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Viewing 70801 to 70830 of 101939
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Yukitoshi Yoshida, Akira Ishizuka
This paper describes the latest Fluorescent Indicator Panel (FIP) technology, featuring integrated circuits mounted within the vacuum envelope on the glass substrate. This is called Chip-in-Glass FIP, or CIG FIP. The discussion includes basic technologies, design flexibility, reliability, and driver ICs.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Nobumasa Higo, Toshinobu Kuroyama
This paper deals with an electronic cluster based on a different concept from that which is viewed directly as conventional. In this cluster, the main display installed within the instrument panel (I/P) pad is designed to show a virtual image imposed over a real image of indicators which appears through a transflective mirror. Special consideration should be focused on the following salient points. 1) Superior visual and innovative factors, 2) design of transflective mirror to make it superior and 3) factors to consider in regards to the virtual image display type cluster.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Mark Hodapp
LED technology offers many advantages over incandescent bulbs for automotive telltales, such as higher mechanical shock and vibration resistance. Unfortunately previous LED products had insufficient optical flux for this application. This paper describes a scries of new LED indicator products that provide significantly higher optical flux than previously available indicators. The paper discusses the key factors involved with a typical telltale backlighting design including optical cavity design, selection of light diffusing films, and contrast enhancement filters and then provides benchmark results for a typical telltale design.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Toshiki Saburi, Toru Yamazaki, Nobuyuki Ohya, Mitsuru Asano, Takashi Sakurai
EMI suppresion capacitors and filters are common in automobile electronics today, but they are insufficient for heavy concentrations of wideband electromagnetic radiation. To resolve this problem, a highly-integrated Ceramic Absorber was developed to efficiently shield against frequencies from 1MHz to 1000MHz, which is mountable on the control circuit board easily, as it is the form of a flat plate strip line. This filter provides the signal line with an electromagnetic absorption effect through line transmission characteristics. Research into ceramic materials was required to determine the specific dielectric constants and frequency characteristics of ferroelectric ceramic materials. The development objective was material with optimum dielectric dispersion, as determined from research into energy absorption based on the Debye dielectric dispersion theory.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Tim Bour, Stan Gage, Lori Talbot, Gary Moszynski
This paper discusses the results of a joint investigation by Ford Motor Company and Hewlett-Packard Company for the purpose of developing and evaluating new sunlight viewable, fully integrated Light Emitting Diode (LED) displays for automotive use. The new technology permits LEDs to be used where flexible graphics, multicolor capability and a dead front appearance are all desired. This paper also discusses design requirements of an electronic instrument cluster as they relate to the new LED technology. Expected advances are presented in the conclusion.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Stanley K. Honey, Marvin S. White, Walter B. Zavoli
Inexpensive vehicle navigation systems have recently become available which allow drivers to quickly and easily drive to unfamiliar destinations. Beyond the proven utility of these invehicle systems in stand-alone applications, these systems may prove to be vital elements of fleet management systems. This paper describes a standalone vehicle navigation system and its application to fleet management systems.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Takahiro Oikawa, Yoshihito Aoki, Yoshiyuki Suzuki
We have developed a navigational system with which the motor vehicle travel route is drawn by a vibration-type rate sensor and a distance sensor, then compared with digital map data and corrected. [1] * [2] It has been verified from numerous field tests that the use of the system being presented here allows a map to be traced. Since this system is a self-contained navigation system in which such other auxiliary means as we found in the radio sign post system are not required, the system is effective in an urban area or other areas subject to radio interference where such radio navigational systems as NAVSTAR GPS (Global Positioning System) and the like do not operate successfully. [3] [4] [5]
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Melvin E. Woods, Paul Glance, Ernest Schwarz
The development of a practical, reliable, and durable adiabatic engine which will meet all advanced military requirements is still hindered because of available insulating materials and design limitations. The high temperatures and thermal gradients which are associated with a highly insulated low heat rejection engine create monumental challenges to engine designers. Over the past 12 years a wealth of information and experience has been generated. Numerous approaches to insulate the combustion chamber have been explored but none are known to simultaneously meet heat rejection, durability, and performance requirements. This paper will present the first year's results and the future plans of an adiabatic engine component technology development program for high output military engines, sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command Center. As a result of a systematic process which included technology survey, technical screening, technical trade-off assessment, concept construction, and benefit-burden assessment, three insulating concepts were selected for exploratory assessment.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Shoji Murakami
