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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Low Viscosity Multi-Grade Engine Oils in 4-Stroke Engine Powered Motor Cycles on Chassis Dynamometer

2018-10-30
2018-32-0023
Indian Two-Wheeler Industry is the largest in the world with the annual growth rate more than 10 percent year after year. More than 60% of gasoline production in India is consumed by two wheeler segment. Ever rising fuel demand and global concern on climate change have focused to develop energy efficient and eco-friendly vehicles. Several techniques such as engine design, efficient transmission and use of better quality of fuels and lubricants are applied world over to improve the efficiency of the vehicles. Low viscosity engine lubricant is one of the approaches which can be easily applied for better fuel economy. The lubricant requirement of motorcycles differs from that of passenger cars. The motorcycle engine oil is subject to both engine as well as wet clutch transmission system which operate under severe conditions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Organic Friction Modifiers on Fully Formulated Motorcycle Engine Oils

2018-10-30
2018-32-0024
Most high-performance motorcycles use a multiplate, lubricated (“wet”) clutch pack. The main reasons for the lubrication are; cooling, and to protect the steel and friction plates from excessive wear. In such a motorcycle a single common oil sump is usually used to lubricate the engine, clutch and transmission. From a lubricant design point of view the ideal case would be to have individual fluids that are specifically designed for each task, as is the case in the majority of passenger cars. However, in most cases the extra size and weight that would be added by having separate oil sumps rather than one common oil sump is undesirable and would impact the ride and fuel economy. A motorcycle engine oil (MCO) must therefore perform well in several, seemingly contradictory, environments. This makes the choice of friction modifier (FM) more complex than it would be for a passenger car engine oil (PCEO).
Technical Paper

A Study on Accomplishing Lean Combustion by Multistage Pulse Discharge Ignition using an Optically Accessible Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0007
Lean burn technology has a problem of greater combustion fluctuation due to unstable initial flame formation and slow combustion. It is generally known that generating a flow field in the cylinder is effective for reducing combustion fluctuation and shortening the combustion period. In this study, we investigated the influence of the discharge condition and in-cylinder swirl flow on initial flame formation and ignition performance between conventional spark ignition (SI) and multistage pulse discharge (MSPD) ignition. Visualized photographs were obtained near the spark plug with a high-speed camera in an optically accessible engine. In-cylinder pressure analysis was also performed in order to explicate the combustion phenomena. The results revealed that ignition performance of both SI and MSPD was improved under a swirl flow condition in the cylinder and that combustion fluctuation was effectively reduced.
Technical Paper

Study of Discharge Under Swirl Flow and Combustion Conditions

2018-10-30
2018-32-0006
The combustion at a high EGR ratio is one of the effective means for improving the fuel efficiency of a gasoline engine. However, there is a problem that the combustion speed decreases. So it is necessary to intensify the in-cylinder flow to ensure the combustion speed. The spark discharge generated by the ignition coil is strongly influenced by the in-cylinder flow. It forms an arcuate discharge path along the flow, and possibly it blows off and re-discharges occurs under a strong gas flow. The behavior of spark discharge strongly affects the ignition, and consequently affects the stability of combustion. However, the phenomena in a combustion chamber is very complicated because of various environmental conditions, and the discharge and combustion phenomena under a strong gas flow are remains unclear. In this research, in order to study these phenomena, discharge and combustion experiments under flow using a constant volume container were performed.
Technical Paper

Lubricating Oil Droplets in Cylinder on Abnormal Combustion in Supercharged SI Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0008
The supercharged spark ignition engine has a problem of abnormal combustion at low speed and high load operating condition. This paper focuses on the sauce and mechanism of the abnormal combustion, namely, the behavior of lubricating oil droplets in cylinder, ring crevice, piston crown and ring gap. The experimental approach and the numerical analysis have been carried out. The two experimental approaches namely direct photography by high speed camera and measurement of scattering oil quantity at low speed condition have been tried. The photographs which is in engine operation show, 1st The oil droplets from ring crevice scatter every reciprocating motion and the diameter of oil droplets is between 0.10mm and 0.30mm. 2nd The oil droplets from piston crown has three steps as follows, firstly, the lubricating oil which reaches piston crown continues to accumulate, secondly, the accumulated lubricating oil scatters by the reciprocating motion.
Technical Paper

