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Viewing 1 to 30 of 107565
2016-10-03
Technical Paper
2016-01-9044
Eric Gingrich, Daniel Janecek, Jaal Ghandhi
An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the impact in-cylinder pressure oscillation have on piston heat transfer. Two fast-response surface thermocouples embedded in the piston top measured transient temperature and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit thermocouple signals from the moving piston. Measurements were made in a light-duty single-cylinder research engine operated under low temperature combustion regimes including Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) and Conventional Diesel (CDC). The HCCI data showed a correlated trend of higher heat transfer with increased pressure oscillation strength, while the RCCI and CDC data did not. An extensive HCCI data set were acquired. The heat transfer rate – when corrected for differences in cylinder pressure and gas temperature – was found to positively correlate with increased pressure oscillations.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2091
Raul Cano, Oscar Ibanez de Garayo, Miguel Angel Castillo, Ricardo Marin, Hector Ascorbe, Jose Ramon de los Santos
In the last years, Aeronautical Industry has made a significant effort for the automation of different manufacturing tasks. One of the most important is the drilling process of material stacks prior to the installation of rivets, due the great advantages of progressing from manual to automatic operation. In particular, the robotic drilling for manufacturing medium-size subassemblies allows not only to improve productivity and efficiency of the process, but also to reduce repetitive tasks for the operator, usually performed under poorly ergonomic conditions. For this purpose, some solutions based on industrial robots with highly sensorized end-effectors have been already explored. Nevertheless, these proposals are frequently lack of technological maturity or imply an investment difficult to recover.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2101
Burak Deger, Fazli Melemez, Aykut Kibar lng
A hybrid drilling process of multi material stacks with one shot drilling recently emerge as an economical and time efficient method in aerospace industry. Even though the comprehensive experience and knowledge is available for the cutting parameters of composites and metals alone, significant gap exist for the hybrid drilling parameters. Determination of these parameters such as feed rate, spindle speed and pecking depth has vital importance so as to provide a robust and optimal process to ensure dimensionally high quality, burr and delamination free holes. Main challenge of hybrid drilling operation is to obtain required hole diameter with adequate homogeneity and repeatability. In this study, effect of cutting parameters on dimensional hole quality was investigated. In addition to the hole diameter tolerances, CFRP hole enlargement phenomena which is encountered as a specific drawback of metal-exit stack configurations is also addressed within the scope of this study.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2102
André Baumann
Broetje-Automation has developed a new production organization for the A320neo Pylon assembly. The main goal of this turnkey solution was to reduce the lead time of the assembly phase and the use of lean principles. The assembly line consist of several manual working stations as well as a fully automated drilling cell. The different processes, machines and tools are directly connected to a comprehensive overhead conveyor and a line management system.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2104
Robert Flynn, Kevin Payton-Stewart, Patrick Brewer, Ryan W. Davidge
The customer’s assembly philosophy demanded a fully integrated flexible pulse line for their Final Assembly Line to assemble their new business jets. Major challenges included the material handling system, developing capable positioners and implementing an automated metrology system. Crane based material handling presents certain collision and handover risks and also present a logistics challenge as cranes become overworked. Automated guided vehicles can be used to move large parts such as wings, but the resulting sweep path becomes a major operational limitation. The customer did not like the trade-offs for either of these approaches. A unique lifting system (ATLAS) based on in-floor rails was developed to offer a solution that provides highly controlled, low risk and accurate moves that allow workers and tools to remain in the assembly area.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2141
Dale J. McDonald
EI was selected to design and build a turnkey outer wing assembly system for the single aisle China 919 (C919) wing factory located near Xi’an China. During the design and development phase for this wing box project, the need to machine flat, three surfaces in aluminum spacers integral to the wing’s flap track mounting structures arose. The three planes would need to be determined according to the CAD nominal and “floating” tooling features for the flap connection fittings. These three interface planes are unique for every airplane build due to the tolerance stacks of the 3 to 4 material plies. Traditionally, small scale portable milling equipment used for this purpose indexed into tooling features for “touch-off” part references.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2143
Yury Zhuk
