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Viewing 301 to 330 of 110612
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2007
Fang Li, Lifang Wang, Yan Wu
Abstract With the rapid development of vehicle intelligent and networking technology, the IT security of automotive systems becomes an important area of research. In addition to the basic vehicle control, intelligent advanced driver assistance systems, infotainment systems will all exchange data with in-vehicle network. Unfortunately, current communication network protocols, including Controller Area Network (CAN), FlexRay, MOST, and LIN have no security services, such as authentication or encryption, etc. Therefore, the vehicle are unprotected against malicious attacks. Since CAN bus is actually the most widely used field bus for in-vehicle communications in current automobiles, the security aspects of CAN bus is focused on. Based on the analysis of the current research status of CAN bus network security, this paper summarizes the CAN bus potential security vulnerabilities and the attack means.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2000
Jianping Li, Jian Wu, Hao Sun, Yuyao Jiang, Weiwen Deng, Bing Zhu
Abstract Simulation has been considered as one of the key enablers on the development and testing for autonomous driving systems as in-vehicle and field testing can be very time-consuming, costly and often impossible due to safety concerns. Accurately modeling traffic, therefore, is critically important for autonomous driving simulation on threat assessment, trajectory planning, etc. Traditionally when modeling traffic, the motion of traffic vehicles is often considered to be deterministic and modeled based on its governing physics. However, the sensed or perceived motion of traffic vehicles can be full of errors or inaccuracy due to the inaccurate and/or incomplete sensing information. In addition, it is naturally true that any future trajectories are unknown. This paper proposes a novel modeling method on traffic considering its motion uncertainties, based on Gaussian process (GP).
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2001
Xin Li, Lixin Situ, Yongqiang Yu, Feng Chen
Abstract Research and development of autonomous functions for a road vehicle become increasingly active in recent years. However, the vehicle driving dynamics performance and safety are the big challenge for the development of autonomous vehicles especially in severe environments. The optimum driving dynamics can only be achieved when the traction torque on all wheels can be influenced and controlled precisely. In this study, we present a novel approach to this problem by designing an advanced torque vectoring controller for an autonomous vehicle with four direct-drive in-wheel motors to generate and control the traction torque and speed quickly and precisely, thus to improve the stability and safety of the autonomous vehicle. A four in-wheel motored autonomous vehicle equipped with Radar and camera is modelled in PanoSim software environment. Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication is used in this software platform to avoid collision.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2002
Yang Yang Wang, Guangda Chen, Xuanjing Ao, Shuhao Fan, Han Mei, Wei Li
Abstract After obtaining the optimal trajectory through the lane change decision and trajectory planning, the last key technology for the automatic lane change assist system is to carry out the precise and rapid steering actuation according to the front wheel angle demand. Therefore, an automatic lane change system model including a BLDCM (brushless DC motor) model, a steering system model and a vehicle dynamics model is first established in this paper. Electromagnetic characteristics of the motor, the moment of the inertia and viscous friction etc. are considered in these models. Then, a SMC (Sliding Mode Control) algorithm for the steering system is designed to follow the steering angle input. The control torque of the steering motor is obtained through the system model according to steering angle demand. After that, the control current is calculated considering of electromagnetic characteristics of the BLDCM.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2013
Zhe Xu
Abstract The rapid development of connected vehicle technology provides a promising platform for traffic monitoring and traffic data collection. In the connected vehicle environment, the vehicles equipped with wireless communication devices can transmit vehicle safety messages to other connected vehicles and the Roadside Unit (RSU). The trajectory information in the safety message may provide potential usage for macroscopic traffic states estimation in the urban street network. Over the last few years, the applications of a macroscopic traffic states model, the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) has attracted increased attention. However, the detection of MFD remains a challenging task. This paper explores a potential method of measuring the macroscopic traffic states in terms of MFD based on Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) connected vehicle data. The methodology of generating MFDs is conducted and the potential characteristics of the macroscopic traffic states are explored.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2008
Xingwei Wang
