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Viewing 70801 to 70830 of 102051
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
J. E. Morris
At present, combustion pressure sensors find widespread use in basic engine research and development. In the future they could provide the essential information for closed loop engine control (of both fuel mixture and ignition timing) and diagnostics. The quartz piezoelectric device is the most familiar; its concept has been extended to piezo-ceramic configurations seated beneath or inside a sparkplug. This paper presents preliminary results for a novel fiber-optic pressure sensor incorporated into a spark-plug. Head-stud transducers are also described.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
David J. Olson, Charles R. Cornell
The tremendous pressures on the agricultural economy are forcing the use of electronic controls on agricultural equipment for greater operational efficiency. One of the first significant electronic controls on an agricultural tractor is for automatic actuation of the three-point hitch. This paper discusses the use of simulation in the development of such an electronic hitch control system.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Barry A. Stewart
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is internationally recognized for its development and publication of life and property fire protection standards. This paper will describe the organizational structure of the NFPA and the process through which these consensus standards are developed. Reference is made to an actual standard on diesel equipment and diesel fuel in underground mines. Included are the necessary steps leading to membership approval and NFPA publication.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Harold F. Shultz
This paper discusses design objectives for a fire suppression system, the steps in the design and testing of the system, and the production and support of the system for the final user.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
David J. Arnett
Recently, significant focus and development effort has been dedicated toward in-vehicle networking. This effort includes work on behalf of the American Trucking Association (ATA), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the International Standards Organization (ISO), and independent developments by automotive and semiconductor manufacturers. In-vehicle networking extends, as a result, beyond passenger cars into heavy truck, military, and construction vehicles. In the course of these developments, the benefits of networking have been examined and networking is perceived as having significant benefits, resulting in production and custom development [1, 2, 3]. The Controller Area Network (CAN) is a high-performance serial communication solution which has been designed to meet the requirements for the broad range of applications and has now progressed from a specification to a product. This paper will detail the CAN solution and the CAN products designed to support in-vehicle networking needs in the 80's and 90's.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Gary M. Stubblefield
Trapper Mine, a large western surface coal mine, began operating in 1976 and suffered from typical start-up inefficiencies including poor equipment availabilities and weak maintenance management practices. Throughout its brief history, a continuous effort to improve this situation has been ongoing. This paper describes the corrective action taken to-date and hints at what might be in the high-tech future of mine maintenance.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Danforth K. Heiple, G. Edwin Burks Lecture
The right answer to the wrong question has little, if any, value; whereas the wrong answer to the right question may very well establish a proper direction for continuing effort and resources. This paper examines the engineers' involvement in the question and answer process, citing examples relative to broad human experience and to the construction and industrial machinery industry.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
J. A. McCarty, J. H. Emme
Significant developments in moldable noise reduction materials will allow design engineers of off-highway equipment to incorporate molded parts concepts into their design schemes for both the cab and engine compartments as their use of contoured shapes continues to increase. When properly designed, and used in conjunction with complementary treatments which have been carefully selected on the basis of proven acoustic test criteria, molded sound barriers and sound absorption parts are more cost effective than the oft seen overkill of conventional materials.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Bernard R. Barnaski
Efficient use of computer data bases and programs is effective in fan design and performance predictions, test data reduction, and information access. Data bases must be capable of easy access by users. Programs must be written with the ultimate users' needs in mind. Data bases must be capable of constant updating to be effective.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Terry D. Linne
Diesel engines for on highway trucks must pass noise requirements during drive by tests. The oil pan area is a major contributor to noise, and an oil pan cover/sound barrier is a way to reduce this noise. A method for producing these covers is described which involves a two stage reaction injection molding process with a composite foam liner molded in place and bonded to a barium sulfate filled outer shell. Both materials are molded at the same time during the reaction injection molding process, and one complete part is produced every machine cycle. Drive by tests show that these covers are as effective as previously used sound covers produced by more costly casting processes.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Louis R. Quartararo, Richard G. DeJong
