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Viewing 70801 to 70830 of 107204
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900678
M. Endo, J. Iwamoto
A numerical scheme known as the Random-Choice Method was applied to analyze the pulsating flow in a pipe with and without a nozzle. Good quantative agreement between shock locations obtained experimentally and numerically was found. Furthermore, the pressure histories of flow upstream of the nozzle show good quantitative agreement.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900681
Frank A. McGinnity, Roy Douglas, Gordon P. Blair
Abstract This paper outlines some developments in engine modelling techniques and details the results of an extensive validation exercise. This validation was conducted in two distinct parts: firstly, on a specially constructed rig, and, secondly, using engine test results. The test rig described was constructed in such a way as to rigourously test the theories employed. Comparisons were made between measured and predicted pressure traces and air mass flow. The predicted results are shown to be in good agreement with all measurements recorded. The performance of a complete engine simulation is also described and compared with actual dynamometer test results. The accuracy of this model is clearly demonstrated for all engine performance parameters.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900683
Thomas Morel, Rifat Keribar
The warmup characteristics of an engine have an important impact on a variety of design issues such as performance, emissions and durability. A computer simulation has been developed which permits a detailed transient simulation of the engine warmup period from initial ambient conditions to a fully warmed up state. The simulation combines a detailed crankangle-by-crankangle calculation of in-cylinder processes and of engine air flow, with finite element heat conduction calculations of heat transfer from the gases, through the structure to the coolant. The paper describes one particular application of the simulation to the warmup of a 2.5ℓ spark ignited engine from cold start to a fully warmed up state at several speeds ranging from 1600 to 5200 rpm and loads ranging from 25% to 100% at each speed. The response of structure temperatures, charge temperature at IVC and of the exhaust temperature has been calculated and is documented in terms of characteristic warmup times.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900682
P. C. Baruah
A generalized computer model for analysis of multicylinder spark-ignition engines under transient conditions is presented. The model utilizes a two-zone combustion submodel based on flame propagation. It accounts for heat transfer and uses a chemical-kinetics-based procedure for the prediction of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide concentrations. Non-linear wave interactions in the exhaust and intake manifolds are considered. For the transient analysis, a vehicle model is coupled to the engine via a geartrain. The model was used to predict the behavior of two four-cylinder engines under a variety of transient operating conditions. The simulation enabled systematic analysis of the interaction between various dynamic, thermodynamic, and emission variables under transient operating conditions of the engines.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900669
Tadashi Mizohata, Sadao Takano, Cecil Chan
The luminous efficiency of yellowish green and blue phosphor has been greatly improved. A luminance of 400 cd/m2 can be obtained at 12V with the yellowish green phosphor, whose luminance efficiency increased to 130%. This improvement suggests that the yellowish green phosphor can be used in the 12V driven VFD for the automotive application as well as greenish yellow and yellowish orange (1)*, (2)*. With respect to the blue phosphor, the luminance efficiency has been increased up to 160%, thus reducing the input power down to about 63%. By the continuing improvement, the blue phosphor will also be available in the 12V driven VFD.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900668
Tetsuro Matsumoto, Yutaka Nakagawa, Kenji Matsuhiro, Yuji Souda, Hiroshi Araki, Kazuaki Ohara
The relation between device parameters and characteristics of VHC (Very High Contrast) LCD are described. In order to obtain high contrast ratio and wide viewing angle, the following parameters must be considered. cell gap optical anisotropy of liquid crystal material precise directions of polarization axes twist angle of liquid crystal The optimization of these parameters enabled the development of a VHC LCD which can be set obliquely in a dashboard to prevent surface reflections of the sun light. In this case, retardation of the support films of the polarizers must be taken into account. With control of the retardation, the driving voltage of the cell was reduced.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900671
Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Satoshi Tsunesumi, Nobuo Akiba, Christopher L. Slupek
The adoption of the newly developed self-standing grid construction allows a more flexible layout of the electrodes and location of the grids, while reducing the number of grid leads. These improvements make it possible to minimize the lead pitch and to increase the flexibility of the lead out position. For example, the leads of the new clip-on type displays will allow them to be condensed on one side of the display, while in the case of the ordinary Vacuum Fluorescent Displays (VFDs) the leads are located on both the top and the bottom. By connecting flat cables to the minimized leads, a clip-on VFD was successfully developed, which is excellent in terms of mounting flexibility, circuit maintenance, system cost and function. The manufacturing process and features of the clip-on VFD will be described later.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900670
Tadashi Iwasa, Robert J. Davis