Thick ceramic coating by plasma-jet spraying represents a novel and essential engineering tool which enables many products to be manufactured economically. A 1 mm thick alumina (A12O3) coating on an automobile piston was produced by plasma-jet spraying, thus surpassing the former thick alumina layer of 0.3-0.5 mm. This thick ceramic coating can be applied to automobile pistons by the new plasma-jet technology. Such coatings are practical and useful for increasing wear-resistance, heat-resistance and corrosion-resistance. Reduced fuel consumption from 245 to 225 g/PShr and improved thermal efficiency, from 20 to 21 % compared with uncoated pistons, were obtained.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Paul Sutor, Walter Bryzik
The U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command is developing a future high power, low heat rejection military diesel engine. Performance requirements for the engine result in a predicted cylinder wall temperature of 560°C at the top piston ring reversal location. Thermal stresses imposed on the lubricant will therefore be unusually severe. Midwest Research Institute is developing the tribological system for this engine. A new general concept for high temperature diesel engine lubrication has been formulated. Our concept includes advanced synthetic liquid lubricants, solid lubricant additives, and self-lubricating materials. The lubricants, additives, and materials that have been selected for initial laboratory and engine evaluations of the concept are reported here.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Thomas Morel, Syed Wahiduzzaman, Dale R. Tree, David P. DeWitt
An experimental study was conducted to measure the heat transfer in a direct injection 2.3 ℓ single cylinder diesel engine. The engine was operated at speeds ranging from 1000 to 2100 RPM and at a variety of loads. The heat transfer was measured using a total heat flux probe, operating on the principle of a thin film thermocouple, sensitive to both the convective and radiative heat flux. The probe was located in the head at two locations: opposite the piston bowl and opposite the piston crown (squish region). The measurements showed about twice as large peak heat flux in the bowl location than in the crown location for fired conditions, while under motoring conditions the relationship was reversed and the peak heat flux was slightly higher in the crown position. The experimental profiles of total heat flux were compared to the predictions obtained using a detailed thermodynamic cycle code, which incorporates highly resolved models of convective and radiative heat transfer. The predictions were found to be in very good agreement with the measurements, both in magnitude and in trends with engine load and speed.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Jeffrey C. Huang, Gary L. Borman
The effects of surface materials and extent of insulation on the heat transfer to the head of an open-chamber diesel were studied. A large instrumentation plug designed to incorporate plates of various materials on the gas-side surface was utilized with a special research head. Instantaneous rates of heat transfer to the plate gas-side surface were measured. Measurement results obtained with a zirconia plate and an insulated metal plate are compared to data for an uninsulated metal plate. The insulation of the metal plate increased its gas-side surface temperature over the uninsulated case by about the same amount achieved with a 6.35-mm-thick zirconia plate. The magnitude of the surface temperature swing for zirconia is not as high as expected from conduction theory, but is substantially higher than that for the uninsulated metal. Significant reductions of steady state heat fluxes were achieved with both the zirconia and the insulated metal compared to the uninsulated metal. However, peak values of surface heat fluxes for the insulated metal were found to be higher than those for the uninsulated metal.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Shoichi Furuhama, Yoshiteru Enomoto
A thin film thermocouple with a high accuracy was developed by means of computer analysis, which allowed measurements of instantaneous temperatures and heat fluxes on combustion chamber walls. Conventional Al-alloy and ceramic plates were compared in terms of the heat loss at the upper surface of each piston during combustion, using a gasoline engine and a diesel engine in the series of experiments. It was found by the comparison that the ceramic plates subjected to higher temperatures had greater heat losses in both the gasoline and diesel engines contrary to the anticipation.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
A. Seeds, P. G. Sheasby
Experiments have been carried out on the collapse behavior, the energy absorption and the flexural stiffness of adhesively bonded, spot-welded and weld-bonded aluminum box structural assemblies and the results compared with those for equivalent spot-welded mild steel structures. It has been found that weld-bonded aluminum box beams can exhibit specific energy absorptions that are three times greater than those for the mild steel beams and, hence, show that aluminum vehicle structures which typically can be built at about half the weight of steel structures, should nevertheless have more than adequate impact resistance. In flexural testing, the results suggest that the overall stiffness improvements of bonded structures may be a combination of improved beam stiffness, and superior connections between structural elements.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Tomio Obokata, Naoki Hanada, Toshio Kurabayashi
In order to improve adaptability of the laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) to measurement of gas flow velocities in an internal combustion engine, an optical fiber system composed of a couple of single mode, polarization-preserving optical fibers has been developed to transmit the incident beams. The overall light transmission efficiency of the system is 24 % and not so high, but the system enables real-time measurements of gas flow velocity in the combustion chamber of a small two-cycle engine during firing operation. The velocity data measured are processed with cycle by cycle analysis by stationary time-averaged method to obtain bulk velocity Ū, turbulence intensity u′ and integral time scale of turbulence Lt. The results indicate that Ū varies very much depending on motored and firing operations due to the expansion flow of combustion, accompanying a new flow field formation, and that u′ is about twice and Lt is 40 - 50 % higher during combustion period than the respective values during the same period of motored operation.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