The EU REACH regulations set September 2017 as a “sunset date” for the use of toxic Hexavalent Chromium salts, and as this date is approaching the aerospace manufacturers are looking for alternative coatings to replace Hard Chrome plating (HCP). HCP is widely used in the aircraft industry to protect steel components against wear, corrosion and galling. Hardide-A CVD Tungsten/Tungsten Carbide coating has met the technical performance requirements as a potential alternative to HCP on some specific Airbus aircraft components. This newly-developed CVD coating is crystallized from the gas phase atom-by-atom, forming a uniform layer on both internal and external surfaces and complex shaped parts, which are impossible to coat by thermal spray coatings, considered to be the best available alternative to HCP. Hardide coating consists of Tungsten Carbide nano-particles dispersed in metal Tungsten matrix, combining hardness with toughness and crack-resistance.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2078
Torsten Logemann
To bring automation into today’s complex assembly processes of aircraft structures a highly flexible solution is needed. Therefore, Broetje-Automation has developed a mobile robot assembly cell for high accuracy drilling and fastening. The system uses a standard 6 axis articulated arm robot extended with a lifting unit and equipped with special compensation package developed by Broetje Automation. The whole system can be moved either on wheels for longer distance or on air cushions why it can be easily integrated or combined with existing assembly processes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2081
Rodrigo Pinheiro, Robert Gurrola
The installation of common threaded aerospace fasteners by the application of a tightening torque to a nut or deformable locking collar is made possible by an internal wrenching element or recess feature adapted to the threaded end of a pin which accepts a mating anti-rotation key designed to partially balance or counter the applied torque. In highly-demanding applications such as the mechanical joining of composite structures accomplished by wet clearance fit installations of permanent fasteners, high nut or collar seating torques not adequately opposed by frictional resistance at the contact surfaces of the fastener and joint members effectively shift a greater proportion of the torque reaction requirement onto the recess and mating anti-rotation key which in turn can experience high torsional stresses exceeding their design capability and result in frequent service failures.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2093
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Ortwin Mailahn
Many assembly processes, particularly in the manufacture of aircraft components, are still carried out by humans manually. In addition to rationalization aspects, high quality requirements, non-ergonomic activities, the lack of well-qualified workers etc. may require the use of automation technology. Through novel possibilities of human-robot-cooperation these challenges can be met through a skills-based division of labor. Tasks are assigned to humans and robots in a way that the respective strengths can be used most efficiently. This article presents, how assembly processes can get empowered for human-robot-cooperation, using a specific work description for humans and robots, an assembly priority chart and suitable robot programs, to prepare for a skills-based task assignment. In the area of formerly exclusively manual assembly, the operations for the assembly of the product must first be described in detail.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2089
Jose Guerra cEng, Miguel Angel Castillo
During the year 2003 Aernnova decided to invest in automated machines procuring and installing a Broetje automatic machine (known in Aernnova as CIMPA) in Aernnova Berantevilla facility in order to perform operations such as drilling, countersinking or riveting in aircraft structures during its assembly. Due to the high load of work at that time in Aernnova mainly due to work packages from Embraer and Sikorsky, a solution was needed in order to assemble all the products required by our customer and deliver them on properly in terms of time and good quality. Several ideas came to our engineering team always having in mind the idea of reducing time being more competitive specially in repetitive operations and at the same time keeping good quality. Finally after a depth search, the option selected was an automated machine from Broetje that after some adjustments and customizations regarding our purposes could provide us the best solution.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2090
Sergey Lupuleac, Margarita Petukhova, Julia Shinder, Alexander Smirnov, Mariia Stefanova, Nadezhda Zaitseva, Tatiana Pogarskaia, Elodie Bonhomme
Perspective way of solving the problem of aircraft assembly optimization is global simulation of junction process using efficient numerical algorithms. Specialized software complex [1] was developed within the framework of cooperation between Airbus SAS and Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University. This tool allows engineers to simulate the aircraft assembly process and solve the number of tasks: • Calculation of resulting gap under given initial disposition of riveted parts and distribution of fastening elements; • Determination of fastening element pattern that provides sufficient quality of assembly; • Shimming prediction; • Evaluation of stresses caused by assembly. The tool is based on special approach that necessitates solving contact problem arising when aircraft parts are being joined. This problem can be described by several simplifying assumptions such as ommiting tangential displacements and friction from consideration and creating substructure for junction area.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2109