The Ultra High Luminance Vacuum Fluorescent Display (UHL-VFD) has been brought into practical use for the automotive Head Up Display (HUD) system. To obtain ultra high luminance, the basic characteristics of the UHL-VFD were thoroughly analyzed. This resulted in the utilization of the self standing grid and the optimization of the electrode structure and driving condition. Studies of thermal properties suggest the possibility of a more efficient ultra high luminance display system. Reduction of luminance caused by the thermal quenching of phosphor could be minimized by the use of a heat sink. UHL-VFD's having various colored phosphors were test manufactured and were proven to have sufficient life.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900672
Yoji Oki, Toshiyuki Terada, Kazuo Ariga, Uruo Kobayashi
In SAE '88 and '89, we exhibited automotive meters, which we named Hybrid Meter I and Hybrid Meter II both having mechanical pointers as well as segmented LCD and dot matrix LCD respectively. This time, innovative Hybrid Meter III has successfully been prototyped. The meter provides more flexibility in display expression by a full dot matrix color LCD as well as excellent visibility of a mechanical pointer. In this paper, we describe background and objectives of the development, structure of the meter, technical highlights, and possible display modes.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900673
Masahiro Ishikawa, Shigetoshi Daidouji, Masafumi Nagami
Abstract ASICs (Application-specific ICs) offer one solution to the problems of quality, cost and installability associated with the increasingly larger-capacity Electronic Control Units (ECUs) in automobiles. A method was, therefore, created for designing automotive ASICs. Using the method, three ASICs were developed which, together, incorporate all of the functions of the electronic instrument cluster. The core ASIC contains the speedometer and system functions, and the other two ASICs contain the tachometer and gauge functions, respectively. This set of three ASICs allows an electronic instrument cluster design which is two times more reliable, and one-second the cost that conventional systems (with a micro-processor and discrete components).
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900674
Yutaka Imai, Hajime Ito, Yasuo Hagisato, Shigetoshi Azuma
Besides automobile instrument clusters requiring the high precision and legibility, they must also appeal to the user's fashionable sense. We have been proud of introducing such the cluster, named New Electronic Analogue Meter for the LEXUS LS 400 high quality luxury sedan. This paper describes design features of it as the followings; (1) The acrylic lens with black out effect. (2) Utilizing the cold cathode discharge tubes for pointer and back light of dial applique. (3) The virtual image warning indicators producted on the dial applique of the speedometer or tachometer.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900675
Miki Kato, Hajime Ito, Yasuo Hagisato, Yutaka Imai
The development of a high tech image analog cluster providing good readability is required by today's customer. To satisfy this trend, we have developed a highly unique analog cluster, which features very sharp white lit pointers with evenly illuminated white dials on a black acrylic face. These features are primarily achieved through two new lighting sources: 1. Pointers made from thin, lightweight Cold Cathode Discharge Tubes. This pointer creates very high brightness, regardless of temperature, by enclosing xenon gas in the tube, and was designed into a single side electrode structure. 2. Circular shape Cold Cathode Tube Installed Behind Each Dial Applique. This application creates very bright high quality illumination. In this session, we would like to introduce the construction and system of two new lighting sources for lexus, LS400. This technology provide improved readability.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900732
Dale Hunter, Beverley Magnusson
Today most instrument panels and interior padded parts are made of polyurethane foam covered with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) skin. A key concern in the industry is the long-term appearance of the interior parts. Recent automotive designs have resulted in more pronounced windshield angles and increased surface areas of the instrument panel exposed to direct sunlight. A consequence of these design features is closed car interior temperatures approaching 250°F (1) (120°C). The resulting thermal and light stress causes many instrument panels to discolor and crack. Previous studies have shown that vinyl staining is the result of dehydrochlorination of the PVC which is manifested as color changes as well as cross-linking of PVC, and foam degradation. In this study, the results of heat aging tests at 300°F (149°C) indicate that colorimetric testing is a reliable and objective method of monitoring stain development.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900729
Steve Burks, Keith Gutowsky, Randy Autenrieth
Polyurethane chemists have been challenged for many years to develop a laboratory scale test to measure the reactivity of polyurethane foam systems. The task is complicated by the need for the test to satisfy the requirements of both the researcher and polyurethane foamer. Numerous tests have been developed to address this task. However, the cup foam test continues to be the industry standard for quick and easy measurement of the overall reactivity of polyurethane foam systems. The characteristics of a small scale laboratory test which measures the rise profile and adiabatic temperature profile of flexible, semi-flexible (semi-rigid) and rigid polyurethane foam systems will be presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900735
Koji Kishida, Masahiko Oda, Norio Ikenaga, Michio Takita, Osamu Akisue
