Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 301 to 330 of 110625
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1982
Xiaoming Lan, Hui Chen, Xiaolin He, Jiachen Chen, Yosuke Nishimura, Kazuya Ando, Kei Kitahara
Abstract In the recent years, the interaction between human driver and Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) has gradually aroused people’s concern. As a result, the concept of personalized ADAS is being put forward. As an important system of ADAS, Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) also attracts great attention. To achieve personalized LKAS, driver lane keeping characteristic (DLKC) indices which could distinguish different driver lane keeping behavior should be researched. However, there are few researches on DLKC indices for personalized LKAS. Although there are many researches on modeling driver steering behavior, these researches are not sufficient to obtain DLKC indices. One reason is that most of researches are for double lane change behavior which is different from driver lane keeping behavior.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1987
Renjie Li, Shengbo Li, Hongbo Gao, Keqiang Li, Bo Cheng, Deyi Li
Abstract Vehicle automation is a fundamental approach to reduce traffic accidents and driver workload. However, there is a notable risk of pushing human drivers out of the control loop before automation technology fully matures. Cooperative driving (or vehicle co-piloting) is a novel paradigm which is defined as the vehicle being jointly navigated by a human driver and an automatic controller through shared control technology. Indirect shared control is an emerging shared control method, which is able to realize cooperative driving through input complementation instead of haptic guidance. In this paper we first establish an indirect shared control method, in which the driver’s commanded input and the controller’s desired input are balanced with a weighted summation. Thereafter, we propose a predictive model to capture driver adaptation and trust in indirect shared control.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1984
Jun Ma, Junyi Li, Zaiyan Gong, Jihong Yu
Abstract Given the wide adoption of touchscreens in vehicles, an interesting debate is taking place regarding the good screen size, length-width ratio and whether the usability of in-vehicle information system (IVIS) would be decreased by a larger screen, especially. Moreover, the lack of scientific evidence about the concrete impact of touch screen size on usability raises questions to practitioners. In this paper, we investigated the impact of in-vehicle touch screen size on users’ visual behavior and usability as measured using eye tracker and questionnaire. Two experiments were conducted on 30 participants. In the first experiment, participants were asked to seek same information on four different in-vehicle screens based on simulated driving environment, while eye movement was recorded for analyzing efficiency of visual behavior.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1989
Yi Chen, Gaoxiang Lin, Ying He
Abstract Chinese National projects “13th Five Year Plan” and “Made in China 2025” have both put forward a goal of developing Intelligent and Connected Vehicles(ICV). Shanghai is a typical city of automobile industry which spearhead the development of China’s ICV industry. After the adjustment and transition of industrial structure, Shanghai has initially formed the industrialization layout of ICV covering core areas including environmental perception, intelligent decision-making, actuator, human-computer interaction and vehicle integration. However, currently Shanghai is still in the beginning stage and there exists a large gap with world advanced level in both the core technology and marketization. This article is based on former qualitative survey combined with quantitative analysis which uses the Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) method to objectively evaluate the status quo and development trend of Shanghai’s ICV.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1988
XueFei Deng, Lu Che, Lei Zhang, Rong Sun
Abstract The problem of this paper can be described as: An oil company has a number of distribution centers in a region, these distribution centers have a number of the same type of multi- compartment vehicles, The optimization goal of the problem is that the distribution costs and carbon emissions considering the oil transportation process, through the model of rational allocation of each distribution center planning and tanker route, so that the cost and carbon emissions throughout the distribution process reached the minimum or at the same time the results of low. This paper studies a low-carbon oil distribution route optimization problem with the targets of minimizing the transport costs and carbon emissions. Firstly, the mathematical model is proposed to describe the problem. According to the characteristics of the model We propose a kind of improved multi-objective SA-TS hybrid optimization algorithm to solve this model.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1991
