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Viewing 271 to 300 of 109758
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1627
Stephan Rinderknecht, Rafael Fietzek, Stéphane Foulard
Abstract An online and real-time Condition Prediction system, so-called lifetime monitoring system, was developed at the Institute for Mechatronic Systems in Mechanical Engineering (IMS) of the TU Darmstadt, which is intended for implementation in standard control units of series production cars. Without additional hardware and only based on sensors and signals already available in a standard car, the lifetime monitoring system aims at recording the load/usage profiles of transmission components in aggregated form and at estimating continuously their remaining useful life. For this purpose, the dynamic transmission input and output torques are acquired realistically through sensor fusion. In a further step, the lifetime monitoring system is used as an input-module for the introduction of innovative procedures to more load appropriate dimensioning, cost-efficient lightweight design, failure-free operation and predictive maintenance of transmissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1622
Ronald Brombach, Anup Gadkari
Abstract The Body Control Module (BCM) is a very large integration site for vehicle features and functions (e.g., Locking, Alarms, interior lighting, exterior lighting, etc…). Every few years the demand to add more feature/functions and integrate more vehicle content increases. The expectation of the 2013 MY (model year) BCM, was to double the feature content and use it globally. The growth in 3 years of feature/function content was huge number that grew from 150 to over 300. This posed a major challenge to the software development team based on the methods and process that were deployed at the time. This paper cites the cultural and technology changes that were overcome when Ford Motor Company partnered with Tata Consultancy Services to help manage and define this new software engineering development methodology. The process of getting from a vague description of a new body module feature to a saleable product, presents several very challenging problems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1618
Max Mauro Dias Santos, Victor Ambiel, Mauro Acras, Peter Gliwa
Abstract Modern cars contain more and more safety-relevant features which require addressing safety aspects during all development phases: on the functional level, on the architectural level, during integration as well as throughout the verification. The workflow of designing safe and reliable automotive embedded systems start with appropriate requirements definitions. According to the automotive safety standard ISO 26262, functional as well as non-functional threats need to be addressed. Non-functional aspects of safe software include a sound and safe timing of the software. The right methods, tools and standards enable OEMs and suppliers developing and providing applications which meet their timing requirements and a high level of quality. We present with this paper some important aspects related to timing in automotive embedded systems as well as the major standards such as TIMMO and AUTOSAR.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1065
Douglas R. Martin, Benjamin Rocci
Abstract Exhaust temperature models are widely used in the automotive industry to estimate catalyst and exhaust gas temperatures and to protect the catalyst and other vehicle hardware against over-temperature conditions. Modeled exhaust temperatures rely on air, fuel, and spark measurements to make their estimate. Errors in any of these measurements can have a large impact on the accuracy of the model. Furthermore, air-fuel imbalances, air leaks, engine coolant temperature (ECT) or air charge temperature (ACT) inaccuracies, or any unforeseen source of heat entering the exhaust may have a large impact on the accuracy of the modeled estimate. Modern universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensors have heaters with controllers to precisely regulate the oxygen sensing element temperature. These controllers are duty cycle based and supply more or less current to the heating element depending on the temperature of the surrounding exhaust gas.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1137
Xiaofeng Yin, Han Lu, Xiaohua Wu, Yongtong Zhang, Wei Luo
Abstract For the vehicle equipped with stepped automatic transmission (SAT) that has a fixed number of gears, gearshift schedule is crucial to improve the comprehensive performance that takes into account power performance, fuel economy, and driver’s performance expectation together. To optimize and individualize the gearshift schedule, an optimization method and an improved performance evaluation approach for multi-performance gearshift schedule were proposed, which are effective in terms of reflecting the driver's expectation on different performance. However, the proposed optimization method does not consider the influence of the road slope on the comprehensive performance. As the road slope changes the load of vehicle that is different from the load when a vehicle runs on a level road, the optimized gearshift schedule without considering road slope is obviously not the optimal solution for a vehicle equipped with SAT when it runs on ramp.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1118
Isamu Hachisuwa, Naoki Kato, Daisuke Kusamoto, Hideki Miyata, Takuya Okada, Hitoshi matsunaga, Takamitsu Kuroyanagi, Makoto nakazuru
Abstract Increasingly stringent environmental regulations requiring lower CO2 emissions and higher fuel economy have made it essential to develop vehicles with superior fuel efficiency and cleaner emissions. At the same time, there is growing demand for even more powerful and quieter vehicles. To help satisfy these requirements, Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new 8-speed automatic transmission for front wheel drive vehicles, incorporating its first compact torque converter with a multiple disk lock-up mechanism. This newly developed compact torque converter with a multiple disk lock-up mechanism was designed under the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) development concept to achieve an excellent balance between higher efficiency through the commonization of components and stronger product appeal through installation on a whole family of transmissions. This compact torque converter is compatible with a variety of engines from inline 4-cylinder to V6 configurations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1545
