to achieve laminar flow, the manufacturing processes and tooling will have to be revaluated to enable successful manufacture in a production environment. A major influence in achieving the key characteristics and tolerances is the assembly fixture. This paper details the design and manufacture of a carbon fibre based assembly fixture, required for a one-off build of an innovative leading edge wing concept. The fixture has been designed and optimised in order to make it adaptable, reconfigurable, and suitable for lifting as well as being thermally stable whilst maintaining laminar flow tolerances.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2495
N.D. Jayaweera, L.U. Subasinghe, H.G.A.R. Gajanayaka
Modern aerospace industry is continuously seeking new technologies due to potential increase in demand for new aircrafts which are to be produced on a single production line while reducing model changeover time and improving quality of the assembly process. In mass volume production, this can be achieved by fixing a large number of similar components using special-purpose jigs and fixtures. This type of jigs and fixtures can be largely found in automotive industry. In low volume production, improvement of the re-configurability of fixturing systems becomes a favorable way to reduce the cost of production per one unit. Aerospace industry can be considered as an industry that produces goods in less volume since the number of aircrafts produced per year is very less when compared to automotive industry. A re-configurable fixturing system consists of standard components that can be used to satisfy different fixturing requirements.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2498
AbdulRahman El-Nounu, Svetan Ratchev, Richard Crossley
Design for Assembly is the concept of carrying out critical thought early in the design stage to create assembly easement at the production stage. In the aerospace industry products have very long lives, frequently being optimised rather than introducing new products. This has meant that older products that are stable cash cows have not benefited from new Design for Assembly Methods and manufacturing equipment and tooling suffer from obsolescence. It has been established that approximately 80% of overall product cost is determined at the design stage and thus existing products suffer from preloaded costs. This paper takes existing Design for Assembly methodologies and analyses them with respect to the unique challenges involved in legacy product redesign. The methodology developed is both a quantitative solution coupled with thought channelling processes. An existing case study looking at optimising the installation of small butterfly brackets is used to test this methodology.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2497
George Nicholas Bullen
The introduction of composite materials onto air vehicles has complicated the traditional hole/countersink assessment criteria due its finished-part thickness variability; softer and dissimilar properties than the metallic substructure where it is mounted and attached; and the increased attention to other acceptance criteria such as fiber tear, fiber pull, and moisture propagation in the hole that degrades fastener capability. The addition of composite materials further complicates the assembly process by adding a boundary layer of liquid shim or sealant between the composite piece (usually a skin) and the substructure. Current hole inspection systems are absent the ability to assess the interior condition of the composite hole such as fiber tear, damage to the liquid shim, and debris or burrs between the multiple stacks of dissimilar material.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 104765