John W. Daily
A simple spark ignition engine cycle model has been used to illustrate the concept that cycle-to-cycle variations are an inherent consequence of non-linear combustion kinetics. Sample calculations show highly chaotic behavior when the burn time occupies an excessive fraction of the cycle time. The results are consistent with the well known fact the the engine designer must strive to shorten the burn time as much as possible to minimize variations.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
James C. Keck, John B. Heywood, Georg Noske
Experiments by Gatowski and Heywood have been analyzed to obtain both qualitative and quantitative information on early flame development and burning rates in a square piston premixed spark-ignition engine. Flame growth was observed using high speed Schlieren photography and simultaneous pressure records were obtained using piezo-electric transducers. To study the effects of in-cylinder gas motion several combinations of shrouded and unshrouded inlet valves, and flat and stepped pistons were used. Spark position was also varied. The analysis supports the wrinkled laminar flame model of turbulent flame structure in spark-ignition engines. It also suggests that cycle-by-cycle variations in the growth rate and location of the flame kernel at very early times are the major cause of cycle-by-cycle pressure variations in spark-ignition engines.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Gautam T. Kalghatgi
Combustion and pressure development in spark ignition engines are marked by cycle to cycle variations which are especially severe if the mixture is lean. The variations in indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) that arise from this could be sufficiently severe to cause problems in certain engine operating regimes even in engines which run smoothly at steady operating conditions. Cyclic variations in IMEP could be effectively reduced at source by reducing cyclic variations in combustion. These are known to originate during the initial stage of combustion which can be influenced by the ignition process. Of the various enhanced ignition devices, variants of the spark ignition system seem to be of most practical interest for automobile applications in the immediate future. In the paper, we review the literature on spark ignition, the nature of the spark discharge process and the attempts to improve stability of engine operation through changes in spark ignition.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Peter Moorhouse, Michael P. Johnson
Developments in coating processes and evaluation techniques are discussed. Coatings in advanced engines comprise both those for wear resistance and low friction in high temperature advanced diesel engines and those for heat insulation to reduce heat losses or component temperatures. Advanced evaluation techniques used in these developments include hot wear procedures and radiant thermal cycling rigs. Engine testing of advanced components is in progress or is planned.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Ingard Kvernes, Rune H. Hoel
A discussion is presented on the various important features which need to be addressed in the design of viable thermal barrier coatings. The most economical way to ensure increased lifetime and operational safety of diesel engine components is to use a coating in order to improve surface properties. By comparing the surface material properties required for engine operations and the properties of coating systems achieved until now, it is evident that the fracture toughness must be improved. The activities include detailed characterization of powders, the coating microstructure and the properties required for engines. A correlation between in-service engine tests and model laboratory experiments will be discussed to the extent that the field test data are available.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Karl Anderson
Selection of a coating system for prepainted metal, whether “preprinted” or “prefinished” requires consideration of the conditions under which it will be used. Factors to be considered are: type of substrate to be painted, joining method, forming requirements, service environment, and need for repaintability. Because of the great variety of coating systems available, it is possible to tailor prepainted systems to meet the same requirements as do many postpainted parts. However, it is necessary to insure that the coaters and their coating vendors understand accurately what the systems are required to do. This paper will outline the physical and chemical characteristics of some of the coating systems available from the coil coating industry today, and describe their performance with respect to the factors mentioned above.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
James H. Bryson
Priming steel before adhesively bonding leads to more reliable, durable joints. This paper demonstrates first the desirability of priming steel before bonding and then the feasibility of using preprinted steel to accomplish this goal. To demonstrate this thesis unpainted, Uniprimed and preprimed steel adherends are compared in appropriate situations. These conditions include surface preparation, exposure to hostile environments, and strain level of the preprimed steel adherend. Since steel often undergoes forming before joining, the effect of strain level on adhesive bonding was evaluated. It was found that neither painted material required surface preparation prior to bonding to obtain good adhesive performance. Both primed adherends showed greater resistance to exposure to hostile environmental conditions, with the preprinted substrate performing better than the Uniprimed substrate. In conclusion, preprimed steel can be adhesively bonded in structural applications.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
James A. Kieklak
Coated metal products are used by-auto manufacturers to improve productivity and to enhance corrosion resistance. This paper describes the application of organic coatings to coils of metal using state of the art manufacturing equipment and techniques; it also forecasts changes that can be expected. A glossary of terms is provided.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Joseph J. Claus