Michael Morgan, Caroline McClory, Colm Higgins, Yan Jin, Adrian Murphy
Aerospace structures are typically joined to form larger assemblies using screw lock or swage lock fasteners or rivets. Countersunk fasteners are used widely in the aerospace industry on flying surfaces to reduce excrescence drag and increase aircraft performance. Typically these fasteners are installed to a nominal countersink value which leaves them flush to the surface before being locked into position. The Northern Ireland Technology Centre at Queen’s University Belfast has developed and demonstrated two processes which enable high flushness fastening of countersunk fasteners. The ‘Flush Install’ process produces countersunk holes based on the specific geometry of each individual fastener. The ‘Fettle Flush’ process accurately machines fasteners to match the surrounding surface. Flushness values well within the allowable tolerances have been demonstrated for both Flush Install and Fettle Flush processes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2107
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Matthias Scholer, Jan Ball
The global competition challenges aircraft manufactures in high wage countries. The assembly of large components is distinguished by fixed position assembly. Many complex assembly processes such as in the aircraft assembly are manually done by high experienced workers. The aircraft manufacturers deal with a varying number of items, growing product variants and an increase of requirements for their products. During the assembly process hundreds of clips, ties and stringers as well as thousands of rivets must be assembled. An important aspect is the maintenance of a high productivity and ensuring the competitiveness and the existence of manufacturing companies in Germany. To achieve a reduction of cycle times with a simultaneous increase in quality, supportive assistance systems for visual support and for the documentation and organization within the assembly are required. One example for visual assistance systems are laser projection systems.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2136
Oliver Pecat, Tebbe Paulsen, Philipp Katthöfer, Ekkard Brinksmeier, Sascha Fangmann
Insufficient chip extraction often leads to disruptions of automated drilling processes and degraded surface qualities. One opportunity to avoid chip accumulation is based on a cinematically enforced chip breakage caused by sinusoidal axial oscillations of the drilling tool. Recent investigations have shown that the quality of chip extraction is, amongst others, considerably depending on the chip shape and mass which are defined by the cutting parameters feed, amplitude and number of oscillation per revolution. So far only mechanical systems in the form of tool holders have been available on the market, which are restricted to a fixed number of oscillations per revolution (oscillation frequency is coupled to the spindle speed). In the present study a spindle with magnetic bearings was used which allows to adjust the oscillation frequency independently of the spindle speed and therefore enables all opportunities to affect the generated chip shapes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2135
Juan Francisco Garcia Amado, Carlos Ramirez Alcala
This article describes briefly an automatic drilling cell concept that uses low cost commercial robots whose accuracy has been improved due to a software treatment. To perform the operation, a low cost drilling head that remotely controls semiautomatic tools has been developed. At last, providing the system with the lack of flexibility occurring in conventional installations causes not to depend on customized items for particular cases, that’s why a reorientation system that guarantees the orthogonality of the tool to de material during de drilling process, using a tripod with mechanical displacement sensors LVDT type, has been developed.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2137
Simon Kothe, Sven Philipp von Stürmer, Hans Christian Schmidt, Christian Boehlmann, Jörg Wollnack, Wolfgang Hintze
Strong market growth, upcoming global competition and the impact of customer-requirements in aerospace industry demand for more productive, flexible and cost-effective machining systems. Industrial robots have already demonstrated their advantages in smart and efficient production in a wide field of applications and industries. However, their use for machining of structural components is still obstructed by the disadvantage of low absolute accuracy and adverse reaction to process loads. For accuracy assessment and optimization of robot-based machining systems, an experimental approach for holistic recording and analysis of inaccuracies and errors is presented. For conventional Cartesian CNC machining systems several methods and guidelines for performance assessment and error identification are available (e.g. VDI 9283, VDI/NCG 5211-2). Due to the attributes of a common 6-axis-robot serial kinematic these methods of decoupled and separated analysis fail.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2127
Sylvain Guerin, Sylvain da Costa