Adit Joshi
The automotive industry is heading towards the path of autonomy with the development of autonomous vehicles. An autonomous vehicle consists of two main components. The first is the software which is responsible for the decision-making capabilities of the system. The second is the hardware which encompasses all aspects of the physical vehicle which are responsible for vehicle motion such as the engine, brakes and steering subsystems along with their corresponding controls. This component forms the basis of the autonomous vehicle platform. For SAE Level 4 autonomous vehicles, where an automated driving system is responsible for all the dynamics driving tasks including the fallback driving performance in case of system faults, redundant mechanical systems and controls are required as part of the autonomous vehicle platform since the driver is completely out of the loop with respect to driving.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1990
Xiangyu huang, Hao Zhou
Abstract The most important role of V2X technology is to significantly enhance driving safety. This paper proposes an Omni-directional collision warning method based on vehicle to vehicle communication. With the Basic Safety Message (BSM), the driving states of vehicles which communicate with host vehicle can be obtained. The warnings are divided into two categories based on the Lateral Offset calculation: forward collision warning (FCW) for vehicles moving in the same direction and cross collision warning (CCW) for vehicles moving in different directions. For vehicles which moves in the same direction, the lateral offset of the two vehicles, the time to collision (TTC) and time headway (THW) are used to estimate forward collision risk. For vehicles which moves in different directions, time to the closest point approach (TCPA) model and the separating axis theorem (SAT) are used for cross collision detection.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1994
Adit Joshi
The advancement towards development of autonomy follows either the bottom-up approach of gradually improving and expanding existing Advanced Driver Assist Systems (ADAS) technology where the driver is present in the control loop or the top-down approach of directly developing Autonomous Vehicles (AV) hardware and software using alternative approaches without the driver present in the control loop. Most ADAS systems today fall under the classification of SAE Level 1 which is also referred to as the driver assistance level. The progression from SAE Level 1 to SAE Level 2 or partial automation involves the critical task of merging autonomous lateral control and autonomous longitudinal control such that the tasks of steering and acceleration/deceleration are not required to be handled by the driver under certain conditions [1].
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1996
Zhichao Lin, Xuexun Guo, Xiaofei Pei, Bo Yang, Yanggang Zhang
Abstract Dynamic modeling and state estimation are significant in the trajectory tracking and stability control of the intelligent vehicle. In order to meet the requirement of the stability control of the eight-in-wheel-motor-driven intelligent vehicle, a full vehicle dynamics model with 12 degrees of freedom, including the longitudinal, lateral, yaw and roll motion of the body, and rotational motion of 8 wheels, is established for the research of the intelligent vehicle in this paper. By simulation with MATLAB/SIMULINK and by comparison with the TruckSim software, the reliability and practicality of the dynamics model are verified. Based on the established dynamics model, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) state observer is proposed to estimate the vehicle sideslip angle, roll angle and yaw rate, which are the key parameters to the stability control of the intelligent vehicle.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1992
Qin Xia, Jianli Duan, Feng Gao, Tao Chen, Cai Yang
Abstract ADAS must be tested thoroughly before they can be deployed for series production. Comparing with road and field test, bench test has been widely used owing to its advantages of less labor costs, more controllable scenarios, etc. However, there is no satisfied systematic approach to generate high-efficiency and full-coverage test scenarios automatically because of its integration of human, vehicle and traffic. Most of the test scenarios generated by the existing methods are either too simple or too few to be able to achieve full coverage of requirements. Besides, the cost is high when the ET method is used. To solve the aforementioned problems, an automatic test scenario generation method based on complexity for bench test is presented in this paper. Firstly, considering the fact that the device is easier to malfunction under complex cases, an index measuring the complexity of test case is proposed by using the method of AHP.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1993