Susumu Terakado, Takafumi Makihara, Takashi Sugiyama, Kazuhiro Maeda, Kenji Tadakuma, Kentaro Tsuboi, Masashi Iyota, Kazuyoshi Kosaka, Sadato Sugiyama
Abstract With advancement of aeroacoustic wind tunnels and CAE technology, aeroacoustic cabin noise in steady flow has been improved. On the other hand, passenger comfort is also impacted by aeroacoustic noise in unsteady flow. There have been comparatively few studies into this area, and the mechanism remains unclear. Considering the future proliferation of autonomous driving, drivers will pay more attention to cabin noise than previously, and aeroacoustic noise is expected to become more prominent. Thus, the reduction of fluctuating aeroacoustic noise is important. Most of the previous research relied on road tests, which don’t provide reproducible conditions due to changing atmospheric and traffic conditions. To solve these problems, research using devices that generate turbulence are being conducted. However, the fluctuations of flow generated in previous studies were small, failing to simulate on-road conditions sufficiently.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1549
Taro Yamashita, Takafumi Makihara, Kazuhiro Maeda, Kenji Tadakuma
Abstract In recent years, the automotive manufacturers have been working to reduce fuel consumption in order to cut down on CO2 emissions, promoting weight reduction as one of the fuel saving countermeasures. On the other hand, this trend of weight reduction is well known to reduce vehicle stability in response to disturbances. Thus, automotive aerodynamic development is required not only to reduce aerodynamic drag, which contributes directly to lower fuel consumption, but also to develop technology for controlling unstable vehicle behavior caused by natural wind. In order to control the unstable vehicle motion changed by external contour modification, it is necessary to understand unsteady aerodynamic forces that fluctuating natural wind in real-world environments exerts on vehicles. In the past, some studies have reported the characteristics of unsteady aerodynamic forces induced by natural winds, comparing to steady aerodynamic forces obtained from conventional wind tunnel tests.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1528
Levon Larson, Ronald Gin, Robert Lietz
Abstract Cooling drag is a metric that measures the influence of air flow travelling through the open grille of a ground vehicle on overall vehicle drag, both internally (engine air flow) and externally (interference air flow). With the interference effects considered, a vehicles cooling drag can be influenced by various air flow fields around the vehicle, not just the air flow directly entering or leaving the engine bay. For this reason, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are particularly difficult. With insights gained from a previously conducted set of experimental studies, a CFD validation effort was undergone to understand which air flow field characteristics contribute to CFD/test discrepancies. A Lattice-Boltzmann Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method was used to validate several test points. Comparison using integral force values, surface pressures, and cooling pack air mass flows was presented.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0533
Paul Dekraker, Mark Stuhldreher, Youngki Kim
Abstract The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all energy flows in the model. In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has been refined and revalidated using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2016 engines and vehicles. The robustness of EPA’s vehicle and engine testing for the MTE coupled with further validation of the ALPHA model has highlighted some areas where additional data can be used to add fidelity to the engine model within ALPHA.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1663
Alan Druschitz, Christopher Williams, Erin Connelly, Bob Wood
Abstract Binder jetting of sand molds and cores for metal casting provides a scalable and efficient means of producing metal components with complex geometric features made possible only by Additive Manufacturing. Topology optimization software that can mathematically determine the optimum placement of material for a given set of design requirements has been available for quite some time. However, the optimized designs are often not manufacturable using standard metal casting processes due to undercuts, backdraft and other issues. With the advent of binder-based 3D printing technology, sand molds and cores can be produced to make these optimized designs as metal castings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1671
Johannes Bach, Marc Holzäpfel, Stefan Otten, Eric Sax
Abstract Enhanced technological capabilities render the application of various, increasingly complex, functional concepts for automated driving possible. In the process, the significance of automotive software for a satisfactory driving experience is growing. To benefit from these new opportunities, thorough assessment in early development stages is highly important. It enables manufacturers to focus resources on the most promising concepts. For early assessment, a common approach is to set up vehicles with additional prototyping hardware and perform real world testing. While this approach is essential to assess the look-and-feel of newly developed concepts, its drawbacks are reduced reproducibility and high expenses to achieve a sufficient and balanced sample. To overcome these drawbacks, new flexible, realistic and preferably automated virtual test methods to complement real world verification and validation are especially required during early development phases.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1666