Contribution of 3D printing in tooling and portable tools Application case for a Smart Driller The recent contribution rise in 3D printing is rapidly changing the whole industry. In aeronautics, it has 2 major domains of growth: • Aircraft parts • Tooling and portable tools Aircraft parts in metallic 3D printing have been highly publicized in the media, although they represent only a tiny share of the aircraft cell in the short term. On the other hand, metallic (and non-metallic) 3D printing in tooling and tools bring immediate advantages compared to traditional methods. The advantages • Design made directly from the final function • Optimized for strength vs weight • Weight reduction • Reduction in parts number • Short cycle time from design to use • Low cost for customization The drawbacks • Limited in size We have already applied this new manufacturing technique to obtain real breakthroughs in portable tools.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2131
Karl-Erik Neumann
If you need a 5-axis machine tool with the capability of making 50 mm diameter holes, 125 mm deep, in titanium, you probably end up with a 20 ton machine, sitting on a 3 meter foundation, but if you also need to; • move it around in your factory to different work stations • perform high speed machining • have the flexibility of a robot • apply 7 kN tool force • run 3G acceleration • have a positioning accuracy of +/- 5 micron • be able to take it apart and put it inside e.g. a wing box • integrate it into production by yourself in 72 hours then you have just wrote the specification of the new XMini, developed by Exechon Enterprises LLC, a Lockheed Martin-Injaz-Tecgrant Joint Venture, in cooperation with Airbus and Boeing. The Exechon XMini is the first Machine Tool & Robot in the world made out of carbon fiber, with a unique capability of high speed/low torque as well as low speed/high torque machining.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2140
Long Yu, Yilian Zhang
Slug rivet is widely used in wing assembly due to its longer fatigue life and better sealing performance compared with other connection technologies. As countersinks with dual-angle are widely adopted in this connection, countersink diameter and depth are the key factors that affect assembly quality. As such, it is of great importance to inspect the drilling qualities with high accuracy and efficiency. However, the contact measurements are susceptible to loss of accuracy due to cutting debris and lube build-up, while scanning the hole using laser profilometry is time consuming and complex, in this paper, a non-contact method for countersink diameter and depth measurement based on machine vision system is proposed. The countersink diameter can be directly measured by this system, while the countersink depth is determined through countersink diameter indirectly. First, holes with different depths are countersunk, then the countersink depths are measured by 3D microscope.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2144
Galina M. Susova, Rostislav Sirotkin
FMEA methodology is widely used today for solution of practical analysis problems, quality (reliability, risks) evaluation and assurance etc., owing to a clear and simple algorithm and the absence of restrictions on a subject of analysis (i.e., systems, processes, products). However, the efficiency of applying FMEA methodology for problems solution is determined by the choice of elements of analysis, completeness of identification of potential non-conformities, their causes, frequencies and effects. Quality of manufacture is determined by deviations from requirements of design and manufacturing documentation including drawings. In this article a task of ensuring a steady reduction of deviations from these requirements during manufacture through implementation of preventive actions combined with control of time and costs for correction of non-conformances is considered.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2108
Marc Fette, Kim Schwake, Jens Wulfsberg, Frank Neuhaus, Manila Brandt
The rising demand for civil aircraft leads to the development of flexible and adaptive production systems in aviation industry. Due to economic efficiency, operational accuracy and high performance these manufacturing and assembly systems must be technologically robust and standardized. The current aircraft assembly and its jigs are characterized by a high complexity with poor changeability and low adaptability. In this context, the use of industrial robots and standardized jigs promise highly flexible and accurate complex assembly operations. This paper deals with the flexible and adaptable aircraft assembly based on industrial robots with special end-effectors for shaping operations. By the development and use of lightweight gripper system made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics the required scaling, robustness and stiffness of the whole assembly system can be realized.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2142
Pavel Lykov PhD, Artem Leyvi, Rustam M. Baytimerov, Aleksei Doikin, Evgeny Safonov
Nowadays the treatment of solid surface by powerful streams of charged particles accelerated with power density of ≥106 W/сm2 is widely used for modifications of different materials properties. Fast electron beam power entry into the target material causes intense thermal and deformation processes. The changing of the structure, the phase composition, the microrelief of the treated surface consequently happens. It is often accompanied by the hardening and increase of the wearing properties. Low-energy high-current electron beam usage is proposed as a finishing treatment of product obtained by selective laser melting of heat-resistant nickel alloy EP648. The subject of the research is the surface properties of the product.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2125