Performance Assessment of Fuel System for a Single Cylinder Engine using SI Turbulent Combustion Modeling and 3D CFD Simulation

2018-10-30
2018-32-0013
This paper demonstrates the use of engine 1D simulation and 3D CFD simulation in assessing the performance of the single cylinder engine. The main objective of the current work to develop fuel system for the engine in succession to improve the combustion quality, performance and emission of the engine. To achieve these tasks, firstly fuel supply system components were analyzed to investigate the combustion parametersthat influence the engine combustion quality. Secondly, precise flow phenomena in fuel supply system, which regulate the flow patterns and air fuel mixture formation in the intake port and the combustion chamber were principally analyzed using 3D CFD ANSYS Forte. The engine were premixed with propane fuel and the in cylinder combustion process was modeled using G-equation model. In the current investigation, SI Turbulent predictive combustion model is used in the GT power 1D model which is based on the eddy burn rate combustion model.
Technical Paper

Study on Realization of Dual Combustion Cycle by Lean Mixture and Direct Fuel Injection

2018-10-30
2018-32-0011
The purpose of this study is to realize dual-combustion cycle for gasoline engines. For the purpose, lean combustion and direct fuel injection were applied to small diesel engine. The lean gasoline-air mixture was provided and was ignited by small amount of pilot diesel fuel injection (the constant volume combustion). Then, diesel fuel was injected by main injection and was burned with the remained oxygen after the lean combustion (diffusion combustion). The equivalent ratio 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 of mixture were used to avoid the spontaneous compression auto-ignition. The total equivalence ratio with supplied gasoline and diesel fuel was adjusted to 1.0. The base pilot injection timing was selected as the ignition of pre-mixture took place at T.D.C. and pilot injection timings were changed 2 degree before and behind of T.D.C. The main fuel injection timing were 50, 75 and 100 % of the duration between pilot injection timing and T.D.C.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation and Combustion Evaluation of a Motorcycle Engine Concept Equipped with One Fuel Injector for Each Intake Valve

2018-10-30
2018-32-0009
In light of a more stringent emission legislation and in anticipation of possible future measures to further reduce the real environmental impact of motorcycles, it is necessary to develop engine concepts which are efficient and low on emissions in a wide range of operating points. This poses an important challenge on the development of high performance motorcycles engines as their focus on full load behaviour conflicts sharply with the emission and efficiency demands of the remaining engine load map. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the potential of a port fuel injection (PFI) concept consisting of one individual fuel injector for each intake valve to solve this trade-off. Previous research shows a positive effect of such a setup on mixture formation due to better targeting and atomization, reducing HC emissions and cyclic variations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Port-Injection Specifications on Air Fuel Ratio and Emission Behavior under Transient Operation

2018-10-30
2018-32-0012
In port injection, the influence of fuel adhesion on intake port wall caused by varying of injection location on exhaust A/F under the transient and the exhaust gas composition was evaluated. Meanwhile, the adhesion was observed to clarify the mechanism that governs these behaviors on the transition process.  When the engine speed was low and the throttle opening degree after rapid opening was low in the upstream injection, the exhaust A/F under and after transient operation was found to rich spike. Conversely, in the downstream injection, although lean spike did occur under transient operation, no rich spike was found under and after transient operation. Superposition of fuel adhesion to the intake port wall and liquid fuel film flow were observed under and after transient operation at low engine speed in upstream injection using intake port visualization.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on the Mixture Preparation in a Small Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0014
Gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines have evolved as a solution to meet the current demands of the automotive industry. Benefits of a GDI engine include good fuel economy, good transient response, and low cold start emissions. However, they suffer from problems, like combustion instability, misfire, and impingement of fuel on in-cylinder surfaces. Therefore, to highlight the influence of fuel injection timing on in-cylinder flow, turbulence, mixture distribution and wall impingement, a computational study is conducted on a small-bore GDI engine. Results showed that air motion inside the engine cylinder is influenced by direct-injection of fuel, with considerable variation in turbulent kinetic energy at the time of injection. Due to the charge cooling effect, mixture density and trapped mass were increased by about 10.8% and 9.5%, respectively.
Technical Paper