David Weiss, Orlando Rios
Abstract Aluminum alloys containing cerium have excellent castability and retain a substantial fraction of their room temperature strength at temperatures of 200°C and above. High temperature strength is maintained through a thermodynamically trapped, high surface energy intermetallic. Dynamic load partitioning between the aluminum and the intermetallic increases mechanical response. Complex castings have been produced in both permanent mold and sand castings. This versatile alloy system, using an abundant and inexpensive co-product of rare earth mining, is suitable for parts that need to maintain good properties when exposed to temperatures between 200 and 315°C.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1667
Scott Piper, Mark Steffka, Vipul Patel
Abstract With the increasing content of electronics in automobiles and faster development times, it is essential that electronics hardware design and vehicle electrical architecture is done early and correctly. Today, the first designs are done in the electronic format with circuit and CAD design tools. Once the initial design is completed, several iterations are typically conducted in a “peer review” methodology to incorporate “best practices” before actual hardware is built. Among the many challenges facing electronics design and integration is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Success in EMC starts at the design phase with a relevant “lessons learned” data set that encompasses component technology content, schematic and printed circuit board (PCB) layout, and wiring using computer aided engineering (CAE) tools.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0010
Vinay Vaidya, Ramesh S, Venkatesh Kareti, Smitha K.P., Priti Ranadive
Abstract Currently, Model Based Development (MBD) is the de-facto methodology in automotive industry. This has led to conversions of legacy code to Simulink models. Our previous work was related to implementing the C2M tool to automatically convert legacy code to Simulink models. While the tool has been implemented and deployed on few OEM pilot code-sets there were several improvement areas identified w.r.t. the generated models. One of the improvement areas identified was that the generated model used atomic blocks instead of abstracted blocks available in Simulink. E.g. the generated model used an ADD block and feedback loop to represent an integration operation instead of using an integrator block directly. This reduced the readability of the model even though the functionality was correct. Thus, as a user of the model, an engineer would like to see abstract blocks rather than atomic blocks.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1672
Siddartha Khastgir, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Stewart Birrell, Sean Redmond, Ross Addinall, Paul Jennings
Abstract The advent of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and automated driving has offered a new challenge for functional verification and validation. The explosion of the test sample space for possible combinations of inputs needs to be handled in an intelligent manner to meet cost and time targets for the development of such systems. This paper addresses this research gap by using constrained randomization techniques for the creation of the required test scenarios and test cases. Furthermore, this paper proposes an automated constrained randomized test scenario generation framework for testing of ADAS and automated systems in a driving simulator setup. The constrained randomization approach is deployed at two levels: 1) test scenario randomization 2) test case randomization.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1676
Hartmut Lackner
Abstract Software systems, and automotive software in particular, are becoming increasingly configurable to fulfill customer needs. New methods such as product line engineering facilitate the development and enhance the efficiency of such systems. In modern, versatile systems, the number of theoretically possible variants easily exceeds the number of actually built products. This produces two challenges for quality assurance and especially testing. First, the costs of conventional test methods increase substantially with every tested variant. And secondly, it is no longer feasible to build every possible variant for the purpose of testing. Hence, efficient criteria for selecting variants for testing are necessary. In this contribution, we propose a new test design method that enables systematic sampling of variants from test cases. We present six optimization criteria to enable control of test effort and test quality by sampling variants with different characteristics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1682
Matthew von der Lippe, Mark Waterbury, Walter J. Ortmann, Bernard Nefcy, Scott Thompson
Abstract The FMEA and DV&PV process of developing automotive products requires identifying and repeatedly testing critical vehicle attributes and their response to noise factors that may impair vehicle function. Ford has developed a new automated scripting tool to streamline in-vehicle robustness testing and produce more accurate and repeatable results. Similar noise factors identified during the FMEA process are grouped together, condensed, and scripts are developed to simulate these noise factors using calibration parameters and vehicle controls. The automated testing tool uses the API of a calibration software tool and a graphical scripting interface to consistently simulate driver inputs with greater precision than a human calibrator and enable more sophisticated controls, which would have previously required experimental software builds.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1675
Genís Mensa, Núria Parera, Alba Fornells
