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2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2003
Zhang Wei, 1Lt Xidaodong Tang
Active safety has grown to significant popularity in the recent years in the Chinese automotive market. So far the active safety devices such as radars, cameras and AEB are installed as the "bright spots " for the sales purpose. For some companies the devices also serve as the "point getter " in E-NCAP safety assessment. There has been no practical means for quantitative assessment of the real safety benefits from these devices. In this paper a CAE method is proposed not only to assess the safety performance of each device in each single standard setups, but also analyze the total safety performance of the integration of all the active safety devices. By utilizing a database of the past traffic accidents and reverse-constructing the road environments, the method makes it possible to quantitatively estimate the number of lives the active safety system could save.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2008
Xingwei Wang
One of the biggest Challenge of Full Automated Driving Vehicle mass production is the Cyber Security of Connectivity. This paper describes the different Cyber Security requirement and related solution of Onboard Network and V2X. For Onboard Network ready for SOTA, one kind of Micro-processor with hardware based Cyber Security module is necessary. It guarantees the integrity, authenticity, and freshness based on acceptable data load. For V2X communication with vehicles and cloud, one kind of public and private key based Security ASSP is needed. It uses strong cryptography to protect the wireless communication data of C2C (Car to Car) and C2I (Car to Infrastructure).This paper also describes design the system and solution with both functional safety and cyber security method.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1951
Lingfei Wu, Hongshan Zha, Caijing Xiu, Qiaojun He
Abstract Local path planning for obstacle avoidance is one of the core topics of intelligent vehicle. A novel method based on dubins curve and tentacle algorithm is proposed in this article, with the consideration of obstacle avoidance and vehicle motion constraints. First, the preview distance of the vehicle is given according to the current speed, so that the preview point can be found with the information of global path. Then dubins curve is adopted to find a path with appropriate turning radius, between the current position and preview point, satisfying the constraints of current direction and target direction, considering handling and ride comfort of the vehicle. In order to avoid obstacle, tentacle algorithm is adopted. 20 tentacle points are given by moving the original preview point, and then 21 local paths can be given by using dubins curve. Cost function is used to find out the best option of the 21 paths.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1955
Yandong Ruan, Hui Chen, Jiancong Li
Abstract An integrated automatic driving system consists of perception, planning and control. As one of the key components of an autonomous driving system, the longitudinal planning module guides the vehicle to accelerate or decelerate automatically on the roads. A complete longitudinal planning module is supposed to consider the flexibility to various scenarios and multi-objective optimization including safety, comfort and efficiency. However, most of the current longitudinal planning methods can not meet all the requirements above. In order to satisfy the demands mentioned above, a new Potential Field (PF) based longitudinal planning method is presented in this paper. Firstly, a PF model is constructed to depict the potential risk of surrounding traffic entities, including obstacles and roads. The shape of each potential field is closely related to the property of the corresponding traffic entity.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1954
Peng Hang, Xinbo Chen, Fengmei Luo
Abstract Path tracking is the rudimentary capability and primary task for autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs). In this paper, a novel four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-drive (4WID) electric vehicle (EV) is proposed which is equipped with steer-by-wire (SBW) system. For path-tracking controller design, the nonlinear vehicle model with 2 degrees of freedom (DOF) is built utilizing the nonlinear Dugoff tire model. The nonlinear dynamic model of SBW system is conducted as well considering the external disturbances. As to the path-tracking controller design, an integrated four-wheel steering (4WS) and direct yaw-moment control (DYC) system is designed based on the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm to track the target path described by desired yaw angle and lateral displacement. Then, the fast terminal sliding mode controller (FTSMC) is proposed for the SBW system to suppress disturbances.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1953
Manfei Bai, Lu Xiong, Zhiqiang Fu, Renxie Zhang
Abstract In this paper, a speed tracking controller is designed for the All-terrain vehicles. The method of feedforward with state variable feedback based on conditional integrators is adopted by the proposed control algorithm. The feedforward is designed considering the influence of the road slope on the longitudinal dynamics, which makes the All-terrain vehicles satisfy the acceleration demand of the upper controller when it tracks the desired speed on the road with slope varying greatly. The road slope is estimated based on a combined kinematic and dynamic model. This method solves the problem that road slope estimation requires an accurate vehicle dynamic model and are susceptible to acceleration sensor bias. Based on the vehicle dynamic model and the nonlinear tire model, the method of conditional integration is used in the state variable feedback, which considers the saturation constraint of the actuator with the intention of preventing the divergent integral operation.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1952
ChengJun Ma, Fang Li, Chenglin Liao, Lifang Wang
