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Viewing 70801 to 70830 of 102052
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870800
John T. Sponzilli, Gordon H. Walter, Douglas V. Doane
Modern steelmaking practices enable closer control of chemical composition and hardenability, and some manufacturers are already specifying narrow hardenability limits. This paper reviews a recent activity of SAE Division 8, Carbon and Alloy Steel Hardenability, that developed restricted hardenability bands for a series of steels. The paper summarizes the need for restricted hardenability limits and the methods used to develop the new bands for the proposed SAE Standard J1868.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870799
Daniel E. Schafer
Textbooks on Statistical Process Control concepts have been available for over thirty years. However, the actual process of implementing SPC into American industry is just beginning. This paper describes a method of SPC implementation as developed and instituted by a heavy-duty transmission manufacturing plant. The process described goes far beyond applying a few control charts at troublesome machine operations. Statistical Process Control is structured into a “system” where inspection stations are no longer required at the end of production lines. Total responsibility of quality management now belongs to the Production organization.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870798
Bob B. Lashlee
The unique reliability characteristics of electronic devices often make Standard Quality-Control Methods inadequate. In addition, Automotive and Heavy Equipment applications of these devices can compound the complexity of the in-process Control Methods required as well as the Endurance Testing of the final product. This paper outlines the Design and implementation of a Quality Plan for an electronic device in a Heavy Equipment application.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870807
G. Vander Molen, A. Akers
This paper describes the mode of operation of a control valve assembly that is used with a hydraulic pump. The operating system of the valve is modelled in a simplified form, and an analogy for hydraulic resonance of the pressure sensing system is presented. For the control valve investigated, air entrainment, length and diameter of the resonator neck, and valve mass produced the greatest shift in resonant frequency. Experimental work was conducted on the hydraulic system so that the resonance levels and frequencies could be measured and the accuracy of the theory verified. The results obtained make it possible to evaluate what changes to any of the variables considered would be most effective in driving the second harmonic frequency above the operating range.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870804
Norman Miller, Darrell Socie, Stephen Downing
This paper traces the development of small field data acquisition and analysis systems. The impact of some significant recent advances in microelectronics on the design of field test systems is detailed. Techniques for the exploitation of newly developed microelectronic devices to design field test systems based on the concepts of distributed computing and modular hardware and software organization are discussed. The paper concludes with a description of a recently developed test system which embodies the newly available capabilities.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870805
G.C. Grenier, D. J. Eisenlord, G. E. Leese
One of the most challenging aspects of a ground vehicle design project is the acquisition of fatigue service history for subsequent use in laboratory simulation tests and fatigue life analyses. This paper addresses the trade-offs involved in selecting data sampling rates for purposes of frequency domain characterization versus those for amplitude preservation in the time/cycle domain for fatigue life analysis. Fatigue life predictions on representative data are presented using tools designed to integrate the analysis and testing aspects of the mechanical engineering process.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870803
R. P. Schmidt, S. K. R. Iyengar
This paper describes the use of a micro-computer based data acquisition system for the collection and analysis of data from hydraulic component performance tests. The first part describes the overall computer hierarchy for the hydraulics test facilities. The data collection system which was designed to be portable, is used for the gathering of laboratory data from performance test stands. The second section covers the menu-driven programs and their usage by engineers and technicians. The options available include storing of test data, real-time display of hardware and software values, report generation and plotting. The various types of reports and plots available at the test stand provide a quick evaluation of the completed test. The last part describes the post processing options available to the user. The data can be readily transferred to other systems for further analysis. This includes an office-based system similar to the data acquisition system and larger main-frame systems. The data can be analyzed using spread sheets, and powerful plotting and statistical analysis packages.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870813
M. A. Groeneweg, R. Ahuja, R. F. Pfeiffer, T. N. Bezue
The drive to increase engineering productivity and decrease expensive hardware testing has resulted in the widespread application of the finite element method of structural analysis to diesel engine components. The scope of finite element analysis at Detroit Diesel Allison has been expanded far beyond the simple investigation of mechanically induced component stresses. The DDA developed, multipurpose finite element code, STRATA, has been used to analyze critical deflections, combustion induced thermal stresses, the probability of survival of ceramic structures and assembly parameters for ceramic-metal composite components. Finite element analysis has also been combined with the concept of factorial experiments to optimize new component designs. Specific examples of each application are discussed including piston kit, cylinder head, and valve gear components. Analytical results are interpreted and unique characteristics highlighted.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870812
H.C. Vergeer, A. Lawson, T.C. Burnett, J.E. Sauerteig