Daoyuan Sun, Xiaofei Pei, Xu Hu, Hao Pan, Bo Yang
Abstract This paper presents a Driver-In-the-Loop (DIL) bench test system for development of ESC controller. The real-time platform is built-up based on NI/PXI system and the real steering/throttle/braking actuator. In addition, the CarSim provides the vehicle model and the animator for virtual driving environment. A hierarchical ESC controller is proposed in MATLAB/Simulink then download into PXI. In the upper motion controller, the sliding mode theory is adopted and the logic threshold algorithm is used in the lower slip controller. Finally, ESC test is implemented under typical conditions by DIL and Model-In-the-Loop (MIL). The results show that, DIL could make up the shortage of driver model which can’t accurately simulate the emergency response of real driver. Therefore, DIL test could verify the ESC controller more accurately and effectively with considering the human-vehicle-road environment.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2000
Jianping Li, Jian Wu, Hao Sun, Yuyao Jiang, Weiwen Deng, Bing Zhu
Abstract Simulation has been considered as one of the key enablers on the development and testing for autonomous driving systems as in-vehicle and field testing can be very time-consuming, costly and often impossible due to safety concerns. Accurately modeling traffic, therefore, is critically important for autonomous driving simulation on threat assessment, trajectory planning, etc. Traditionally when modeling traffic, the motion of traffic vehicles is often considered to be deterministic and modeled based on its governing physics. However, the sensed or perceived motion of traffic vehicles can be full of errors or inaccuracy due to the inaccurate and/or incomplete sensing information. In addition, it is naturally true that any future trajectories are unknown. This paper proposes a novel modeling method on traffic considering its motion uncertainties, based on Gaussian process (GP).
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2001
Xin Li, Lixin Situ, Yongqiang Yu, Feng Chen
Abstract Research and development of autonomous functions for a road vehicle become increasingly active in recent years. However, the vehicle driving dynamics performance and safety are the big challenge for the development of autonomous vehicles especially in severe environments. The optimum driving dynamics can only be achieved when the traction torque on all wheels can be influenced and controlled precisely. In this study, we present a novel approach to this problem by designing an advanced torque vectoring controller for an autonomous vehicle with four direct-drive in-wheel motors to generate and control the traction torque and speed quickly and precisely, thus to improve the stability and safety of the autonomous vehicle. A four in-wheel motored autonomous vehicle equipped with Radar and camera is modelled in PanoSim software environment. Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication is used in this software platform to avoid collision.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1997
Cui Hua
Abstract Vision based driving environment perception is current research hotspot in automatic driving field, which has made great progress due to the continuous breakthroughs in the research of deep neural network. As is well known, deep neural network has won tremendous successes in a wide variety of image recognition tasks, such as pedestrian detection and vehicle identification, which have accomplished the commercialization successfully in intelligent monitor system. Nevertheless, driving environment perception has a higher request for the generalization performance of deep neural network, which needs further studies on its design and training methods. In this paper, we presented a new boosted deep neural network in order to improve its generalization performance and meanwhile keep computational budget constant. Above all, the most representative methods to improve the generalization performance of deep neural network were introduced.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1998
Shun Yang, Weiwen Deng, Zhenyi Liu, Ying Wang
Abstract Intelligent driving, aimed for collision avoidance and self-navigation, is mainly based on environmental sensing via radar, lidar and/or camera. While each of the sensors has its own unique pros and cons, camera is especially good at object detection, recognition and tracking. However, unpredictable environmental illumination can potentially cause misdetection or false detection. To investigate the influence of illumination conditions on detection algorithms, we reproduced various illumination intensities in a photo-realistic virtual world, which leverages recent progress in computer graphics, and verified vehicle detection effect there. In the virtual world, the environmental illumination is controlled precisely from low to high to simulate different illumination conditions in the driving scenarios (with relative luminous intensity from 0.01 to 400). Sedan cars with different colors are modelled in the virtual world and used for detection task.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2005