Abstract With the load of urban traffic system becomes more serious, the Automatic Parking System (APS) plays an important role in alleviating the burden of drivers and improving vehicle safety. The APS is consisted of environmental perception, path planning and path following. The path following controls the lateral movement of vehicle during the parking process, and requires the trajectory tracking error to be as small as possible. At present, some control algorithms are used including PID control, pure pursuit control, etc. However, these algorithms relying heavily on parameters and environment, have some problems such as slow response and low precision. To solve this problem, a path following control method based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, Kinematic vehicle model and path tracker based on MPC algorithm are built. Secondly, a test bench that composed of CANoe hardware in the loop (HIL) system and steering wheel system is built.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1963
Yuande Jiang, Weiwen Deng, Rui He, Shun Yang, Shanshan Wang, Ning Bian
Abstract Adaptive cruise control (ACC), as one of the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), has become increasingly popular in improving both driving safety and comfort. Since the objectives of ACC can be multi-dimensional, and often conflict with each other, it is a challenging task in its control design. The research presented in this paper takes ACC control design as a constrained optimization problem with multiple objectives. A hierarchical framework for ACC control is introduced, aimed to achieve optimal performance on driving safety and comfort, speed and/or distance tracking, and fuel economy whenever possible. Under the hierarchical framework, the operational mode is determined in the upper layer, in which a model predictive control (MPC) based spacing controller is employed to deal with the multiple control objectives. On the other hand, the lower layer is for actuator control, such as braking and driving control for vehicle longitudinal dynamics.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1962
Hongluo Li, Yutao Luo
Abstract The trajectory planning and the accurate path tracking are the two key technologies to realize the intelligent driving. The research of the steering wheel angle plays an important role in the path tracking. The purpose of this study is to optimize the steering wheel angle input during the automated lane changing. A dynamic programming approach to trajectory planning is proposed in this study, which is expected to not only achieve a quick reaction to the changing driving environment, but also optimize the balance between vehicle performance and driving efficiency. First of all, the lane changing trajectory is planned based on the positive and negative trapezoidal lateral acceleration method. In addition, the multi-objective optimization function is built which includes such indexes: lateral acceleration, lateral acceleration rate, yaw rate, lane changing time and lane changing distance.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1958
Dongfang Dang
Abstract With the increasing complexity, dynamicity and uncertainty of traffic, motion planning of automatic driving is getting more difficult and challenging. This paper focuses on the real-time motion planning problem of CAVs (connected and automated vehicles) in complex traffic scenarios. To effectively solve this problem, a general driving risk model is presented, which contains the following two essential parts: i) collision risk, i.e., the collision risk between the SV (subject vehicle) and other surrounding vehicles, pedestrians, buildings etc.; ii) non-collision risk, such as violation of traffic regulations, the deviation from the intention of driver, etc. To achieve the real time collision detection, the SV is approximated to a point and its shape is considered by extending the dimension of obstacles considering their relative position and velocity.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1967
Wei Liu, Huan Tian, Jun Hu, Shuai Cheng, Huai Yuan
Abstract Image segmentation is critical in autonomous driving field. It can reveal essential clues such as objects’ shape or boundary information. The information, moreover, can be leveraged as input information of other tasks: vehicle detection, for example, or vehicle trajectory prediction. SegNet, one deep learning based segmentation model proposed by Cambridge, has been a public baseline for scene perception tasks. It, however, suffers an accuracy deficiency in objects marginal area. Segmentation of this area is very challenging with current models. To alleviate the problem, in this paper, we propose one edge enhanced deep learning based model. Specifically, we first introduced one simple, yet effective Artificial Interfering Mechanism (AIM) which feeds segmentation model manual extracted key features. We argue this mechanism possesses the ability to enhance essential features extraction and hence, ameliorate the model performance.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1964
Xiangkun He, Xuewu Ji, Kaiming Yang, Yulong Liu, Jian WU, Yahui Liu
Abstract Highway traffic safety has been the most serious problem in current society, statistics show that about 70% to 90% of accidents are caused by driver operational errors. The autonomous emergency braking (AEB) is one of important vehicle intelligent safety technologies to avoid or mitigate collision. The AEB system applies the vehicle brakes when a collision is eminent in spite of any reaction by the driver. In some technologies, the system forewarns the driver with an acoustic signal when a collision is still avoidable, but subsequently applies the brakes automatically if the driver fails to respond. This paper presents the development and implementation of a rear-end collision avoidance system based on hierarchical control framework which consists of threat assessment layer, wheel slip ratio control layer and integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (IEHB) actuator control layer.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1973
Yang Yin, Xin Bi, Libo Huang, Shitao Yan
