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Technical Paper

Optimization of Performance of Oxygen Storage Component (OSC) for NO Reduction in Three Way Catalysts to Achieve BS VI Emission Norms

2019-01-19
2019-26-0133
Three way catalysts used in Gasoline / CNG operated vehicles contains oxygen storage component (OSC) as a key component and source for supplying oxygen in rich mode of operation and the oxygen concentration release rate is function of gas concentration and air to fuel ratio (A/F) or lambda (λ). Conventionally, the vehicles (two wheelers) operated using mechanical method such as carburettor, having lambda range is of wider window (0.95 ~ 1.06) and to cover this window, catalyst usually requires a large amount of OSC resulting in to a significant drop in NO conversion as a function of temperature, reductant concentration while switching from rich to lean to regenerate CeO2 sites. Moving from BS IV to BS VI, the NOx conversion requirement is over 90% including deterioration factor limit and thus requires a tight control in terms of lambda as well as OSC optimization.
Technical Paper

Thermally Durable Zeolite Based SCR Catalysts for Controlling NOx Emissions in Diesel Exhaust to Meet BS VI Norms

2019-01-19
2019-26-0130
From the recent past, automotive exhaust emission management strategies are progressing towards an alternative for vanadia based selective catalytic reduction (V-SCR) of NOx in diesel powered vehicles. Some of the major inadequacies of existing V-SCR technology are as follows: • Poisoning tendency of V-SCR • Poor thermal endurance (deteriorates at 550°-600°C) • Volatilization of harmful vanadium into environment • Inadequate NO2 conversion. Metal incorporated zeolite systems, (the metals being preferably selected from transition metal elements), has gained momentum for commercial DeNOx applications. However, the major challenge with this zeolite SCR (Z-SCR) is its low thermal /hydrothermal stability. In the current study, it has been attempted to overcome this by various synthetic combinations. In present study, various combinations of mono metallic & bimetallic Z-SCR were extensively studied for their low and high temperature activities.
Technical Paper

Optimized Electrification Solution for App-Based Taxi’s in Indian Cities

2019-01-19
2019-26-0129
: The emission legislations are becoming more stringent across the globe. The Indian government has also announced the implementation of BS6 emission legislation by 2020 all across Indian cities. App based taxi’s are becoming a lifeline for all major Indian cities, which are predominantly diesel powered compact car applications. The urban growth will lead to pockets of high emission zones. Electrification will be a good idea to improve local air quality in the cities. On one side, upgradation of internal combustion engines will add costs due to expensive exhaust after-treatment system, controls and sensors. On the other side, electric motor driven taxi’s can be ideal solution for emission reduction, but the current available electric vehicles are expensive than its internal combustion engine powered counterparts.
Technical Paper

Catalyst-Based BS VI Stage 2 Emission Control Solutions for Light Duty Diesel

2019-01-19
2019-26-0141
Catalyst-based emission control systems continue to provide major environmental benefits, delivering very high reductions of criteria pollutants (CO, HC, NOx, Particulate Matter (PM) and Particle Number (PN)), as well as enabling enhanced fuel efficiency (and therefore reduced CO2 emissions) from Light Duty Diesel (LDD) engines. Today, these systems typically comprise a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Selective Catalytic Reduction Filter (SCRF®), an SCR flow through catalyst, and an Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC), and deliver substantial real-world reductions in criteria pollutants. This presentation will summarise the current and future LDD emission regulations and outline the catalyst technologies used to meet today’s legislation, as well as those expected to be required to meet future, incoming regulations in the most effective way. Specific topics will include the development of systems to maximise real world NOx conversion.
Technical Paper

Electrification and Automation of Manual Gearbox Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and CO2-Emissions of Passenger Cars

2019-01-19
2019-26-0140
To meet the targets of Indian future emission legislation, an electrification and automation of today’s manual transmission technology is necessary. For this reason IAV invented an electrified automated transmission family, based on well-known manual transmission technology. This low cost AMT approach is equipped with a 48V electric motor and can be used as pure electric or hybrid drivetrain. Furthermore it is possible to realize power shifts by using just one dry friction element. A low number of standard components combined with a low voltage electric motor and an electro mechanic actuation system is sufficient to create a maximum of flexibility to meet the emission fleet targets of the future, without having the disadvantageous high costs for a high-voltage electric system. Beside this low cost drivetrain approach, IAV has developed an electro mechanic AMT-kit to convert current manual transmissions easily into automated transmissions.
Technical Paper