Zhihong Wu, Jian_ning Zhao, Yuan Zhu, Qingchen Li
Abstract Vehicle cybersecurity consists of internal security and external security. Dedicated security hardware will play an important role in car’s internal and external security communication. TPM (Trusted Platform Module) can serve as the security cornerstone when vehicle connects with external entity or constructs a trusted computing environment. Based on functions such as the storage of certificate, key derivation and integrity testing, we research the principle of how to construct a trusted environment in a vehicle which has telematics unit. HSM (Hardware Security Module) can help to realize the onboard cryptographic communication securely and quickly so as to protect data. For certain AURIX MCU consisting of HSM, the experiment result shows that cheaper 32-bit HSM’s AES calculating speed is 25 times of 32-bit main controller, so HSM is an effective choice to realize cybersecurity.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2007
Fang Li, Lifang Wang, Yan Wu
Abstract With the rapid development of vehicle intelligent and networking technology, the IT security of automotive systems becomes an important area of research. In addition to the basic vehicle control, intelligent advanced driver assistance systems, infotainment systems will all exchange data with in-vehicle network. Unfortunately, current communication network protocols, including Controller Area Network (CAN), FlexRay, MOST, and LIN have no security services, such as authentication or encryption, etc. Therefore, the vehicle are unprotected against malicious attacks. Since CAN bus is actually the most widely used field bus for in-vehicle communications in current automobiles, the security aspects of CAN bus is focused on. Based on the analysis of the current research status of CAN bus network security, this paper summarizes the CAN bus potential security vulnerabilities and the attack means.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2002
Yang Yang Wang, Guangda Chen, Xuanjing Ao, Shuhao Fan, Han Mei, Wei Li
Abstract After obtaining the optimal trajectory through the lane change decision and trajectory planning, the last key technology for the automatic lane change assist system is to carry out the precise and rapid steering actuation according to the front wheel angle demand. Therefore, an automatic lane change system model including a BLDCM (brushless DC motor) model, a steering system model and a vehicle dynamics model is first established in this paper. Electromagnetic characteristics of the motor, the moment of the inertia and viscous friction etc. are considered in these models. Then, a SMC (Sliding Mode Control) algorithm for the steering system is designed to follow the steering angle input. The control torque of the steering motor is obtained through the system model according to steering angle demand. After that, the control current is calculated considering of electromagnetic characteristics of the BLDCM.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2004
Yangyang Wang, Rong Feng, Ding Pan, Zhiguang Liu, Nan Wu, Wei Li
Abstract The automatic lane change assist system is an intelligent driving assistance technology oriented to traffic safety, which requires trajectory planning of the lane change maneuver based on the lane change decision. A typical scene of lane change for overtaking is selected, where the front vehicle in the same lane and the rear vehicle in the left lane are deemed to be potential dangerous vehicles through the lane change. Lane change trajectory equation is first established according to the general law of steering wheel angle through lane changes. Based on the relative position, velocity and acceleration information of the dangerous vehicles and the lane change vehicle, motions of these surrounding dangerous vehicles are predicted. At the same time, a multi-objective optimization function is established based on the relative longitudinal safety boundary. The objectives are the minimum safety distance, the lane change time and the front wheel angle.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2011
Suyash Singh, Ankur Mathur, Sandeep Das, Purnendu Sinha, Vinay Singh
Abstract In the Smart Cities, main objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions. The process said for utilization of available resources is the best fit for our concept. Our concept is to convert and refurbish the old and scrap vehicles which will increase their longevity and can be used in any smart city in India or abroad. The ultimate aim to provide this technology for the development of any new smart city in India is the utilization of available resources and reduction in the junk materials and environmental pollution. Refurbishing the old and scrap vehicles with replacement of IC engines doesn’t mean that they will be kept as a scrap and be thrown away, our idea is to utilize maximum of all the available resources. The IC engines taken out of these vehicles will be re-used appropriately.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2013
