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Viewing 70801 to 70830 of 102371
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871548
Ronald L. Mitchell
A microcontroller has been developed specifically to operate with external application specific integrated circuits (ASIC). Peripheral ICs can be created that operate with the speed and versatility of on chip interfaces. Custom interfaces can be created for use in applications where no standard peripheral exists. The resulting solution reduces the chip count, enhances reliability and yields smaller and lighter modules.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871540
Harry S. Hebb
This paper summarizes the technical and management strategy of the Boeing Commercial Airplane Company's Computing Management Organization for the application of Artificial Intelligence. The training to support the application development is described. A summary of typical applications is presented. These applications primarily apply knowledge-based and natural language technology to problems of a diagnostic, advisory, information retrieval or planning nature. A process planning application is discussed in more detail. A “toolbox” approach to systematizing the application of AI tools is described. A recommended overall approach for successful application development is suggested.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871544
Ernest Cordan, Michael Eby
This paper will present a modular EEPROM supercell that provides a convenient means for adding small amounts of nonvolatile storage to standard cell designs. The nonvolatile bit is a single poly cell which places the storage node next to (rather than on top of) the control transistor and adds just one mask to the 3um P-well CMOS process that supports a diverse standard cell library consisting of digital and analog cells.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871537
Tsuneo Takahashi, Yukinobu Nakamura
Research and development of new technologies for automobiles in the future will require more ingenuity and creativity due to the ever changing circumstances surrounding technological innovation. This paper will introduce our latest research and development organizations and the methods and systems we have adopted. In particular, examples of new developments in automotive electronic technology will be discussed.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871539
Jeff Pepper
Abstract Although the principles behind expert system design are well understood, the success rate for commercial implementations is still quite low. One of the main risk factors is the difficult and time-consuming task of designing and constructing the problem-solving software itself. Non-Al oriented organizations can increase their likelihood of success by utilizing an existing special-purpose expert system shell, and focusing their efforts on the construction of a domain-specific knowledge base for the shell to use. This paper provides some guidelines for successfully applying special-purpose expert system shells in a commercial environment, and describes how one such shell, built for machine diagnosis, has been successfully applied.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871534
Rolf A. Faste
This paper examines the nature of needs and how one goes about recognizing them. In the process, the role of perception is discussed, various needfinding strategies are described, and difficulties associated with the needfinding process are identified. Finally, observations are made about how the needfinding activity might bs structured within the corporate arena.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871535
Peter J. Detmold
The paper suggests that market failure to provide required transport equipment may be due to inadequate information, an overly static market, or to insufficient funds. Accurate estimation of rates of return to supplier or operator is impeded by “technological risk” -performance may fall short of expectations, “cost risk” - costs may overshoot estimates, “gaming risk” -after a decision, those by others may affect the outcome, “misinformation risk” and “product timing risk” -unforeseeable market changes may destroy profitability. The paper analyzes the extent to which such projects as Advanced Train Control Systems can reduce misinformation, technological and gaming risks and isolate operators from cost overruns. All risks vary as technologies advance from one “plateau” to another. The development of global markets offers the means, not only of obtaining the best equipment at least cost, but also of maximizing purchase volume.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871531
James M. Stanick, Nancy L. Philippart, Timothy J. Kuechenmeister
Truck driver eye and head position tools have been developed to describe where certain percentages of truck drivers position there eyes and heads in various workspace arrangements. Separate equations describe the accommodation level for driver populations with male to female ratios of 50/50, 75/25, and a range from 90/10 to 95/5. These equations can be used as a design tool to locate the curves in vehicle space to describe the region behind which the given populations eyes and heads would be located. Equations and curves are provided for both the drivers eye and head in the side view. It has become increasingly apparent that there is a need for improved methods of accommodating truck drivers in heavy truck cab design. Currently, practices used in the automobile industry for passenger car design are utilized for the design of heavy trucks. These practices.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871532
James M. Stanick, Nancy L. Philippart, Timothy J. Kuechenmeister