One of the biggest Challenge of Full Automated Driving Vehicle mass production is the Cyber Security of Connectivity. This paper describes the different Cyber Security requirement and related solution of Onboard Network and V2X. For Onboard Network ready for SOTA, one kind of Micro-processor with hardware based Cyber Security module is necessary. It guarantees the integrity, authenticity, and freshness based on acceptable data load. For V2X communication with vehicles and cloud, one kind of public and private key based Security ASSP is needed. It uses strong cryptography to protect the wireless communication data of C2C (Car to Car) and C2I (Car to Infrastructure).This paper also describes design the system and solution with both functional safety and cyber security method.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2009
Kuiyuan Guo, Yan Yan, Juan Shi, Runqing Guo, Yuguang Liu
Abstract In order to speed up the development of vehicle active safety technology in China, C-NCAP plans to add AEB and AEB VRU system as assessment items in 2018. With the purpose of studying the assessment protocol of AEB system, we have carried out 400,000 km road information collection and then we acquired the statistics of the operation conditions of dangerous situations. Combined with the traffic accident data collected by CIDAS, we found that the dangerous situations that we usually met were mainly three types, that was CCRs, CCRm and CCRb. Based on what we mentioned above, we analyzed the three kinds of working conditions and gave the corresponding evaluation method. In addition, combined with the actual situation of China, we added two tests of error function. And then we took the actual road experiment of many models of vehicles.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2010
Junfeng Yang, Michael Ward, Jahangir Akhtar‎
Abstract The Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) promise huge economic, social and environmental benefits. The autonomous vehicles supposed to be safer than human drivers. However, the advanced systems and complex levels of automation could also bring accidents by tiny faults of hardware or errors of software. To achieve complete safety, a safety case providing guidance on the identification and classification of hazardous events, and the minimization of these risks needs to be developed throughout the entire development lifecycle process of CAVs. A comprehensible and valid safety case has to employ appropriate safety approaches complying with the automotive functional safety requirements in ISO 26262.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2011
Suyash Singh, Ankur Mathur, Sandeep Das, Purnendu Sinha, Vinay Singh
Abstract In the Smart Cities, main objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions. The process said for utilization of available resources is the best fit for our concept. Our concept is to convert and refurbish the old and scrap vehicles which will increase their longevity and can be used in any smart city in India or abroad. The ultimate aim to provide this technology for the development of any new smart city in India is the utilization of available resources and reduction in the junk materials and environmental pollution. Refurbishing the old and scrap vehicles with replacement of IC engines doesn’t mean that they will be kept as a scrap and be thrown away, our idea is to utilize maximum of all the available resources. The IC engines taken out of these vehicles will be re-used appropriately.
2017-09-22
Technical Paper
2017-01-5010
H.J. Liu, X.D. Zhang
In order to deeply study the influence mechanism of multiple welding parameters (laser power, welding speed, wire feeding speed, spot diameter) on mechanical properties of laser brazing seams of galvanized steel for vehicle by analyzing the effect of welding parameters on energy input in the weld cross section, a great number of laser brazing experiments of 0.7mm galvanized steel were carried out with TruDisk 4006 lasers under single-factor experiment method and the tensile strength and micro-hardness tests were also done for well-formed joints of galvanized steel formed in the laser brazing. The results show that joints with good mechanical properties and surface morphology can be formed when laser power is in the range of 2500-3200W and the other parameters keep in a certain range.
2017-09-22
Technical Paper
2017-01-5009
Li Fang, Henry Hu, Xueyuan Nie, Jimi Tjong, Xuezhi Zhang
In the present study, a design of experiment (DOE) technique, the Taguchi method, was used to develop as-cast high strength aluminum alloys with element additions of Si, Cu, Ni and Sr. The Taguchi method uses a special design of orthogonal arrays to study all the designed factors with a minimum of experiments at a relatively low cost. The element factors chosen for this study were Si, Cu, Ni and Sr content in the designed aluminum-based alloys. For each factor, three different levels of weight percentages were selected (Si: 6, 9, 12%, Cu: 3, 5, 7%, Ni: 0.5, 1, 1.5% and Sr: 0.01, 0.02, 0.03%). Tensile properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation at fracture were selected as three individual responses to evaluate the engineering performance of the designed alloys. The results of the factor response analysis were used to derive the optimal level combinations. The contribution of each factor was determined by an analysis of variance.