The use of composite materials for reducing weight in structures sometimes leads to a surprising and disappointing increase in noise and vibration levels. This paper presents a comparison of the acoustical performance of six panels with different material properties. The comparison was carried out using a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model of a sound transmission loss test facility. The six panels were individually evaluated, and the noise due to acoustical and structural excitation of each panel was predicted. The results indicate relationships between noise and the physical properties of the panels, and demonstrate that the use of composites has given the designer more flexibility in the noise control design of structures. Composites allow substantial decreases in weight while maintaining stiffness, two properties which can affect the noise behavior of a panel considerably. Designing with regard to weight and stiffness and their effect on noise can aid in avoiding unexpected noise problems at a later time.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Harold Powers
Covers the approach used by Caterpillar Inc. in working with Auxiliary Equipment Manufacturers to increase the versatility of backhoe loaders.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
John E. Mahoney
Several new, patented devices have recently been introduced to protect the equipment investment. Some of them are on board the Hitachi hydraulic excavators, and some are carried to the machine by the service personnel at usual service intervals. This paper will discuss these new devices as management tools.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Paul D. Tomlingson
Abstract An effective maintenance program ensures the adequate availability of production equipment, in turn, this availability enables production to maximize utilization and successfully meet production targets. An overall production strategy is necessary to draw all departments toward this common effort. Only then will production targets be met. From the maintenance view this means that production must comply with PM and repair schedules. Purchasing must supply parts and materials on time. Mine engineering must not overwhelm maintenance with non-vital construction. Accounting must provide correct, timely cost information - etc. This strategy - its content, effectiveness and enforcement is the responsibility of the mine manager…. his alone. This paper describes a successful approach to maintenance within this strategy.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Steven Stiling
Maintenance activities have always been important, but they are becoming increasingly critical for a number of reasons. To meet the unique needs of the maintenance environment. Arthur Andersen & Co. has developed an economic and flexible system - the Micro Maintenance Management System (M3S). M3S is a microcomputer based system that offers many significant benefits including: Availability right at the shop floor level, through the use of a microcomputer. “Local Area Networking”: Multiple users may access the system simultaneously. Flexible: Can be tailored to meet the needs of specific users. Automatic prompting of special maintenance requirements. Management reporting on key performance factors and activity measure. M3S consists of three closely related modules: Work Order Planning and Tracking Stores/Material Control Equipment Monitoring
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Robert H. Anderson, Howard Schwerdlin
When choosing a power transmission coupling for a particular application, several areas of concern must be attended to. Among these are the operative speed and horsepower, misalignment between driver and driven equipment and environmental conditions. However, neither the coupling nor any component used in the application can be considered safe from damage until an analysis of torsional vibration has been carefully completed. In the following paper, case studies of torsionally and environmentally induced failures will be presented. By presenting case histories, along with system models and the results of onsite measurements, it is hoped that the importance of these design steps are not overlooked. Additionally, causes and solutions for spline shaft wear will be discussed.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Don J. Gerhardt, Thomas A. Sills
This paper describes the design of a new microprocessor control system suitable for the control of a wide variety of diesel powered equipment. An application for controlling a diesel engine and centrifugal compressor for aircraft ground support equipment is discussed. The equipment supplies 400 Hz electrical power and compressed air for turbine engine starting and aircraft air conditioning. The Digital Electronic Control Unit (DECU) has a dual 16 bit microprocessor capability with a built in power supply, EMI filters and analog interface circuits. The DECU controls the engine fuel control valve, compressor variable inlet guide vanes, compressor variable angle diffuser position and air dump valve. The DECU can be configured to monitor up to .32 analog input channels and 32 digital channels. Four analog output, 32 digital output, and two RS-423 serial channels can be installed. EEPROM memory is used to store calibration data and to record fault history.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Richard A. Lowe
A new hydraulipowered auger attachment designed for backhoe loaders is being developed by Lowe Manufacturing Company, incorporated. The auger unit will utilize a new generation hydraulic motor with builin pressure relief, as well as refinements in critical power transfer components and digging wear parts.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Daryl Gerke
As microprocessors continue to move into increasingly hostile applications, such as engine ignition systems, their susceptibility to noise also increases. The traditional approaches of “noise avoidance”, such as filtering, grounding, shielding may not be enough, and a second line of defenses may be needed. The system must be designed to be “noise tolerant” as well. This paper discusses a number of simple, yet effective, noise tolerant design techniques that may be applied to minimize the consequences of noise in microprocessor based systems.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Craig V. Darragh