Influence of Autoignition and Behavior of Pressure Wave on Knocking Intensity by using Multipoint Pressure Measurement and In-cylinder Visualization of the End-gas

2018-10-30
2018-32-0001
In this study, the effect of autoignition behavior of unburned region on pressure wave formation and knock intensity were investigated. In the experiment, a single-cylinder gasoline engine capable of high-speed observation of the end gas was used. Visualization in the combustion chamber and light absorption spectroscopic measurement of the end gas were carried out, and the autoignition behavior of the unburned portion and the reaction history before autoignition were analyzed. By analyzing the multi-point pressure histories, the process of autoignition and pressure wave growth was analyzed. As a result, it was found that knocking intensity increases by autoignition and pressure wave interaction each other.
Technical Paper

Study of Knocking Intensity Determinant by High-Speed Observation of the End-Gas Autoignition Using Optically Accessible Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0003
The purpose of this study was to investigate how autoignition leads to the occurrence of pressure oscillations. That was done on the basis of in-cylinder visualization and analysis of flame images captured with a high-speed camera using an optically accessible engine, in-cylinder pressure measurement and measurement of light emission from formaldehyde (HCHO). The results revealed that knocking intensity tended to be stronger with a faster localized growth speed of autoignition. An investigation was also made of the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a means of reducing knocking intensity. The results showed that the application of EGR advanced the ignition timing, thereby reducing knocking intensity under the conditions where knocking occurred.
Technical Paper

Study on Knocking Characteristics for High-efficiency Operation of a Super-lean Spark Ignition Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0002
This study investigated the influence of EGR and spark advance on knocking under high compression ratio, ultra-lean mixture and supercharged condition using premium gasoline as a test fuel. A high-compression ratio, supercharged single cylinder engine was used in this experiment. As a result, the period from ignition to autoignition was prolonged. In addition, knock intensity was drastically reduced. In other words, it is inferred that by combining an appropriate amount of EGR and spark advance, high efficiency operation avoiding knocking can be realized.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Spark-Assisted Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engine with Octagonal Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets and Asymmetric Double Piston Unit

2018-10-30
2018-32-0004
Much effort has been devoted to studies on auto-ignition engines of gasoline including homogeneous-charge combustion ignition engines over 30 years. The two key aims are lower exhaust energy loss due to high-compression ratio and less dissipation loss due to throttle-less device. However, the big problem underlying gasoline auto-ignition is knocking phenomenon leading to strong noise and vibration. In order to overcome this problem, we propose the principle of colliding pulsed supermulti-jets. In a prototype engine developed by us, octagonal pulsed supermulti-jets collide and compress the air around the center point of combustion chamber, which leads to a hot spot far from chamber walls. After those, the mechanical compression of an asymmetric double piston unit which moves with nearly sigmoidal mode is added, which brings auto-ignition of gasoline.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of a Port Fuel Injection IC Engine to Study Air-Fuel Mixture Preparation and its Impact on Hydrocarbon Emission and Mixture Homogeneity in Combustion Chamber

2018-10-30
2018-32-0005
At part load conditions, effective utilization of fuel is critical for drivability of an IC engine driven automobile, with minimum emissions and fuel consumption. It becomes cardinal to study the mixture preparation in engines to understand the Injection strategy that helps in achieving the prime objectives of lower emission and reliable operation. To add to the complexity of the problem being studied, the injection phenomenon is rapid, turbulent, multi-phase, two-way coupled (where the continuous phase affects the droplets and vice versa) and involves turbulence length scales and time scales, few orders of magnitude lower compared to the characteristic length in the turbulence integral scale. A methodology is developed in Star-CD and ES-ICE to simulate the mixture preparation in Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Transient Behavior of a Two-Wheeler Single Cylinder Engine Close to Idling with Electronic Throttle Control