Zhe Xu
Abstract The rapid development of connected vehicle technology provides a promising platform for traffic monitoring and traffic data collection. In the connected vehicle environment, the vehicles equipped with wireless communication devices can transmit vehicle safety messages to other connected vehicles and the Roadside Unit (RSU). The trajectory information in the safety message may provide potential usage for macroscopic traffic states estimation in the urban street network. Over the last few years, the applications of a macroscopic traffic states model, the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (MFD) has attracted increased attention. However, the detection of MFD remains a challenging task. This paper explores a potential method of measuring the macroscopic traffic states in terms of MFD based on Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) connected vehicle data. The methodology of generating MFDs is conducted and the potential characteristics of the macroscopic traffic states are explored.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2009
Kuiyuan Guo, Yan Yan, Juan Shi, Runqing Guo, Yuguang Liu
Abstract In order to speed up the development of vehicle active safety technology in China, C-NCAP plans to add AEB and AEB VRU system as assessment items in 2018. With the purpose of studying the assessment protocol of AEB system, we have carried out 400,000 km road information collection and then we acquired the statistics of the operation conditions of dangerous situations. Combined with the traffic accident data collected by CIDAS, we found that the dangerous situations that we usually met were mainly three types, that was CCRs, CCRm and CCRb. Based on what we mentioned above, we analyzed the three kinds of working conditions and gave the corresponding evaluation method. In addition, combined with the actual situation of China, we added two tests of error function. And then we took the actual road experiment of many models of vehicles.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-2010
Junfeng Yang, Michael Ward, Jahangir Akhtar‎
Abstract The Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) promise huge economic, social and environmental benefits. The autonomous vehicles supposed to be safer than human drivers. However, the advanced systems and complex levels of automation could also bring accidents by tiny faults of hardware or errors of software. To achieve complete safety, a safety case providing guidance on the identification and classification of hazardous events, and the minimization of these risks needs to be developed throughout the entire development lifecycle process of CAVs. A comprehensible and valid safety case has to employ appropriate safety approaches complying with the automotive functional safety requirements in ISO 26262.
2017-09-23
Journal Article
2017-01-1960
Xiaopeng Zong, Guoyan Xu, Guizhen Yu, Hongjie Su, Chaowei Hu
Abstract Obstacle avoidance is an important function in self-driving vehicle control. When the vehicle move from any arbitrary start positions to any target positions in environment, a proper path must avoid both static obstacles and moving obstacles of arbitrary shape. There are many possible scenarios, manually tackling all possible cases will likely yield a too simplistic policy. In this paper reinforcement learning is applied to the problem to form effective strategies. There are two major challenges that make self-driving vehicle different from other robotic tasks. Firstly, in order to control the vehicle precisely, the action space must be continuous which can’t be dealt with by traditional Q-learning. Secondly, self-driving vehicle must satisfy various constraints including vehicle dynamics constraints and traffic rules constraints. Three contributions are made in this paper.
2017-09-23
Journal Article
2017-01-1966
Min Ke, Bing Zhu, Jian Zhao, Weiwen Deng
Abstract Knowledge of intelligent vehicle absolute position is a vital premise for the implementation of decision programming, kinematic and dynamics control. In order to achieve high accuracy positioning and reduce running cost as much as possible under all operating conditions, this paper proposed an integrated positioning method based on GPS and Ultra Wide Band(UWB) for intelligent vehicle’s navigation and position system. In this method, GPS and UWB are alternately active according to the confidence level of GPS signal. When the vehicle is traveling in a wide-open area and GPS signal is well received, the positioning results of Dead Reckoning system are corrected by the low frequency positioning output from GPS. During the correcting process, in order to realize the better fusion of measurement data, a simplified federal Kalman filter was designed by using indirect method.