Today's marketplace and the increased requirements of material specifications have caused modern steelmakers to improve their current products and develop new ones. In doing so, the processes and products have been optimized with respect to properties, performance, quality, and cost. Several of these processes/products and the benefits they provide are described. Developments/improvements in steelmaking, internal quality, chemistry/hardenability control, machinability, cost effective alloying, and similar areas of interest for both bar and tubular products are included.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Michael A. Roussin
Caterpillar has introduced a new concept that shatters previous ripping limitations. The D9L Impact Ripper has extended the ripping capacity and productivity of the standard ripper tractor in heavy construcion, mining, and quarry applications. This paper describes the design objectives, development program, component selection, and the demonstrated productivity of the D9L Impact Ripper.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Y. K. Song, G. H. Acker, W. J. Schaetzle, C. E. Brett
Knock limitations are investigated using natural gas, with diesel pilot ignition, as a fuel for the 3406 DI-TA Caterpillar diesel engine. Thermodynamic properties at TDC are generated by computer and compared with experimental results. Exhaust emissions are analyzed. A comparison is made of dual-fuel operation relative to diesel. Observations are made to determine the onset of knock. The onset of knock is characterized as a function of engine speed, load, inlet manifold temperature, and air-fuel ratio (A/F). The conditions at the onset of knock are determined using cylinder pressure data. The most efficient operating range is determined with knock avoidance as a prime parameter.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Gary Bragg
This paper describes a method used as a catalyst to stimulate a fresh approach in apportioning engineering resources for reaching reliability goals, it uses manufacturing costs and warranty per claim, to subdivide established reliability goals and apportion responsibility. This provides a philosophical base to goal apportionment that allocates goals and resources according to inherent reliability and customer grief.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
W. Brent Hall
Techniques developed for structural reliability analysis are applied to mechanical reliability problems, including those with non-normal random variables, complicated design equations, chain and ductile system structures, and screening or testing of components.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
A. D. Wilson, C. R. Roper, E. G. Hamburg
The properties and behavior of three improved plate steels are reviewed identifying the benefits that can be utilized in the design, fabrication and performance of structures of the future A710 precipitation-aged, alloy steels, TARTAN™, control rolled, carbon steels, and L100 quenched and tempered, carbon steels are examined. The chemistries and metallurgical characteristics of each steel are characterized. Distribution of tensile and Charpy V-notch toughness data from production plates, as well as for individual plate data, are presented. The fracture mechanics toughness and fatigue properties are provided, as are guidelines for welding and forming.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Daniel E. Schafer
Textbooks on Statistical Process Control concepts have been available for over thirty years. However, the actual process of implementing SPC into American industry is just beginning. This paper describes a method of SPC implementation as developed and instituted by a heavy-duty transmission manufacturing plant. The process described goes far beyond applying a few control charts at troublesome machine operations. Statistical Process Control is structured into a “system” where inspection stations are no longer required at the end of production lines. Total responsibility of quality management now belongs to the Production organization.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Bob B. Lashlee
The unique reliability characteristics of electronic devices often make Standard Quality-Control Methods inadequate. In addition, Automotive and Heavy Equipment applications of these devices can compound the complexity of the in-process Control Methods required as well as the Endurance Testing of the final product. This paper outlines the Design and implementation of a Quality Plan for an electronic device in a Heavy Equipment application.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
N. Tsushima, H. Nakashima, H. Kashimura
Several papers have already been published on the subject of failure analysis of rolling bearings. These papers are very useful. However, with the advancement of bearing technology bearings are increasingly being used in more severe applications. As a result, bearings are experiencing types of failures not described in previous publications. This paper focuses on the quick diagnosis of failed rolling bearings using a magnifying glass or microscopy of low magnification with the emphasis on those failures which have not been previously described.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
David E. Bennett
The evolution of the IMPCO 600 Series air valve-type gaseous fuel carburetors for mining of lower BTU fuels is presented. The integration of air/fuel ratio control capability within the 600 Series carburetor structure is presented and discussed. Pneumatic and electronic actuation designs and their development are discussed.
Technical Paper
1987-04-01
Norman Miller, Darrell Socie, Stephen Downing
This paper traces the development of small field data acquisition and analysis systems. The impact of some significant recent advances in microelectronics on the design of field test systems is detailed. Techniques for the exploitation of newly developed microelectronic devices to design field test systems based on the concepts of distributed computing and modular hardware and software organization are discussed. The paper concludes with a description of a recently developed test system which embodies the newly available capabilities.