Truck driver shin-knee and stomach postion tools have been developed to describe where certain percentages of truck drivers position there knees and stomachs in various workspace arrangements. Separate equations describe the accommodation level for driver populations with male to female ratios of 50/50, 75/25, and a range from 90/10 to 95/5. These equations can be used as a design tool to locate the curves in vehicle space to describe the region behind which the given populations shin-knees, and stomachs would be located. Equations and curves are provided for both the left leg, which operates the clutch, and the right leg, which operates the accelerator.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871523
John J. Bosley, Kristofer Vogelsong
The Space Station Projects Office (SSPO) at NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC) is responsible for operational plans for plant and animal research in the Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) aboard the Space Station. As a planning database, the SSPO uses scientists' descriptions of experiment operations, configured into scenarios for typical 90-day missions. Both research tasks and tasks involving specimen care and housekeeping are included. Four of these scenarios were used to test a computer program named OpSim, developed by the ARC Space Human Factors Office specifically to simulate Space Station operations. The tasks for each scenario were set up for inputting to OpSim, simulations were executed and program output was analyzed. Some scenarios were simulated more than once, at different levels of crew time availability and of laboratory automation.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871477
Alankar Gupta, Adam J.P. Lloyd, Jon K. Robinson
An integrated Tactical Life Support System (TLSS) was developed with the objective of providing increased altitude and G protection, and defense against chemical and ocular (laser, nuclear flash) threats. This paper provides a description of the system, its laboratory testing, and its flight testing on an F-15 airplane at Edwards AFB.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871459
Helmut Kreeb, Hans Georg Wulz
This paper gives a general overview of the objectives of European two-phase heat transport systems as well as of their development status. In particular the actual design of the ESA funded development program “Two-Phase Heat Transport Systems - Critical Components” will be shown. Results are also reported on an extensive program of development of heat absorbing components for an application in two-phase thermal systems sponsored by the German Ministry of Research and Technology. The objectives of this project were to design, manufacture and test three types of evaporators or cold plates, two of them designed for an application in a mechanically pumped loop and one foreseen to operate as evaporative capillary pump in a capillary pumped loop. Finally a short outlook is given on the planned future European two-phase development activities.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871447
John W. Small, Charles E. Verostko, Arthur T. Linton, Ray Burchett
This paper discusses the recent developments in water quality monitoring for Space Station reclaimed wastewaters. A preprototype unit that contains an ultraviolet absorbance organic carbon monitor integrated with pH and conductivity sensors is presented. The preprototype has provisions for automated operation and is a reagentless flow-through system without any gas/liquid interfaces. The organic carbon monitor detects by ultraviolet absorbance the organic impurities in reclaimed wastewater which may be correlated to the organic carbon content of the water. A comparison of the preprototype organic carbon detection values with actual total organic carbon measurements is presented. The electrolyte double junction concept for the pH sensor and fixed electrodes for both the pH and conductivity sensors are discussed. In addition, the development of a reagentless organic carbon analyzer that incorporates ultraviolet oxidation and infrared detection is presented.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871396
G. Lane, P. G. Casale, R. E. Chadwick
The low and medium speed diesel engine design changes that have taken place to date and are predicted to continue for the foreseeable future, present the marine diesel lubricant with a difficult environment which is expected to become more severe with respect to both wear and cleanliness performance, on account of increasing specific power output and wider use of lower grade residual fuels. This paper describes in some detail the main in-house laboratory rig and engine techniques and procedures which have been developed by the Authors' company for assessing the important aspect of wear control; it highlights the special techniques used during shipboard testing for determining cylinder liner and piston ring wear and shows that the results from field testing correlate with those obtained from the in-house tests used to develop the latest generation of superior quality marine diesel lubricants.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871420
Cornelius Lansing
A passive thermal control system for a satellite IR sensor was designed for operation at cryogenic temperature below 150°K. The system's purpose is to remove heat from the sensor and maintain it at the required operating temperature. The basic approach is to minimize the heat transfer to and the heat dissipation within, the sensor. This is achieved by conducting heat from the sensor to a phase-change canister (PCC) which provides thermal storage when needed. Heat is distributed from the PCC via diode monogroove heat pipes to the one of two 45 sq ft radiators which has a favorable view of coldspace. Heat is transferred over the face of the radiator using simple fixed conductances axial groove heat pipes from which it is radiated to space (Fig. 1). The heat pipes are oriented from the PCC to the radiator in one plane, thereby making the system ground testable. A heat pipe radiator was selected for this system because of its inherent reliability.