An Optimal Rule Based Energy Management System for a Hybrid Electric 2-Wheeler Based on Dynamic Programming Technique

2019-01-19
2019-26-0128
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are quite popular solution because of their low fuel consumption and extended range of driving compared to other solutions available. While the fuel consumption depends on the selection of hybrid architecture, the other critical parameter that affects the fuel consumption (Fuel Economy) is the energy management among the different hybrid components. After finalizing the hybrid vehicle architecture, different strategies can be adopted for energy management, viz. rule based, fuzzy logic based, Dynamic Programming (DP), ECMS, PMP etc. Each of these approaches possesses some advantages and disadvantages. One of the simple approaches to develop energy management system (supervisory control) is ‘Rule Based’ strategy. However, the outcome of the rule based strategies heavily depends on selection of optimal rules for strategy development. The other alternative for developing an optimal control strategy is Dynamic Programming (DP).
Technical Paper

Optimized Exhaust After-treatment System Solution for Indian Heavy Duty City Bus Application – the Challenges Involved and the Right Approach to Meet Future BS VI Emission Legislations and Real World Driving Cycles Emissions

2019-01-19
2019-26-0139
The vehicular pollution and emission levels are alarmingly increasing in India. The metro and urban cities are worst hit by the gaseous and particulate emissions produced by internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Following the trend from other developed countries, Government of India has decided to migrate from existing BS 4 legislation directly to BS 6 legislation from April 2020 all across India. This migration in emission legislation took almost 10 years to be implemented in European Union (EU) countries. However, for India, the targeted implementation time is just 3 years, making it an uphill challenge for all the vehicle manufacturers. City bus is one such applications, which run mostly within the city and currently are powered by conventional Diesel engines. The vehicle manufacturers should focus on finding an optimized solution for meeting the future emission legislation in true sense.
Technical Paper

Feasibility of Employing Negative Valve Overlap for Enhanced Charge Homogeneity in PCCI Diesel Engine Using 1D Thermodynamic Simulation and 3D CFD Study

2019-01-19
2019-26-0135
With stringent emission norms in place like BS-4 and upcoming BS-6, emission reduction is done primarily by means of exhaust after-treatment system. Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) concepts like Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) are helpful in reducing the NOx and PM within the cylinder itself and thus minimize the after-treatment system noble metal loading. This work involves use of PCCI in combination with Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) so that a pre-mixed charge is effectively prepared which has the potential to reduce NOx and PM simultaneously. This study concerns a 3-cylinder, common rail, direction injection, turbocharged engine meeting BS-4 emission regulations. In this study, employing the NVO and early injection strategy helps to prepare a greater degree of homogeneous charge. NVO strategy provides nearly 33ºC increased in-cylinder temperature as compared to the base valve timing strategy.
Technical Paper

Highly Dynamic Intake and Exhaust Back Pressure Control

2019-01-19
2019-26-0147
In the last years, engine emissions have become a prime issue in internal combustion engine development. As the legal limits of air pollutants get more demanding, accurate emission measurement is crucial. An important prerequisite for high quality measurement in terms of accuracy and repeatability is the proper control of intake and exhaust back pressure. However, pressure control gets more and more challenging with increasing dynamics of the emission test cycles. This contribution introduces a novel highly dynamic pressure control system. Its key features are: - Isolation: two strictly separated paths for intake and exhaust side; hence, intake air and exhaust gas cannot interfere with each other. - Flexibility: the system is capable of handling a diverse range of engine sizes and types (e.g.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Water Injection in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for NOx Reduction Potential

2019-01-19
2019-26-0145
Diesel engine pollutants include Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) which are traditionally known for their trade-off characteristics. It has been a challenge to reduce both pollutants at the source simultaneously, except by efforts through low temperature combustion concepts. NOx formation is dependent on the combustion temperature and thus the in-cylinder reduction of NOx formation remains of utmost importance. In this regard, water injection into the intake of a heavy-duty diesel engine to reduce peak combustion temperature and thereby reducing NOx is found to be a promising technology. Current work involves the use of 1-D thermodynamic simulation using AVL BOOST for modeling the engine performance with water injection. Mixing Controlled Combustion (MCC) model was used which can model the emissions. Initially, the model validation without the water injector was carried out with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Controlled Distribution of PGM in Transversal and Vertical Direction of Washcoat; New Approach for Targeting Emission at Cold Start and High Speed Region