Abstract Millimeter wave (MMW) automotive radar plays an important role in the advanced driving assistance system (ADAS), which detects vehicles, pedestrians and other obstacles. In the adaptive cruise control (ACC) and the automatic emergency brake (AEB) system, the target needs to be oriented. One of the automotive radar’s task is to get the direction information which includes the range, speed, azimuth and height of the target by high intermediate frequency (IF) signal sampling rate. In order to solve the problem of high sampling rate for the MMW radar caused by the traditional Nyquist sampling theorem when the target is located, a new method based on the compressed sensing (CS) for the target location is proposed in this paper. This paper presents the linear frequency modulated continuous wave (LFMCW) model and simulates the sampling and reconstruction of the radar’s IF signal via CS technique by using MATLAB.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1971
Sihan Chen, Libo Huang, Xin Bi, Jie Bai
Abstract For sensing system, the trustworthiness of the variant sensors is the crucial point when dealing with advanced driving assistant system application. In this paper, an approach to a hybrid camera-radar application of vehicle tracking is presented, able to meet the requirement of such demand. Most of the time, different types of commercial sensors available nowadays specialize in different situations, such as the ability of offering a wealth of detailed information about the scene for the camera or the powerful resistance to the severe weather for the millimeter-wave (MMW) radar. The detection and tracking in different sensors are usually independent. Thus, the work here that combines the variant information provided by different sensors is indispensable and worthwhile. For the real-time requirement of merging the measurement of automotive MMW radar in high speed, this paper first proposes a fast vehicle tracking algorithm based on image perceptual hash encoding.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1981
Bing Zhu, Weinan Li, Ning Bian, Jian Zhao, Weiwen Deng
Abstract Driver individualities is crucial for the development of the Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS). Due to the mechanism that specific driving operation action of individual driver under typical conditions is convergent and differentiated, a novel driver individualities recognition method is constructed in this paper using random forest model. A driver behavior data acquisition system was built using dSPACE real-time simulation platform. Based on that, the driving data of the tested drivers were collected in real time. Then, we extracted main driving data by principal component analysis method. The fuzzy clustering analysis was carried out on the main driving data, and the fuzzy matrix was constructed according to the intrinsic attribute of the driving data. The drivers’ driving data were divided into multiple clusters.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1982
Xiaoming Lan, Hui Chen, Xiaolin He, Jiachen Chen, Yosuke Nishimura, Kazuya Ando, Kei Kitahara
Abstract In the recent years, the interaction between human driver and Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) has gradually aroused people’s concern. As a result, the concept of personalized ADAS is being put forward. As an important system of ADAS, Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) also attracts great attention. To achieve personalized LKAS, driver lane keeping characteristic (DLKC) indices which could distinguish different driver lane keeping behavior should be researched. However, there are few researches on DLKC indices for personalized LKAS. Although there are many researches on modeling driver steering behavior, these researches are not sufficient to obtain DLKC indices. One reason is that most of researches are for double lane change behavior which is different from driver lane keeping behavior.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1984
Jun Ma, Junyi Li, Zaiyan Gong, Jihong Yu
Abstract Given the wide adoption of touchscreens in vehicles, an interesting debate is taking place regarding the good screen size, length-width ratio and whether the usability of in-vehicle information system (IVIS) would be decreased by a larger screen, especially. Moreover, the lack of scientific evidence about the concrete impact of touch screen size on usability raises questions to practitioners. In this paper, we investigated the impact of in-vehicle touch screen size on users’ visual behavior and usability as measured using eye tracker and questionnaire. Two experiments were conducted on 30 participants. In the first experiment, participants were asked to seek same information on four different in-vehicle screens based on simulated driving environment, while eye movement was recorded for analyzing efficiency of visual behavior.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1974
Tao Chen, Jie Bai, Fang Wang, Libo Huang
Abstract In the last years, in order to fit the requirements of automotive radar application under the multi-target conditions, several proposals about Continuous Waveform (CW)have been developed. The transmit signal with Multiple Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) technology was developed to analyze the target information in range domain and Doppler frequency domain simultaneously, but the MFSK waveform has lower estimation accuracy in phase measuring. A higher accuracy signal type is the chirp sequence waveform of monopulse radar, which is based on two-dimension independent frequency measuring. It can also get the range and velocity information, but might lead to ambiguities in Doppler domain. To avoid the Doppler ambiguity, a method is proposed in this paper, which uses the modified chirp sequence waveform. The carrier frequencies of the modified chirp sequence are different, which causes the Doppler frequency offset.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1975
Wenhui Li, Wenlan Li, Jialun Liu, Yuhao Chen
Abstract Vehicle detection has been a fundamental problem in the research of Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), especially in urban driving environment. Over the past decades, vision-based vehicle detection has got a considerable attention. In addition to the rich appearance information, the stereo vision method also provides depth information, which could achieve higher accuracy and precision. In this paper, a hybrid method for stereo vision-based real-time vehicle detection in urban environment is proposed. Firstly, we extract vehicle features and generate the Region of Interest (ROI). Semi-global Matching (SGM) algorithm is then utilized on the ROIs to generate disparity maps and get the depth information, which could be used to compute the width of each ROI. The noise regions, always with obvious depth variation in the disparity maps are excluded by the clustering approach.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1977