1987-08-01
Technical Paper
871410
Ted (Austin) Ostindien, Steve E. Tice
Summary The US Space Program can expand to recapture its position of world leadership by the 500th Anniversary of the Discovery of America in October 1992, when there is: A. Consensus on goals, leading to long term planning of a systematically expanding permanent infra-structure. B. Focus on human factors for long duration, and broad participation to provide the needed popular, political and financial support and yield increased benefits. C. Cost-efficiency through better and more intensive utilization of available and near future technology. Re-evaluating basic requirements will lead to again utilizing well-proven concepts such as unmanned HLLV and upper stages in Space station design (commercially retro-fitting redesigned or pre-modified ET's).
1987-07-13
Technical Paper
871484
H.-G. Konzok, K. Gutschmidt, D. Stümpel, R. Schlitt, N. Dunbar
This paper outlines and compares the thermal control design and thermal accommodation of the batteries of various European communications satellites, viz the ESA spacecraft OTS, ECS, MCS, and Olympus, the German, French and British national programs: DFS-Kopernikus, TV-SAT, TDF1 and Skynet IV, and the Inmarsat II maritime comms satellite. The performance of these battery thermal control systems is discussed versus their specific design features using flight results or analytical predictions as available. A conclusion is drawn with respect to achievements versus investments and an outlook is attempted on development trends.
1987-07-13
Technical Paper
871455
J. Greg McAllister
Abstract A technology evaluation test bed has been set up at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to do preliminary technology selection and feasability testing of various subsystems and subsystem technologies of a regenerable Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system. This test bed, called the ECLSS simulator, is housed in the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) at MSFC. The Hamilton Standard Division of United Technologies has supplied four subsytems to be evaluated in the simulator. These subsystems and the testing to date are described in this paper. Two companion papers will be published which will deal in more depth with the CMIF and the other subsystems installed in the CMIF. These subsystems where provided by Life Support, Incorporated (LSI) of Cleveland Ohio and Garrett Airesearch of Torrance Ca..
1987-07-13
Technical Paper
871422
Richard R. Chu
The betterment of Space Shuttle Environmental System Consumables Analysis Program (ESCAP) has been in progress by the determination and incorporation of a newly' developed structural heat loss model. Heat exchange apparently exists among components, orbiter structure, and space/sun/earth. This results in a net heat loss from the orbiter to space for most cases. The heat losses have been correlated to flight parameters in attitude and duration, beta-angle, altitude, and power level. This has corrected a long-standing over-estimation of ATCS heat rejection and heat sink inlet temperatures. It also improves performance prediction of radiators and the subsequent supply water management. Therefore, this work is regarded as a major breakthrough that enables the STS community to perform pre-flight and post-flight studies, thermal analysis tasks, and real-time console support with high fidelity for Space Shuttle missions.
1987-07-01
Technical Paper
870223
R. Zobel
Generally, safety belt effectiveness is spoken of as a single value which is applied to all types of accidents and injuries. This study analyzes the makeup of safety belt effectiveness and compares the overall effectiveness to the effectiveness for different levels of injury, different areas of the body and for different types of accidents at different speeds. These comparisons show the wide range of effectiveness of safety belts and the relative effectiveness for different specific situations.
1987-07-01
Technical Paper
870624
R.J. Sommerville, Tom Cackette, Thomas C. Austin
A comprehensive vehicle emission testing program has determined that the California vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) program (called “Smog Check”) is reducing emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen from vehicles subject to the program by 12%, 10%, and 4%, respectively. Although substantial, the emission reductions of HC and CO are falling short of the 25% reduction goal set by the Environmental Protection Agency. Reasons for the shortfall include limitations in the ability of idle emission standards to detect defective vehicles; poor quality of visual and functional inspections; and ineffective repair of many failed vehicles. The overriding problem with the program can be summarized as the failure of participating mechanics to identify and correct emissions defects, especially in 1980 and later model vehicles. There are two types of mechanic performance problems which need to be addressed.