Abstract Nowadays, the use of high-speed digital cameras to acquire relevant information is a standard for all laboratories and facilities working in passive safety crash testing. The recorded information from the cameras is used to develop and improve the design of vehicles in order to make them safer. Measurements such as velocities, accelerations and distances are computed from high-speed images captured during the tests and represent remarkable data for the post-crash analysis. Therefore, having the exact same position of the cameras is a key factor to be able to compare all the values that are extracted from the images of the tests carried out within a long-term passive safety project. However, since working with several customers involves a large amount of different cars and tests, crash facilities have to readapt for every test mode making it difficult for them to reproduce the correct and precise position of the high-speed cameras throughout the same project.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1681
Kyaw Soe
Abstract This paper describes a test system for improving the completeness and representativeness of automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) test benches. This is with the aim to enable more testing and hence increase the usage and effectiveness of these facilities. A proportion of testing for automotive electrical and electronics systems and components is conducted using E/E testing boards (“test-boards”). These are table-like rigs consisting of most or all electrical and electronic parts connected together as per a car/truck/van. A major problem is that the testing is conducted on the equivalent of a static vehicle: test-boards lack basic dynamic elements such as a running engine, vehicle motion, environmental, component and fluid temperatures, etc. This limits the testing that can be carried out on such a test-board.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0936
Pavel Krejza, Jaroslav Pekar, Jiri Figura, Lukas Lansky, Dirk von Wissel, Tianran Zhang
Diesel automotive engines after-treatment systems face greater challenges with every iteration of emission norm legislation. Major improvements in tailpipe NOx removal need to be achieved to fulfil the upcoming post EURO 6 norms and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) limits. Multi-brick systems employing combinations of multiple selective reduction catalysts (SCR) with an ammonia oxidizer (CUC) are proposed to cover operation over wide temperature range, however, control of multi-brick systems is complex due to many unmeasurable states. Usage of sophisticated model based predictive controls (MPC) makes the control task straight forward and less error prone compared to classic PID control. This paper shows the application of MPC to a SCR multi-brick system. Storage levels for SCR are calculated by optimization based on NOx conversion efficiency keeping tailpipe NH3 slip under emission limits.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0943
Cory S. Hendrickson, Devesh Upadhyay, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt
Over the past decade urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has become a leading aftertreatment solution to meet increasingly stringent Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions requirements in diesel powertrains. A common trend seen in modern SCR systems is the use of "split-brick" configurations where two SCR catalysts are placed in thermally distinct regions of the aftertreatment. One catalyst is close-coupled to the engine for fast light-off and another catalyst is positioned under-floor to improve performance at high space velocities. Typically, a single injector is located upstream of the first catalyst to provide the reductant necessary for efficient NOx reduction. This paper explores the potential benefit, in terms of improved NOx reduction and control of NH3 slip, of having independently actuated injectors in front of each catalyst.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0944
Ryuji Ando, Takashi Hihara, Yasuyuki Banno, Makoto Nagata, Tomoaki Ishitsuka, Nobuyuki Matsubayashi, Toshihisa Tomie
Cu-SSZ-13 is widely used as a material for Cu-SCR catalyst. The Cu-SCR catalyst shows high NOx performance and has high thermal durability but it deteriorates in NOx performance when it suffers Sulfur poisoning. Authors investigated the detailed mechanism how the catalyst is poisoned by Sulfur, and also studied the optimum de-Sulfation conditions. As to the Sulfur adsorption site in the Cu-zeolite, we performed DFT calculation to know the site candidate and we performed precise characterization. As characterization techniques of Sulfur poisoning of the catalyst, we mainly used EUPS (Extreme Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy) and DRIFTS. By those techniques, we found out that Sulfur adsorbs on ion-exchanged Cu site and Al site in the Zeolite structure. Especially the Cu site is an active site of the catalyst and thus the Cu-SCR catalyst deteriorated by the Sulfur poisoning.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0051
Jean GODOT, Adil ALIF, Sébastien Saudrais, Bertrand BARBEDETTE, Cherif LAROUCI
The assessment of the safety and the reliability for embedded systems is mainly performed early in the design cycle, at system level. The objective is to detect the potential failures which could lead to an undesirable event. Given the increasing critical aspect of the functions executed by the software in automotive and aeronautics, it becomes necessary to perform safety analysis at lower level of the design cycle such as at implementation stage. But, software models at this stage are complex and heterogeneous so the analysis are often manually realized. As the software models are also very large (thousands of basic software components), the analysis is labor-intensive and error-prone so it is not obvious to obtain relevant results. Therefore, the analysis on software models at implementation stage is often neglected.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0065
Bülent Sari, Hans-Christian Reuss