Xin Bi, Bin Tan, Zhijun Xu, Libo Huang
Abstract Vehicle and pedestrian detection technology is the most important part of advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) and automatic driving. The fusion of millimeter wave radar and camera is an important trend to enhance the environmental perception performance. In this paper, we propose a method of vehicle and pedestrian detection based on millimeter wave radar and camera. Moreover, the proposed method complete the detection of vehicle and pedestrian based on dynamic region generated by the radar data and sliding window. First, the radar target information is mapped to the image by means of coordinate transformation. Then by analyzing the scene, we obtain the sliding windows. Next, the sliding windows are detected by HOG features and SVM classifier in a rough detect. Then using the match function to confirm the target. Finally detecting the windows in a precision detection and merging the detecting windows.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1978
Yuxiang Feng, Simon Pickering, Edward Chappell, Pejman iravani PhD, Chris Brace
Abstract The major contribution of this paper is to propose a low-cost accurate distance estimation approach. It can potentially be used in driver modelling, accident avoidance and autonomous driving. Based on MATLAB and Python, sensory data from a Continental radar and a monocular dashcam were fused using a Kalman filter. Both sensors were mounted on a Volkswagen Sharan, performing repeated driving on a same route. The established system consists of three components, radar data processing, camera data processing and data fusion using Kalman filter. For radar data processing, raw radar measurements were directly collected from a data logger and analyzed using a Python program. Valid data were extracted and time stamped for further use. Meanwhile, a Nextbase monocular dashcam was used to record corresponding traffic scenarios. In order to measure headway distance from these videos, object depicting the leading vehicle was first located in each frame.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1991
Adit Joshi
The automotive industry is heading towards the path of autonomy with the development of autonomous vehicles. An autonomous vehicle consists of two main components. The first is the software which is responsible for the decision-making capabilities of the system. The second is the hardware which encompasses all aspects of the physical vehicle which are responsible for vehicle motion such as the engine, brakes and steering subsystems along with their corresponding controls. This component forms the basis of the autonomous vehicle platform. For SAE Level 4 autonomous vehicles, where an automated driving system is responsible for all the dynamics driving tasks including the fallback driving performance in case of system faults, redundant mechanical systems and controls are required as part of the autonomous vehicle platform since the driver is completely out of the loop with respect to driving.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1992
Qin Xia, Jianli Duan, Feng Gao, Tao Chen, Cai Yang
Abstract ADAS must be tested thoroughly before they can be deployed for series production. Comparing with road and field test, bench test has been widely used owing to its advantages of less labor costs, more controllable scenarios, etc. However, there is no satisfied systematic approach to generate high-efficiency and full-coverage test scenarios automatically because of its integration of human, vehicle and traffic. Most of the test scenarios generated by the existing methods are either too simple or too few to be able to achieve full coverage of requirements. Besides, the cost is high when the ET method is used. To solve the aforementioned problems, an automatic test scenario generation method based on complexity for bench test is presented in this paper. Firstly, considering the fact that the device is easier to malfunction under complex cases, an index measuring the complexity of test case is proposed by using the method of AHP.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1993
Daoyuan Sun, Xiaofei Pei, Xu Hu, Hao Pan, Bo Yang
Abstract This paper presents a Driver-In-the-Loop (DIL) bench test system for development of ESC controller. The real-time platform is built-up based on NI/PXI system and the real steering/throttle/braking actuator. In addition, the CarSim provides the vehicle model and the animator for virtual driving environment. A hierarchical ESC controller is proposed in MATLAB/Simulink then download into PXI. In the upper motion controller, the sliding mode theory is adopted and the logic threshold algorithm is used in the lower slip controller. Finally, ESC test is implemented under typical conditions by DIL and Model-In-the-Loop (MIL). The results show that, DIL could make up the shortage of driver model which can’t accurately simulate the emergency response of real driver. Therefore, DIL test could verify the ESC controller more accurately and effectively with considering the human-vehicle-road environment.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1994
Adit Joshi
The advancement towards development of autonomy follows either the bottom-up approach of gradually improving and expanding existing Advanced Driver Assist Systems (ADAS) technology where the driver is present in the control loop or the top-down approach of directly developing Autonomous Vehicles (AV) hardware and software using alternative approaches without the driver present in the control loop. Most ADAS systems today fall under the classification of SAE Level 1 which is also referred to as the driver assistance level. The progression from SAE Level 1 to SAE Level 2 or partial automation involves the critical task of merging autonomous lateral control and autonomous longitudinal control such that the tasks of steering and acceleration/deceleration are not required to be handled by the driver under certain conditions [1].