1987-07-01
Technical Paper
871336
J. R. French
American Rocket Company is engaged in design and development of an expendable launch vehicle to be used for placing moderate size payloads in low Earth orbit. The primary drivers in the design are reliability and low cost. High production rates of relatively few components, maximum use of existing designs and avoiding the normal drive for maximum performance are among the concepts used in attempting this task.
1987-07-01
Technical Paper
871339
Philippe Rasse
1987-07-01
Technical Paper
871334
Gary C. Hudson
Abstract A low-cost commercial launch vehicle which can accommodate Shuttle-sized payloads is required if access to space is to be made affordable and commonplace. This paper explores the market for such a vehicle, the vehicle concept itself, and the steps that NASA could take to encourage the entrepreneurial launch vehicle industry.
1987-07-01
Technical Paper
871335
T. A. Talay
This paper presents a status report on the study of a next-generation manned launch system, called Shuttle II, being conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Underlying reasons for considering such a system include the need for low-cost, safe, and reliable manned access to space. System and operational characteristics for a Shuttle II vehicle are presented. The need for fully reusable launch systems with radically simpler ground and flight operations is stated to be critical in reducing launch costs. Advancing technologies have a major impact on the choice of vehicle concepts. For a near-term level of technology, a two-stage vertical-takeoff rocket vehicle has been selected for further in-depth Shuttle II studies. The role of the Shuttle 11 vehicle in a proposed space transportation system, which includes heavy lift and Space Shuttle complementary manned systems, is discussed.
1987-07-01
Technical Paper
871330
Frederick B. Sontag
Product liability has had a pronounced effect on entrepreneurial businesses such as are found in the aviation industry. One of the main impacts is due to legal game playing which is done solely for the purpose of finding a source to pay damages irrespective of real fault. This legal game playing threatens to curtail innovation and invention and slow the progress of aviation development.
1987-07-01
Technical Paper
871329
Max E. Bleck, Bruce E. Peterman
The need for a uniform federal standard for product liability in General Aviation is presented in light of the current experience with state-by-state tort law. This presentation is concerned mainly with safety, why manufacturers emphasize safety, how safety is improved, related FAA regulations, and the downward trend of fatal aircraft accidents. In contrast to this is the impact of product liability litigation from a General Aviation aircraft manufacturer's viewpoint.
1987-07-01
Technical Paper
871328
RICHARD W. TAYLOR
Abstract This paper asserts that product liability litigation detracts from rather than enhances the safe design and manufacture of transport aircraft. The historical record is reviewed showing a significant trend toward fewer accidents and that failure of the product has been the cause of less than 18% of transport aircraft accidents. The aviation community's commitment to safe commercial air travel is considered through examination of the goals of safe aircraft design, manufacture, operation, manintenance and operating environment. Finally, specific examples of problems with the current accident litigation system are reviewed and a legislative solution proposed.
1987-07-01
Technical Paper
871348
Donald J. Dowden, Denis E. Bessette
Developmental and demonstration flight testing of the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI)/F-16 automated maneuvering attack system (AMAS) was accomplished at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from July 1984 to April 1987, with 237 sorties totaling 347.3 flight hours. The flight tests were conducted by the AFTI/F-16 Joint Test Force, which was composed of Air Force Flight Test Center, NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, and General Dynamics personnel. The purpose of the AFTI/F-16 program was to provide a test bed for advanced flight control, avionics, and cockpit display systems. The overall thrust of this phase of the flight test program was to develop automated guidance and control systems for air-to-ground and air-to-air weapon delivery.
1987-07-01
Technical Paper
871347
John Vincent
THE EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT PROGRAMME is a British Aerospace led demonstrator aircraft programme with a major contribution by Aeritalia and involving the equipment industries of the UK, Germany and Italy. The programme part funded by UK MoD(PE) was aimed at developing those technologies necessary for any future advanced fighter aircraft. These included an advanced aerodynamic configuration requiring full authority digital computer-based flight controls. A Utilities and Systems Management System integrated by data bus with avionics to provide the pilot with a modern electric cockpit. Plus the use of advanced materials in primary and secondary structure. The timescale from Contract signature to first flight was three years. Flight Development is continuing.