A heavy-duty methanol engine utilizing a glow plug ignition system has been developed by Kloeckner-Humboldt-Deutz (KHD). This engine was tested to determine the performance and emissions characteristics prior to installation in a load-haul-dump (LHD) mining machine. The engine is now undergoing field trials at an operating mine in Canada. Results show that the methanol engine produced low exhaust emissions relative to the diesel-powered counterpart. Low particulate emissions and the absence of sulphur compounds were confirmed. This paper describes the engine, presents engine test results and provides an update on the field trials at the underground mines.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870809
Hugh C. Morris
A personal computer program is used to predict pressures and cylinder displacements in a typical loader bucket regenerative circuit. This interactive, graphically oriented program expedites the simulation and provides accurate circuit design in less time.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870808
Max P. Gassman, Gary L. Dostal
A need to vary the wheel base during operation exists for some mobile equipment. This need can be caused by legal considerations or the geometry of the haul road. To meet this need, we consider a hydraulically-operated device used as a fifth wheel. This type of unit is being built and installed on some tractor trailer combinations. Since the apparatus can be operated with the vehicle in motion, the system needs to be analyzed under various dynamic conditions. System pressure peaks and component operation is examined under a variety of conditions involving road surface irregularities and the effect of striking obstructions such as loading docks. Some recommendations for design improvement are included. The analysis was carried out with the use of the IBM-CSMP (Continuous System Modeling Program) (1).* The purpose of the work was to gain preliminary knowledge regarding probable operation of the apparatus.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870816
J. E. Morris
At present, combustion pressure sensors find widespread use in basic engine research and development. In the future they could provide the essential information for closed loop engine control (of both fuel mixture and ignition timing) and diagnostics. The quartz piezoelectric device is the most familiar; its concept has been extended to piezo-ceramic configurations seated beneath or inside a sparkplug. This paper presents preliminary results for a novel fiber-optic pressure sensor incorporated into a spark-plug. Head-stud transducers are also described.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870815
William G. Wolber
THE USE OF MICROCOMPUTER CONTROLS, monitors and displays is now common in passenger cars and heavy agricultural equipment, and a great deal of effort is in process to develop similar systems for line-haul trucks and other applications of heavy-duty diesel engines. The service conditions for these latter applications are quite demanding, and significantly different from those in passenger cars. This paper is one of a series of SAE overview papers which the author has presented, documenting progress in the use of sensors for the control of vehicles, and especially for engine control. Specifically, this paper treats the robust sensors being applied to heavy-duty diesel engine control and other heavy-duty vehicle controls both on and off the road. How these sensors must differ from light vehicle control sensors and the concepts favored for pressure, temperature, speed, and timing measurement control are emphasized.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870814
Peter Ward, Andrew Wakeling, Richard Weeks, Richard Russell
This paper describes the theoretical basis of SDRC's redesign package, Optisen. The use of the program is illustrated on the design of an excavator arm for stiffness and strength requirements.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870773
Richard A. Lowe
A new hydraulipowered auger attachment designed for backhoe loaders is being developed by Lowe Manufacturing Company, incorporated. The auger unit will utilize a new generation hydraulic motor with builin pressure relief, as well as refinements in critical power transfer components and digging wear parts.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870770
John E. Mahoney
Several new, patented devices have recently been introduced to protect the equipment investment. Some of them are on board the Hitachi hydraulic excavators, and some are carried to the machine by the service personnel at usual service intervals. This paper will discuss these new devices as management tools.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870771
Harold Powers
Covers the approach used by Caterpillar Inc. in working with Auxiliary Equipment Manufacturers to increase the versatility of backhoe loaders.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870779
Michael A. Roussin
Caterpillar has introduced a new concept that shatters previous ripping limitations. The D9L Impact Ripper has extended the ripping capacity and productivity of the standard ripper tractor in heavy construcion, mining, and quarry applications. This paper describes the design objectives, development program, component selection, and the demonstrated productivity of the D9L Impact Ripper.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870776
Robert H. Anderson, Howard Schwerdlin
When choosing a power transmission coupling for a particular application, several areas of concern must be attended to. Among these are the operative speed and horsepower, misalignment between driver and driven equipment and environmental conditions. However, neither the coupling nor any component used in the application can be considered safe from damage until an analysis of torsional vibration has been carefully completed. In the following paper, case studies of torsionally and environmentally induced failures will be presented. By presenting case histories, along with system models and the results of onsite measurements, it is hoped that the importance of these design steps are not overlooked. Additionally, causes and solutions for spline shaft wear will be discussed.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870777
Don J. Gerhardt, Thomas A. Sills