2017-09-22
Technical Paper
2017-01-7003
Mengzuo Han, Xin Gao, Tie Wang, Zhiwei Zhang
Hydraulic retarder, as an auxiliary braking device, is widely used in commercial vehicles. Nowadays, the hydraulic retarder’s internal oil is mainly cooled by the coolant circuit directly. It not only aggravates the load of engine cooling system, but also makes the abundant heat energy not be recycled properly. In this study, an independent energy supply device with organic Rankine cycles is applied to solve the problems above. In the structure of this energy supply device, the evaporator’s inlet and outlet is connected in parallel with the oil outlet and inlet of the retarder respectively. A part of oil enters the evaporator to transfer heat with the organic fluid, and the rest of oil enters the oil-water heat exchanger to be cooled by the coolant circuit. According to the different braking conditions of the retarder, the oil temperature in the inlet of the hydraulic retarder can be kept within the proper range through adjusting the oil flow rate into the evaporator properly.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2018-01-9551
Revathi Rengarajan, Scott Noll, Rajendra Singh
This investigation focuses on a class of rear suspension systems that contain both direct and intersecting structural paths from the tire contact patches to the vehicle body. The structural paths intersect through a dynamically active rear subframe structure. New experiments and computational models are developed and analyzed in this article to investigate the variability of structure-borne noise and vibration due to tire/road interactions in the lower- to mid-frequency regimes. Controlled operational experiments are conducted with a mass-production minivan on a chassis dynamometer equipped with rough road shells. Unlike prior literature, the controlled experiments are analyzed for run-run variations in the structure-borne noise up to 300 Hz in a single vehicle to evaluate the nature of excitations at the spindle as the key source of variation in the absence of significant manufacturing, assembly and instrumentation errors.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2135
Alex Thirkell, Rui Chen, Ian Harrington
Abstract Electrification of aircraft is on track to be a future key design principal due to the increasing pressure on the aviation industry to significantly reduce harmful emissions by 2050 and the increased use of electrical equipment. This has led to an increased focus on the research and development of alternative power sources for aircraft, including fuel cells. These alternative power sources could either be used to provide propulsive power or as an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). Previous studies have considered isolated design cases where a fuel cell system was tailored for their specific application. To accommodate for the large variation between aircraft, this study covers the design of an empirical model, which will be used to size a fuel cell system for any given aircraft based on basic design parameters. The model was constructed utilising aircraft categorisation, fuel cell sizing and balance of plant sub-models.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2136
Almuddin Rustum Sayyad, Pratik Salunke, Sangram Jadhav
Abstract The objective of this work is to optimize the operating parameters of the Direct Injection Single Cylinder (5.2 kw) CI engine with respect to Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Hydrocarbons (HC) and Carbon dioxide (CO2). For this investigation, we used Simarouba Biodiesel as an alternate fuel for diesel fuel which possesses low cetane number which is not sufficient to operate existing diesel engine. However, this could be combined with the diesel fuel in the form of blends. For this investigation four levels and four parameters were selected viz. Injection Pressure (IP), Fuel Fraction (FF), Compression Ratio (CR) and Injection Timing (Before TDC). Taguchi Method is used for minimizing the number of experiments and Multiple Regression Analysis is used to find the optimum condition. Three outputs variables such as; Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), content of HC particles and CO2 in the emission are measured and considered its influence on CI Engine performance.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2137
Dnyaneshwar V. Kadam, Sangram D. Jadhav
Abstract Vibration is the most considerable factor in dynamics of machinery. Vibration causes an adverse effect on engine components and may reduce the life of the engine. The conventional fossil fuel sources are limited in the world. The dependency on diesel should be reduced by using biodiesel as an alternative fuel in next few years. The input parameters are affected on engine performance and emission. The present study mainly focuses on an optimization of vibrations, performance and emission using Taguchi and multiple regression analysis for biodiesel as a fuel. The test was performed on a single cylinder, four-stroke, diesel engine with VCR. Taguchi method is used to prepare the design of experiment of the L16 array to minimize the number of experiments and multiple regression analysis used for finding the best relationship between the input and output parameters. The selected input parameters are- fuel fraction, compression ratio, injection pressure and injection timing.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2139
Guy Fortin
Abstract This paper reviews the current knowledge on super-hydrophobic coatings (SHC). Using an ideal super-hydrophobic surface patterned with identical cylindrical flathead posts forming a square network with constant periodicity, models are proposed to explain SHC, wear and ice adherence on SHC. The models demonstrate that SHC based on Cassie-Baxter state improve the bead mobility compared to SHC based on Wenzel state and more suitable for aircraft application. Their erosion resistance can be improved by increasing the post height and the hydrophobic material thickness. Their ice adhesion reduction factor (IARF) is better but SHC based on Cassie-Baxter state have a limitation to reduce ice adherence dependence on the surface pattern and IARF of the hydrophobic material. The bead mobility is calculated from advancing and receding water contact angles (WCA).