2018-10-30
2018-32-0074
The introduction of new emission legislation and the demand of increased power for small two-wheelers lead to an increase of technical requirements. Especially for single cylinder engines with high compression ratio the transient behavior close to idling is challenging. The demand for two-wheeler specific responsiveness of the vehicle requires low overall rotational inertia as well as small intake manifold volumes. The combination with high compression ratio can lead to a stalling of the engine if the throttle opens and closes very quickly in idle operation. The fast opening and closing of the throttle is called a throttle blip. Fast, in this context, means that the blipping event can occur in one to two working cycles. Previous work was focused on the development of a procedure to apply reproducible blipping events to a vehicle in order to derive a deeper physical understanding of the stalling events.
Technical Paper

Experimental Data of a Small-Size Gas ICE Driven Heat Pump (GHP) and Comparison of the Environmental Performance with an Electric Heat Pump

2018-10-30
2018-32-0070
Worldwide, whenever thermal energy is required one of the most common supply solution is represented by the adoption of an electric heat pump. Nevertheless, other solutions may represent a valid option and the use of a Gas Heat Pump (GHP), based on an Internal Combustion Engine fed by natural gas, is one of these. The experimental results of the operations of a GHP in a small-size enterprise in central Italy are presented: the test site, with its energy requests and technical constraints is described. Furtherly, a comparison with an electric heat pump is carried out by reproducing its behaviour through a 1-D simulation tool developed in the Simulink environment. The advantages that the thermal generator based on the ICE can bring compared to an electric solution from the technical, economic, and environmental point of view are highlighted.
Technical Paper

Impact of Secondary Air Injection on Small Engine Motorcycles intended for BS VI applications

2018-10-30
2018-32-0068
On April 2020, India will move from Bharat Stage IV to VI where the combined emission limit of Total Hydrocarbons (THC) and Nitrogen oxides (NOx) of 0.79g/km will independently reduce to 0.1g/km and 0.06g/km respectively. This reduction in emission limit however may prove to be challenging for small engines (below 200 cc) with the existing generation of engines predominantly in cold conditions. When the vehicle is started after cold soaking (engine off for few hours), considerable amount of THC emission is generated which can be attributed to poor fuel vaporization and incomplete combustion due to flame quenching in the combustion chamber. Also, the catalyst is inactive to chemical reactions until the accumulated heat energy from the hot exhaust mass flow elevates the catalyst temperature to encourage efficient conversion of THC, CO and NOx to H2O, CO2 and N2. This temperature point is termed as catalyst light off temperature.
Technical Paper

Study on the Prevention of Face-Plugging of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)

2018-10-30
2018-32-0069
In order to resolve global atmospheric environmental problems, latest diesel engines for industrial machinery are required to reduce the emission of harmful gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx), and particulate matter (PM). For this reason, some of the diesel engines are equipped with exhaust gas treatment devices such as diesel particulate filter (DPF), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. However, such engine systems sometimes give rise to excessive back pressure increase and deterioration of the catalyst performance by the plugging of the inlet end face of DOC or DPF by soot when they are operated long under low load conditions. In order to resolve these problems, it is necessary for the system to be equipped with some additional devices to raise the exhaust gas temperature to a high level enough to burn out the soot.
Technical Paper

Water Load Determination Approach in Two wheeler Exhaust System

2018-10-30
2018-32-0075
Future emission norms in India (BS6) necessitates the 2 wheeler industry to work towards emission optimization measures. Engine operation at stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) would result in a good performance, durability and least emissions. To keep the AFR close to stoichiometric condition, an Oxygen sensor is placed in the exhaust system, which detects if air-fuel mixture is rich (λ<1) or lean (λ>1) and provides feedback to fuel injection system for suitable fuel control. O2 sensor has a ceramic element, which needs to be heated to a working temperature for its functioning. The ceramic element would break (thermal shock) if water in liquid form comes in contact with it when the element is hot. To counter this, oxygen sensor is fully heated only when all the water in the exhaust system is evaporated, which results in delayed closed loop control.
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