Safety is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing level of safety related E/E Systems built into the cars. Increasing functionality of vehicle systems through electrification of power train and autonomous driving leads to complexity in designing system, hardware, software and safety architecture. The application of multicore processors in the automotive industry is becoming necessary because of the needs for more processing power, more memory and higher safety requirements. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the safety solutions particularly for ASIL-D-Systems. This brings additional challenges because of additional requirements of ISO 26262 for ASIL-D safety concepts. The ISO 26262 provides the possibility to apply decomposition approach for ASIL-D safety requirements. An appropriate decomposition has the advantage to reduce the ASIL rating of the top events.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0606
Ashley Wiese, Anna Stefanopoulou, Julia Buckland, Amey Y. Karnik
Low-Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP-EGR) has been shown to be an effective means of improving fuel economy and suppressing knock in downsized, boosted, spark ignition engines. LP-EGR is particularly beneficial at low-speed, high-load conditions, but can lead to combustion instability at lower loads. The transport delays inherent in LP-EGR systems slow the reduction of intake manifold EGR concentrations during tip-out events, which may lead to excessive EGR concentrations at low load. This paper explores leveraging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) as a means of improving the rate of reduction of intake manifold EGR concentration prior to tip-out. At higher boost levels, high valve overlap may result in intake manifold gas passing directly to the exhaust manifold. This short-circuiting behaviour could potentially improve EGR evacuation rates.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0658
Achint Rohit, Sridev Satpathy, Jeongyong Choi, John Hoard, Gopichandra Surnilla, Mohannad Hakeem
Diminishing petroleum reserves and increasingly stringent emission targets globally, have forced the automotive industry to move towards downsized boosted direct injection engines. Boosted engines operate at high mean effective pressure (MEP) resulting in high in-cylinder pressure and thermal loading which could give rise to abnormal combustion events like knock and pre-ignition. These events could lead to damage of engine components; therefore the compression ratio and boost pressure are restricted, which in-turn limits the engine efficiency and power. To mitigate conditions where the engine is prone to knocking, the engine control system uses spark retard or mixture enrichment, which decrease indicated work and increase specific fuel consumption. Several researchers have advocated water injection as an approach to replace existing knock mitigating techniques. The first studies on its potential for knock inhibition can be traced back to early 1930's studies by Ricardo.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0664
Mohd Asif, Karl Giles, Andrew Lewis, Sam Akehurst, Niall Turner
Engine downsizing, the practice of reducing engine displacement whilst maintaining key drivability characteristics, is a well-established method by which automotive manufacturers improve the fuel economy of their products. This improvement is achieved primarily via reduced pumping and friction losses within the engine, as well as by reducing overall vehicle weight. However, the higher BMEP requirement of downsized engines results in increased peak pressures and temperatures within the cylinder. Subsequently, there is an increased tendency for downsized engines to experience damaging forms of abnormal combustion such as pre-ignition and knock. The causes of knock are well understood but it is important to be able to relate these causes to the effects of controllable engine parameters. This study attempts to quantify the effects of several key engine parameters on the knock behavior of a 60% downsized, DISI engine running at approximately 23 bar BMEP.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0922
Akito Takayama, Takahiro Kurokawa, Hiroki Nakayama, Takuya Katoh, Makoto Nagata
New Pd-Rh type CC-TWC (three way catalysts in CC (close-coupled) position) has been developed to improve low-temperature gas activity. In this study Pd top and Rh bottom layered TWC was used, and Ba and La were tested as an additive to Pd, respectively. Alumina was used for Pd support and La or Ba was co-supported to Pd. The catalysts were aged at 950C for 200hrs and CO, HC and NOx performance were evaluated. As a result, Pd-La catalyst showed higher gas performance than Pd-Ba catalyst. The reason and mechanism of this phenomenon were investigated by three points. First one is Pd activation by the additives, second one is Pd particle size by increasing thermal durability of alumina support, and third one is specific NOx adsorption and desorption by the additives. Pd activity seemed to be increased by La addition but details of activation energy analysis and characterization of Pd by XPS, etc. are under investigation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0921
Bharadwaj Sathiamoorthy, Alex Graper, Andrew McIntosh, William Kaminski
The automotive aftermarket industry is an extremely cost competitive market to say the least. Aftermarket manufacturers are sought by customers primarily for their ability to replace an OES for a fraction of the cost. This pressurizes the manufacturers to yield on performance abilities to get a share in the market place. The TWC system in gasoline vehicles not only acts as an emissions reduction device but is an integral part of the overal vehicle performance itself, especially since the introduction of OBD II systems in 1995. An inefficient catalyst not only leads to excessive tailpipe emissions but also acts detrimental to vehicle fueling and hence overall performance. The aftemarket catalyst industry which is regulated by EPA and CARB for gasoline engines is subject to meeting a mandatory performance standard for the same reason. There are several advancement in catalyst technologies to gain performance but this may or may not apply to the aftermarket manufacturers.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 109758