This paper describes the design of a new microprocessor control system suitable for the control of a wide variety of diesel powered equipment. An application for controlling a diesel engine and centrifugal compressor for aircraft ground support equipment is discussed. The equipment supplies 400 Hz electrical power and compressed air for turbine engine starting and aircraft air conditioning. The Digital Electronic Control Unit (DECU) has a dual 16 bit microprocessor capability with a built in power supply, EMI filters and analog interface circuits. The DECU controls the engine fuel control valve, compressor variable inlet guide vanes, compressor variable angle diffuser position and air dump valve. The DECU can be configured to monitor up to .32 analog input channels and 32 digital channels. Four analog output, 32 digital output, and two RS-423 serial channels can be installed. EEPROM memory is used to store calibration data and to record fault history.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870790
A. D. Wilson, C. R. Roper, E. G. Hamburg
The properties and behavior of three improved plate steels are reviewed identifying the benefits that can be utilized in the design, fabrication and performance of structures of the future A710 precipitation-aged, alloy steels, TARTAN™, control rolled, carbon steels, and L100 quenched and tempered, carbon steels are examined. The chemistries and metallurgical characteristics of each steel are characterized. Distribution of tensile and Charpy V-notch toughness data from production plates, as well as for individual plate data, are presented. The fracture mechanics toughness and fatigue properties are provided, as are guidelines for welding and forming.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870791
W. Brent Hall
Techniques developed for structural reliability analysis are applied to mechanical reliability problems, including those with non-normal random variables, complicated design equations, chain and ductile system structures, and screening or testing of components.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870787
Daryl Gerke
As microprocessors continue to move into increasingly hostile applications, such as engine ignition systems, their susceptibility to noise also increases. The traditional approaches of “noise avoidance”, such as filtering, grounding, shielding may not be enough, and a second line of defenses may be needed. The system must be designed to be “noise tolerant” as well. This paper discusses a number of simple, yet effective, noise tolerant design techniques that may be applied to minimize the consequences of noise in microprocessor based systems.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870789
Craig V. Darragh
Today's marketplace and the increased requirements of material specifications have caused modern steelmakers to improve their current products and develop new ones. In doing so, the processes and products have been optimized with respect to properties, performance, quality, and cost. Several of these processes/products and the benefits they provide are described. Developments/improvements in steelmaking, internal quality, chemistry/hardenability control, machinability, cost effective alloying, and similar areas of interest for both bar and tubular products are included.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870796
David E. Bennett
The evolution of the IMPCO 600 Series air valve-type gaseous fuel carburetors for mining of lower BTU fuels is presented. The integration of air/fuel ratio control capability within the 600 Series carburetor structure is presented and discussed. Pneumatic and electronic actuation designs and their development are discussed.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870797
N. Tsushima, H. Nakashima, H. Kashimura
Several papers have already been published on the subject of failure analysis of rolling bearings. These papers are very useful. However, with the advancement of bearing technology bearings are increasingly being used in more severe applications. As a result, bearings are experiencing types of failures not described in previous publications. This paper focuses on the quick diagnosis of failed rolling bearings using a magnifying glass or microscopy of low magnification with the emphasis on those failures which have not been previously described.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870792
Gary Bragg
This paper describes a method used as a catalyst to stimulate a fresh approach in apportioning engineering resources for reaching reliability goals, it uses manufacturing costs and warranty per claim, to subdivide established reliability goals and apportion responsibility. This provides a philosophical base to goal apportionment that allocates goals and resources according to inherent reliability and customer grief.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870794
Y. K. Song, G. H. Acker, W. J. Schaetzle, C. E. Brett
Knock limitations are investigated using natural gas, with diesel pilot ignition, as a fuel for the 3406 DI-TA Caterpillar diesel engine. Thermodynamic properties at TDC are generated by computer and compared with experimental results. Exhaust emissions are analyzed. A comparison is made of dual-fuel operation relative to diesel. Observations are made to determine the onset of knock. The onset of knock is characterized as a function of engine speed, load, inlet manifold temperature, and air-fuel ratio (A/F). The conditions at the onset of knock are determined using cylinder pressure data. The most efficient operating range is determined with knock avoidance as a prime parameter.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870818
David J. Olson, Charles R. Cornell
The tremendous pressures on the agricultural economy are forcing the use of electronic controls on agricultural equipment for greater operational efficiency. One of the first significant electronic controls on an agricultural tractor is for automatic actuation of the three-point hitch. This paper discusses the use of simulation in the development of such an electronic hitch control system.
1987-04-01
Technical Paper
870821
Barry A. Stewart
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is internationally recognized for its development and publication of life and property fire protection standards. This paper will describe the organizational structure of the NFPA and the process through which these consensus standards are developed. Reference is made to an actual standard on diesel equipment and diesel fuel in underground mines. Included are the necessary steps leading to membership approval and NFPA publication.