To insure adequate adherence of coatings to metal surfaces, the coil coating industry has historically used abrasive brushes to clean and prepare the substrate. The use of 3-dimensional, nonwoven abrasive brushes to generate a surface finish, remove contamination, and increase the bondability of the coating to the strip is highlighted in this report. The role of chemical cleaners, as well as other abrasive type brushes is also discussed. The continued production of Zincrometal and other precoated materials for use in automotive applications attests to the high performance levels that are achieved by the coil coating process.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
E. H. James
A literature survey of the laminar burning velocity behaviors of iso-octane-air mixtures has been conducted with a view to recommending a suitable correlation for use in spark ignition engine combustion work. This comprised an initial study of some burning velocity measurement techniques and then considered laminar burning velocity as a function of unburnt gas temperature, dilution, equivalence ratio and pressure. To provide more definitive guidelines, especially with regard to the pressure effect, other hydrocarbon fuel burning velocity data has been reviewed. The recommended correlation utilises the Heimel and Weast (3) atmospheric pressure values with dilution catered for by the Metghalchi and Keck (44) modification. The pressure attenuation was found to vary with equivalence ratio in such a way that the negative pressure exponents increased as mixtures became weaker and richer. This is significant in terms of the trend toward combustion at leaner mixtures. The exponents themselves decrease with unburnt gas temperature increase and this raises the possibility of their becoming positive at high temperature levels.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
R. M. Traci, F. Y. Su
Multidimensional numerical models of internal combustion engine processes require closure approximations for the effective turbulent reaction rates for the reactive mixture. In the present paper, an engineering level approach, called the “Eddy-Burn-Rate” model, is proposed which attempts to reconcile the multiscale effects of turbulence on flame propagation. Two rate limiting steps are considered: an entrainment or mixing step and a burn or microscale reaction step. The model treats mixing via a two-equation second order closure turbulence model (k,w) and defines a time constant for the fuel oxidation reaction based on laminar flame consumption on the Taylor micro-scale. The Eddy-Burn Rate model is evaluated against alternative turbulent reaction rate closure methods as well as data from two different combustion bombs. Model simulations are compared to combustion bomb data for cylindrical flame evolution in a highly swirling flowfield and in a stagnant but highly turbulent flow. The results indicate that under conditions relevant to IC engine operation the model provides a relatively good representation of the fully developed flame evolution.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
R. M. Green, C. D. Parker, W. J. Pitz, C. K. Westbrook
The chemical aspects of the autoignition of isobutane are studied experimentally in a spark ignition engine and theoretically using computer simulations with a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism. The results of these studies show that even with the relatively knock-resistant fuel, isobutane, there is still a significant amount of fuel breakdown in the end gas with a resulting heat release and temperature increase. The ability of the detailed kinetic model to predict this low temperature chemical activity is assessed and the model is modified to simulate more closely the experimental observations. We address the basic question of whether this first stage of combustion accounts for a chemical preconditioning of the end gas that leads to the autoignition; or whether it merely provides sufficient heat release in the end gas that high temperature autoignition is initiated.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
K. E. Stay
Automotive and radiator manufacturing companies are currently using several methods for attaching plastic radiator tanks to metal core assemblies. Recently, an improved plastic tank attachment method was developed. It performs as well or better than other systems and is also less complicated to manufacture. This system, named the “HSK” method, can be used on copper/brass cores as well as aluminum cores. This paper will describe the functional and manufacturing advantages of the “HSK” plastic tank attachment method.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Yoichi Ando, ichiro Nita, Matsunobu Uramoto, Hisao Ochiai, Tatsuya Fujiyoshi
The prices of copper and solder are largely influenced by the global situations. On the other hand, bauxite, the raw material required in making aluminum radiators, is inexhaustibly available and its relatively steady supply is obtainable. With such an assumption, research and development of aluminum radiators started in or around 1960. However, we could not develop any new method of processing and aluminum alloy which could compete with copper-made radiators, particularly in corrosion resistance and cost. This resulted in delayment of its practical use. In 1984, we successfully manufactured aluminum radiators owing to NE process in which non-corrosive flux was used. and development of an alloy matching the NB process. This report describes the non-corrosive aluminum. radiator manufactured in the NB process.
Technical Paper
1987-02-01
Edward J. Vydra
Multilayer Composite Materials, discussed in this paper, are defined as laminated structures consisting of two “Skins” of metal separated by a layer of polymeric material, applied as a coating, film or prepreg and adhesively bonded together. Such structures can be successfully manufactured in a continuous manner and this paper describes such composite materials utilized for sound and vibration damping over a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. With high damping properties [loss factor −ƺ (nu) ≥ .05] these materials can be formed and fastened by using existing equipment and technology, (including welding). This presentation is a result of a continuous 5 year effort to develop composite materials. Part of this development involving metal/polypropylene/metal structural composites was presented by H. H. Levine at the 1981 SAE Passenger Car Meeting. [1].