2017-09-23
Journal Article
2017-01-1969
Yuanxin Zhong, Sijia Wang, Shichao Xie, Zhong Cao, Kun Jiang, Diange Yang
Abstract Real-time reconstruction of 3D environment attributed with semantic information is significant for a variety of applications, such as obstacle detection, traffic scene comprehension and autonomous navigation. The current approaches to achieve it are mainly using stereo vision, Structure from Motion (SfM) or mobile LiDAR sensors. Each of these approaches has its own limitation, stereo vision has high computational cost, SfM needs accurate calibration between a sequences of images, and the onboard LiDAR sensor can only provide sparse points without color information. This paper describes a novel method for traffic scene semantic segmentation by combining sparse LiDAR point cloud (e.g. from Velodyne scans), with monocular color image. The key novelty of the method is the semantic coupling of stereoscopic point cloud with color lattice from camera image labelled through a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN).
2017-09-23
Journal Article
2017-01-1970
Guizhen Yu, Zhangyu Wang, Xinkai Wu, Yalong Ma, Yunpeng Wang
Abstract: In this paper, an efficient lane detection using deep feature extraction method is proposed to achieve real-time lane detection in diverse road environment. The method contains three main stages: 1) pre-processing, 2) deep lane feature extraction and 3) lane fitting. In pre-processing stage, the inverse perspective mapping (IPM) is used to obtain a bird's eye view of the road image, and then an edge image is generated using the canny operator. In deep lane feature extraction stage, an advanced lane extraction method is proposed. Firstly, line segment detector (LSD) is applied to achieve the fast line segment detection in the IPM image. After that, a proposed adaptive lane clustering algorithm is employed to gather the adjacent line segments generated by the LSD method. Finally, a proposed local gray value maximum cascaded spatial correlation filter (GMSF) algorithm is used to extract the target lane lines among the multiple lines.
2017-09-23
Journal Article
2017-01-1972
Sen Li, Xin Bi, Libo Huang, Bin Tan
Abstract In Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS), the automotive radar is used to detect targets or obstacles around the vehicle. The procedure of Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) plays an important role in adaptive targets detection in noise or clutter environment. But in practical applications, the noise or clutter power is absolutely unknown and varies over the change of range, time and angle. The well-known cell averaging (CA) CFAR detector has a good detection performance in homogeneous environment but suffers from masking effect in multi-target environment. The ordered statistic (OS) CFAR is more robust in multi-target environment but needs a high computation power. Therefore, in this paper, a new two-dimension CFAR procedure based on a combination of Generalized Order Statistic (GOS) and CA CFAR named GOS-CA CFAR is proposed. Besides, the Linear Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (LFMCW) radar simulation system is built to produce a series of rapid chirp signals.
2017-09-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-1958
Dongfang Dang
Abstract With the increasing complexity, dynamicity and uncertainty of traffic, motion planning of automatic driving is getting more difficult and challenging. This paper focuses on the real-time motion planning problem of CAVs (connected and automated vehicles) in complex traffic scenarios. To effectively solve this problem, a general driving risk model is presented, which contains the following two essential parts: i) collision risk, i.e., the collision risk between the SV (subject vehicle) and other surrounding vehicles, pedestrians, buildings etc.; ii) non-collision risk, such as violation of traffic regulations, the deviation from the intention of driver, etc. To achieve the real time collision detection, the SV is approximated to a point and its shape is considered by extending the dimension of obstacles considering their relative position and velocity.
2017-09-22
Technical Paper
2017-01-5010
H.J. Liu, X.D. Zhang
Abstract In order to research the effect of process parameters (laser power, welding speed, wire-feed speed, spot diameter) on mechanical properties of Zn-coated Steel Laser Brazing Lap Joint for vehicle, the influence of welding parameters on energy input of brazing seam cross section was theoretically analyzed, and then a great number of laser brazing experiments of 0.7mm galvanized steel was carried out. After that, the tensile strength and micro-hardness tests were also done for well-formed joints of galvanized steel formed in the laser brazing. The results show that joints with good mechanical properties and surface morphology can be formed when laser power is in the range of 2500-3200W and the other parameters keep in a specified range. Joint performance significantly reduces when the value of wire-feed speed exceeds 3.0m/min for that a wider brazing seam cross section can’t be formed.
Viewing 301 to 330 of 110625