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2126
Ashutosh Kumar Jha, Gaurav Sahay, Adishesha Sivaramasastry
Abstract In aerospace industry, the concept of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) has gained momentum and is becoming need of the hour for entire value chain in the industry. The expected benefits of lesser time for maintenance reduced operating cost and ever busy airports are motivating aircraft manufacturers to come up with tools, techniques and technologies to enable advanced diagnostic and prognostic systems in aircrafts. At present, various groups are working on different systems and platforms for health monitoring of an aircraft e.g. SHM (Structural Health Monitoring), PHM (Prognostics Health Monitoring), AHM (Aircraft Health Monitoring), and EHM (Engine Health Monitoring) and so on.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2127
Joao Pedro Malere
Abstract The cost-benefit analysis is one of the key decision aspects regarding the investment on IVHM systems especially for aerospace applications where the evaluation of the impacts of such systems on costs, safety and weight are critical for the vehicle operation during its lifecycle. This paper presents the application of linear programming to select and to quantify how many components an IVHM system should consider in order to maximize the total value that it delivers. This approach advantage is that it uses an exact algorithm, that guarantees the optimal solution given the inputs provided by the user. The formulation shows how the technical value of an IVHM solution can be evaluated taking into account key aspects for aerospace platforms such as weight, reliability and bus capacity restrictions through a linear integer programming model solved using the branch-and-bound method.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2155
Michal Salacinski, Piotr Broda, Piotr Samoraj
Abstract Polish Armed Forces are currently operating hundred helicopters belonging to Mi family. Metal fuselage is usually resistant to the battle and the human factor. Unfortunately, metal rotor blades of Mi helicopters are sensitive to operating conditions. Single blade is made from monolithic aluminum spar and mutually separated trailing sections, which are bonded to the spar. The sections are constructed of metal sandwich panels. During aggressive military operating conditions blades sections are often damaged by debonding from the spar, fatigue cracks of section skin, dents and perforations as well as erosion. The manufacturer assumed that structurally damaged sections should be exchanged. Provided repair technologies are applied only to cosmetic damages. Unfortunately, there is a limit to number repairs which prevents replacement of two neighboring sections due to the high temperature of curing cycle during the section replacement.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2156
Philippe Coni, Jean Luc BARDON, Xavier servantie
Abstract A new concept of Head Up Display is presented, using the windshield as a transparent screen. This breakthrough technology does not need the use of complex combiner, bulky optics and overhead projection unit. The novel system uses several holographic optical elements to perform a 3D stereoscopic display, with the ability to present floating graphical objects in a large field of view. Augmented Reality display will be possible, increasing considerably the User Experience and situational awareness, without the need of wearing a bulky and complex Head Mounted Display.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2158
Fernando Stancato, Luis Carlos dos Santos, Marcelo Pustelnik
Abstract A problem of interest of the aeronautical industry is the positioning of electronic equipment in racks and the associated ventilation system project to guarantee the equipment operational conditions. The relevance of the proper operation of electronic equipment increases considerably when high economical costs, performance reduction and safety are involved. The appropriate operational conditions of the electronic components happen when the working temperature of the equipment installed in the rack is inside a safety project temperature margin. Therefore, the analysis and modelling of heat transfer processes for aircraft rack design becomes mandatory. This paper presents a parametric study considering volumetric and superficial heat generation in electronic equipment within racks in an aircraft. Simulations were performed using the commercial CFD Fluent code and results were compared to experimental data.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2159
Federico Cappuzzo, Olivier Broca, Jeremy Leboi
Abstract To allow greater confidence in an aircraft system design in an ever increasing complex set of requirements, it becomes important to assess the interactions among systems and sub-systems earlier and with higher confidence. This study presents the Virtual Integrated Aircraft (VIA) methodology, which allows the integration of aircraft systems with virtual means. It aims to complement and precede physical integration, which is usually completed at the end of the validation and integration phase. LMS Imagine.Lab platform provides a means for applying this methodology. A simulation architecture, integrating models from different platforms, is built and simulations are run on a High Performance Computing (HPC) machine to cover multiple scenarios and therefore validate the selected architecture and pre-design in the early system development phases. A balanced selection of equipment, systems and subsystems are essential for the performance, safety, reliability and comfort.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2151
Hong huang, Qingyun Zhao, Fenglei Liu, Huadong Liu