2019-01-19
2019-26-0144
Emission regulations are getting stricter over the years and therefore, new catalyst technology is essential in order to meet these stringent emission regulations. The focus of the new catalyst technology is to purify emission at cold start and high space velocity (SV) region which is considered to be the most challenging aspect, and various attempts have been made by several researchers to overcome this issue. For instance, some of the existing technologies with higher concentration of Platinum Group Metal (PGM) at the front side are able to purify cold emissions effectively. However, efficiency at high SV is a concern due to lower PGM concentration at the rear side. In another approach, selective deposition of PGM at the washcoat surface, which was aimed at purification of emission at high SV, lacks efficient purification of cold emissions.
Technical Paper

Optimized In Cylinder NOx Reduction Strategy on BS6 Engine

2019-01-19
2019-26-0142
The tough emission limits of BS6 norms with very low levels of NOx and PM emissions presents major techno economic challenges for the automobile industry. Combined efforts of pollutants reduction by combustion modification as well as the exhaust after treatment devices could only facilitate to achieve the desired emission targets. Selective catalytic reduction technology is a mandatory system which uses ammonia from the aqueous urea solution to react with NOx forming nontoxic by products. The cost spent on aqueous urea solution in addition to the cost of BS 6 diesel encounters high operating cost for the vehicle. NOx reduction by SCR too requires adequate quantity of ammonia from the AdBlue. Hence sensible utilization of DEF is essential for reduced running cost of the SCR system. This article focuses on the reduction of NOx emission of the 2.2l engine on adjustment of EGR rate and Main injection timing on different operating points on various equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

An Investigation with Mechanical Supercharging as Boosting Solution on Less than 0.5 litre Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Towards Forthcoming Emission Norms

2019-01-19
2019-26-0152
Small single & two cylinder diesel engines, still have primitive technical design features and extensively used in India and various Asian countries to power small and light motor vehicles viz., 3-wheeler, light duty 4-wheelers. These vehicles have become inevitable for the transport for both urban and rural areas. Vehicles with small single & two cylinder engines have high market demand in commercial transport due to restrictions on entry of Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCV) in congested cities roads. Due to ever rising market demand for higher power and torque requirement along with better fuel economy, vehicle manufacturer are developing high bmep engines or replacing single cylinder engine by two cylinder engine, similarly two cylinder engine by three cylinder engines. Further, these engines should meet the present and forthcoming stringent emission limits.
Technical Paper

48 V Diesel Hybrid – Advanced Powertrain Solution for Meeting Future Indian BS 6 Emission and CO2 Legislations

2019-01-19
2019-26-0151
The legislations on emission reduction is getting stringent everywhere in the world. India is following the same trend, with Government of India (GOI) declaring the nationwide implementation of BS 6 legislation by April 2020 and Real Driving Emission (RDE) Cycle relevant legislation by 2023. Additionally GOI is focusing on reduction of CO2 emissions by introduction of stringent fleet CO2 targets through CAFE regulation, making it mandatory for vehicle manufacturers to simultaneously work on gaseous emissions and CO2 emissions. Simultaneous NOx emission reduction and CO2 reduction measures are divergent in nature, but with a 48 V Diesel hybrid, this goal can be achieved. The study presented here involves arriving at the right future hybrid-powertrain layout for a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) in the Indian scenario to meet the future BS 6 and CAFÉ legislations. Diesel engines dominate the current LCV and SUV segments in India and the same trend can be expected to continue in future.
Technical Paper

Experimentation for Evaluation of Real Driving Emission Test Routes in India for LDVs

2019-01-19
2019-26-0150
With introduction of Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) norms from 1st April 2020, automotive industry will observe one of most stringent emission reform in India. This step is in the direction to bring Indian emission regulation in line with International standards. The Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) regulation also mandates for Real Driving Emission (RDE) measurement from 1st April 2020 for data collection and subsequently establishment of RDE compliance Factor (CF) by 1st April 2023. Indian RDE test procedure will be largely based on European RDE with minor changes in terms of climatic conditions, traffic pattern, speed limit, topography, and vehicle population. For performing a successful RDE trial one of the most critical part is selection of a route on which all RDE boundary conditions can be met. This technical paper summarizes the outcome of RDE experiments carried out on Light Duty Vehicles (LDV) and Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDVs) in the city of Pune, Mumbai, and Bangalore.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of LNT/DPF After Treatment System on a Passenger Car for Indian Road Condition