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1987
Renjie Li, Shengbo Li, Hongbo Gao, Keqiang Li, Bo Cheng, Deyi Li
Abstract Vehicle automation is a fundamental approach to reduce traffic accidents and driver workload. However, there is a notable risk of pushing human drivers out of the control loop before automation technology fully matures. Cooperative driving (or vehicle co-piloting) is a novel paradigm which is defined as the vehicle being jointly navigated by a human driver and an automatic controller through shared control technology. Indirect shared control is an emerging shared control method, which is able to realize cooperative driving through input complementation instead of haptic guidance. In this paper we first establish an indirect shared control method, in which the driver’s commanded input and the controller’s desired input are balanced with a weighted summation. Thereafter, we propose a predictive model to capture driver adaptation and trust in indirect shared control.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1988
XueFei Deng, Lu Che, Lei Zhang, Rong Sun
Abstract The problem of this paper can be described as: An oil company has a number of distribution centers in a region, these distribution centers have a number of the same type of multi- compartment vehicles, The optimization goal of the problem is that the distribution costs and carbon emissions considering the oil transportation process, through the model of rational allocation of each distribution center planning and tanker route, so that the cost and carbon emissions throughout the distribution process reached the minimum or at the same time the results of low. This paper studies a low-carbon oil distribution route optimization problem with the targets of minimizing the transport costs and carbon emissions. Firstly, the mathematical model is proposed to describe the problem. According to the characteristics of the model We propose a kind of improved multi-objective SA-TS hybrid optimization algorithm to solve this model.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1989
Yi Chen, Gaoxiang Lin, Ying He
Abstract Chinese National projects “13th Five Year Plan” and “Made in China 2025” have both put forward a goal of developing Intelligent and Connected Vehicles(ICV). Shanghai is a typical city of automobile industry which spearhead the development of China’s ICV industry. After the adjustment and transition of industrial structure, Shanghai has initially formed the industrialization layout of ICV covering core areas including environmental perception, intelligent decision-making, actuator, human-computer interaction and vehicle integration. However, currently Shanghai is still in the beginning stage and there exists a large gap with world advanced level in both the core technology and marketization. This article is based on former qualitative survey combined with quantitative analysis which uses the Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) method to objectively evaluate the status quo and development trend of Shanghai’s ICV.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1990
Xiangyu huang, Hao Zhou
Abstract The most important role of V2X technology is to significantly enhance driving safety. This paper proposes an Omni-directional collision warning method based on vehicle to vehicle communication. With the Basic Safety Message (BSM), the driving states of vehicles which communicate with host vehicle can be obtained. The warnings are divided into two categories based on the Lateral Offset calculation: forward collision warning (FCW) for vehicles moving in the same direction and cross collision warning (CCW) for vehicles moving in different directions. For vehicles which moves in the same direction, the lateral offset of the two vehicles, the time to collision (TTC) and time headway (THW) are used to estimate forward collision risk. For vehicles which moves in different directions, time to the closest point approach (TCPA) model and the separating axis theorem (SAT) are used for cross collision detection.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2002
Yang Yang Wang, Guangda Chen, Xuanjing Ao, Shuhao Fan, Han Mei, Wei Li
Abstract After obtaining the optimal trajectory through the lane change decision and trajectory planning, the last key technology for the automatic lane change assist system is to carry out the precise and rapid steering actuation according to the front wheel angle demand. Therefore, an automatic lane change system model including a BLDCM (brushless DC motor) model, a steering system model and a vehicle dynamics model is first established in this paper. Electromagnetic characteristics of the motor, the moment of the inertia and viscous friction etc. are considered in these models. Then, a SMC (Sliding Mode Control) algorithm for the steering system is designed to follow the steering angle input. The control torque of the steering motor is obtained through the system model according to steering angle demand. After that, the control current is calculated considering of electromagnetic characteristics of the BLDCM.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 110622