Abstract:Split-sleeve cold expansion processing was employed on the 2024-T3 aluminum alloy plate. Fatigue lives were compared according different expansion, then the relationship of fatigue life and expansion was analyzed. Residual stresses were measured with different expension,and the fatigue fractograph was analyzed by SEM. The results show that the split-sleeve cold expansion can obtain longer life compared with the non strengthened hole. The maximum fatigue life increased to 12 times with 6% expansion. When over 6% expansion, fatigue life began to decrease. The split-sleeve cold expansion can form beneficial rasidual compressive stress,and deferred the fatigue crack initiation. The fatigue fractograph shows mixed transgranular fracture.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2152
Sean Taklimi, Ali Ghazinezami, Kim Cluff PhD, Davood Askari
Abstract The use of nanomaterials and nanostructures have been revolutionizing the advancements of science and technology in various engineering and medical fields. As an example, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have been extensively used for the improvement of mechanical, thermal, electrical, magnetic, and deteriorative properties of traditional composite materials for applications in high-performance structures. The exceptional materials properties of CNTs (i.e., mechanical, magnetic, thermal, and electrical) have introduced them as promising candidates for reinforcement of traditional composites. Most structural configurations of CNTs provide superior material properties; however, their geometrical shapes can deliver different features and characteristics. As one of the unique geometrical configurations, helical CNTs have a great potential for improvement of mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of polymeric resin composites.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2153
Patrick Land, Petros Stavroulakis, Richard Crossley, Patrick Bointon, Harvey Brookes, Jon Wright, Svetan Ratchev, David Branson
Abstract Inspection of Composite panels is vital to the assessment of their ability to be fit for purpose. Conventional methods such as X-ray CT and Ultrasonic scanning can be used, however, these are often expensive and time consuming processes. In this paper we investigate the use of off-the-shelf Non-Destructive Test, NDT, equipment utilizing Fringe projection hardware and open source software to rapidly evaluate a series of composite panels. These results are then verified using destructive analysis of the panels to prove the reliability of the rapid NDT methods for use with carbon composite panels. This process allows us to quickly identify regions of geometric intolerance or formed defects without the use of expensive sub-surface scanning systems, enabling a fast and cost effective initial part evaluation system. The focus of this testing series is on 6mm thick pre-preg carbon-epoxy composite laminates that have been laid up using AFP and formed using TRF.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2154
Alan Hiken
Abstract A review of critical technologies and manufacturing advances that have enabled the evolution of the composite fuselage is described. The author’s perspective on several development, military, and production programs that have influenced and affected the current state of commercial fuselage production is presented. The enabling technologies and current approaches being used for wide body aircraft fuselage fabrication and the potential reasons why are addressed. Some questions about the future of composite fuselage are posed based on the lessons learned from today and yesterday.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2148
Ho-Sung Lee
In this paper, manufacturing of launcher structural components with superplastic forming (SPF) and solid state welding technologies is presented with several examples. Some of high strength aerospace alloys, like aluminum, titanium and superalloys, are known to have superplasticity so that complex shapes of aerospace components can be produced with this technology. A combination of superplastic forming and solid state welding processes produces lighter and stiffer components than one manufactured with conventional machining and welding. Solid state welding is an attractive method to weld materials without melting where mechanical properties are important since the welding interface is homogeneous without liquid phases.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2144
Michele Trancossi, Mohammad Hussain, Sharma Shivesh, Jose Pascoa
Abstract This paper is a preliminary step in the direction of the definition of a radically new wing concept that has been conceived to maximize the lift even at low speeds. It is expected to equip new aerial vehicle concepts that aim to compete against helicopters and tilt rotors. They aim achieving very good performance at very low speed (5 to 30 m/s) by mean of an innovative concept of morphing ducted-fan propelled wing that has been designed to maximize the lift force. This paper presents an effective bibliographic analysis of the problem that is a preliminary necessary step in the direction of the preliminary design of the wing. A preliminary CFD evaluation allows demonstrating that the claimed results are in line with the initial expectations. According to the CFD, results it has been produced a preliminary energetic evaluation of the vehicle in a flying car configuration by EMIPS method.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2149
Cameron S. Gillespie
Abstract As carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) become more integrated into the design of large single piece aircraft structures, aircraft manufacturers are demanding higher speed and efficiency in Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) deposition systems. To facilitate the manufacturing of large surface area and low contour parts (wing skins, in this case) at a high production rate, Electroimpact has developed a new AFP head consisting of 20 1.5 inch wide pre-impregnated carbon tows. The new head design has been named the ‘OH20’, short for ‘One and a Half Inch, 20 Tows’. This AFP head format creates a deposition swath over 30 inches wide when all 20 tows are active. A total of four of these AFP heads have been integrated with a quick change robotic tool changer on two high speed, high acceleration, and high accuracy moving beam gantries.
Viewing 301 to 330 of 110612