2019-01-19
2019-26-0155
The Lean NOx Trap (LNT) / Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system has been developed as one of key technologies to comply with BS VI regulations. For DPF system it is necessary to prevent excessive soot accumulation and high temperature which can lead to eventual DPF failure. For LNT system it is necessary to maintain the NOx conversion efficiency to meet the required BS VI norms. Considering the Indian road condition a methodology was developed to evaluate the soot, de-NOx and de-SOx regeneration for development of optimized LNT/DPF system. The study was carried on >1500cc, LNT/DPF equipped Euro VI diesel passenger car to evaluate the effect of regeneration characteristics in real Indian driving condition. The study was carried on different conditions such as traffic [urban mode and rural mode] and ambient condition like temperature and weather on the regeneration behavior of LNT/DPF.
Technical Paper

Stage-V, Low Cost Exhaust After Treatment Solutions and Challenges for Indian Market

2019-01-19
2019-26-0148
STAGE-V, LOW COST EXHAUST AFTER TREATMENT SOLUTIONS and, CHALLENGES FOR INDIAN MARKET 1Rathod, Devising *, 2 Ghetti, Stefano *, 1Emran, Ashraf, 1Sharma, Vijay, 2Dr. Heuser, Peter, 1FEV India Private Ltd., India, 2FEV GmbH, Germany KEYWORDS - Off-road, Stage-V, exhaust after treatment, DPF, SCR, NRTC, NRSC Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective This study aims to recommend a cost efficient after treatment solution for meeting Stage-V emission regulations. . In India, ~80% to 85% market share is occupied by 19<=P<37kW, the remaining 20% to 15% by 37<=P<75kW. Therefore, mainly two segments could be specified as engine power<56kW and engine power>56kW.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Approach Towards Draft Control in Hydraulic Machineries for Component/Cost Reduction

2019-01-19
2019-26-0102
Draft control is a mechanism primarily provided in Tractors to maintain the penetration of its rear attachment (plough) in ground, such that there isn’t a condition of overload on the machine, i.e., the operation remains under control parameters. With time, the concept was introduced in excavators too, for controlling the cutting-edge penetration of bucket in the ground. The technologies currently employed by global construction equipment manufacturers involve complex electronic components like John Deere is using Nano-sensors and ECU, KOMATSU uses stroke sensors in hydraulic cylinders to map real time position of the bucket and hence control the penetration depth, etc. The output of most of these systems are driver warnings, on the dash panel. Even if the system is automated, it involves additional components to automate the draft control.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on Articulation Dynamic Loads of Wheel Loader

2019-01-19
2019-26-0103
Wheel loaders are heavy earth moving machines used in construction field for applications like truck loading, stockpiling and various other material handling operations. Wheel loaders are classified according to their operating weight and pay load capacities in the construction equipment market. Wheel loaders are equipped with articulated steering using two hydraulic cylinders connecting the front frame and the rear frame. The speed of steering is controlled by the steering control valve, which controls the hydraulic oil flow rate to the steering cylinder. The expansion and retraction of the two cylinders makes the wheel loaders to articulate with pin joint connecting the frames. The speed of the steering plays a critical role in loader stability and safety with loaded bucket. The impact force caused due to the steering influences the operator comfort, stability & durability of the structural components in the machine.
Technical Paper

Stabilizer Foot Optimization for Backhoe Loader

2019-01-19
2019-26-0104
Continuous improvement and weight reduction are key contributors to success of most of the Product Engineering Organizations. This helps to keep the product competitive in market from cost, weight and performance stand point. It needs to be ensured to have enough strength in the structures to support the external loads along with quality requirements. This can be ensured by removing material from redundant zones and provide it at necessary areas carrying loads. In current paper, author covers information about utilization of topology optimization tool to achieve the weight reduction and in turn cost reduction to contribute in the organizations Value Improvement efforts. Stabilizer foot optimization is an opportunity explored in construction vehicle (Backhoe). Current stabilizer foot is a common design across multiple models that range in performance and weight capability.
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