Henry Hameister
This paper presents an approach to how existing production systems can benefit from Industry 4.0 driven concepts. This attempt is based on a communication gateway and a cloud-based system, that hosts all algorithms and models to calculate a prediction of the tool wear. Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding is a sub-section of friction welding, where a rotating tool that consists out of three parts is used to heat up material to a dough-like state. Since Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding produces a selective dot-shaped connection of overlapping materials, the production requirements are similar to riveting or resistance spot welding. In contrast to other bonding techniques, Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding can be integrated within the production process without major interferences or changes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8005
Matt Glover
Today’s business climate and economy demand new, innovative strategies from the initial kickoff of research and development - to the mining of ore from the earth - to the final inspection of a finished product in a mid-western factory. From startup companies with two employees to the largest companies, the world faces new and challenging requirements every day. The demands from companies, customers, executives, and shareholders continues to drive for higher outputs with more efficient use of personnel and investments. Fortunately, the rate of technology continues to exponentially accelerate, which allows those at the cutting edge of technology to capitalize. Caterpillar has been a pioneer in advanced technology since its inception and has been developing the foundation for autonomy over the past four decades.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8007
Chris Mentzer, Ryan D. Lamm, Jerry Towler
Since the turn of the millennium, automated vehicle technology has matured at exponential rates, evolving from largely military and agriculturally funded and motivated research to a near-production market centered on every day public road driving. Research and development has been conducted by a variety of entities ranging from universities to automotive manufacturers to technology firms demonstrating capabilities in both highway and urban environments. While this technology continues to show promise, corner cases have emerged highlighting scenarios that impede the realization of full automation anywhere, anytime. This paper will review several of these corner cases and research deficiencies that need to be addressed for automated driving systems to be broadly deployed and trusted.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8017
Eric Wood, Adam Duran, Kenneth Kelly
In collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has conducted a national analysis of road grade characteristics experienced by U.S. medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. These characteristics have been developed using TomTom’s commercially available street map and road grade database. Using the TomTom national road grade database, national statistics on road grade and hill distances were generated for the U.S. network of controlled access highways. These statistical distributions were then weighted using data provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on activity of medium- and heavy-duty trucks on controlled access highways. The national activity-weighted road grade and hill distance distributions were then used as targets for development of a handful of sample grade profiles potentially to be used in the U.S.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8025
Jesse Paldan, Vladimir V. Vantsevich
This paper presents an analysis of coupled longitudinal and lateral dynamics of a 4x4 hybrid-electric off-road vehicle (HEV) with two passive driveline systems, including drivelines with (i) an interaxle open symmetrical differential in the transfer case and (ii) a locked transfer case, i.e., positive engagement of two axles. The axle differentials are open. As the study proved, lateral dynamics of the 4x4 HEV, characterized by the tire side forces, vehicle lateral acceleration, yaw rate and tire gripping factors can be impacted by the tire longitudinal forces, whose magnitudes and directions (positive-negative) strongly depend on the driveline characteristics. At the same time, the tire side forces impact the relation between the longitudinal forces and tire slippages.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8037
Nan Xu, Konghui Guo, Yiyang Yang
The tire mechanics characteristics are essential for analysis, simulation and control of vehicle dynamics. Basically, the effects of sideslip, longitudinal slip, camber angle and vertical load are able to be represented accurately by current existing tire models. However, the important influences of traveling velocity are often ignored. And many experiments have demonstrated that the tire properties actually vary with the traveling velocity especially when the force and moment are nearly saturated. This paper develops the UniTire semi-physical model for tire forces and moments under different traveling velocities for raising need of advanced tire model. The primary effects of velocity on tire performances are the rubber friction distribution characteristics at the tire-road interface. Therefore, in this paper, experimental investigations of tread rubber friction under different sliding speeds are first developed.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 107565