Nippon Steel Corp. has developed a new hot-rolled steel sheet which is characterized by 1.0 to 1.6% copper addition to extra low carbon steel. This steel is worked while it is in a low strength state and thereafter the worked part is heat treated to increase the strength of it. The copper added steel sheet has a capability to increase tensile strength up to 600Mpa level from 400Mpa level by being heated to the temperature range of 750 to 950K for less than 600s. When copper remains in the solid solution state, the steel sheet exhibits as much formability as the conventional steel of the same strength level. The ductility ratio is higher than that of the conventional steel of the same strength level. This offers a greater freedom in the design of spot-weld structural joints. The fatigue properties of the base metal is as good as those of the conventional steel of the same strength level, and becomes much longer when heat treated.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900736
Robert Baboian, Gardner Haynes
In order to confirm the behavior of various bumper materials, Texas Instruments conducted a performance field survey of existing bumpers in service. A large fleet of trucks equipped with stainless steel clad aluminum bumpers was identified in order to maximize the data obtained on this material system. The fleet owned and operated by E. W. Wiley Co., Fargo, North Dakota was chosen because of the large number of accessible bumpers in service, the severity of the location and the extensive service of trucks in that fleet. Bumper system included in the survey were stainless steel clad aluminum, chrome plated steel and chrome plated aluminum.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900734
John T. Russell
This paper proposes and discusses criteria for determining whether or not a test is useful in fulfilling its intended purpose. Distinctions are drawn between those criteria which are desirable but not absolutely necessary and those which are essential to a useful test. Key criteria include correlation of test results to performance characteristics, applicability to a wide range of products, discrimination between different products, and sufficient precision and accuracy. In addition, some of the basic philosophy behind test method development and the compromises necessary in that process are discussed.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900733
Keith L. Casson
Innovation and maximum functional performance, coupled with good styling and giving customers the features they desire in competitively priced packages, are key elements for current and future automotive instrumentation applications. Flexible circuitry is not a new offering for these applications. There has been substantial use of flexible circuits for automotive instrument cluster lighting and interconnections for more than 20 years. The potential for advantageous use of flexible circuitry and related flexible interconnection systems in instrumentation and multiple other automotive applications is still relatively untapped, however. The utilization of flex offers reliability, design freedom, weight reduction, assembly savings and numerous other features and advantages to these demanding applications.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900722
Ralph L. Webb
A flow visualization study of the louvered fin geometry, commonly used in automotive heat exchangers was performed. Flow visualization was performed using a dye injection technique with 10:1 scale models. The geometrical parameters, louver pitch, louver angle, and fin pitch were varied to determine their effect on the flow structure. Tests covered louver pitch based Reynolds numbers of 400 - 4000. Data are presented in the form of a dimensionless flow efficiency (defined in terms of the mean flow angle, relative to the louver angle) and Reynolds number. Correlations are developed to predict the flow efficiency as a function of dimensionless geometrical groups and Reynolds number. A discussion of the flow structure is also presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900724
Ralph L. Webb, Paul A. Farrell
This paper describes improvements in the design of conventional copper-brass radiators that should provide increased thermal performance, durability, and reduced material cost. A 1-row, and an improved 2-row design is described that has lower air and coolant pressure drop, and lower material costs than a conventional multi-row design. A parametric study describes how changes in core geometry affect thermal and pressure drop performance, and core weight. Several mechanical design improvements are identified, which reduce stress in the radiator tube-header joint. Design equations supporting the design recommendations are also given or referenced. Work in progress leading to reduced fin corrosion is also reviewed.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900721
Edward C. Chiang, George P. C. Huang, Zintai Chang, John H. Johnson
Engineers have found that the one-dimensional approach to compressible flows in ducts is extremely informative and effective. This paper extends these methods to cooling airflow for engine cooling system that they may be used to understand and estimate the behavior of cooling air flow in a complex duct system.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900727
Takayuki Ichihara, Takegi Yogo
A recent research and development activity brought about and eventually commercialized a new, low-cost oil cooler having a remarkably simple structure for car engines. In particular, the use of heat transfer fins and housing was totally eliminated. A heat exchange core employed in the new oil cooler is comprised merely of a required number of identically designed round plates overlapping each other. Whether this type of oil cooler can maintain required heat transfer rate or not hinges primarily on design and layout of embossed spots and through-holes provided on the individual plates as well as of clearance between those round plates. With design emphasis placed on those important factors, a heat exchange core having a finless structure achieved a heat transfer rate level that stands well comparable with that of conventional oil cooler. This paper describes how the product was developed though efforts to obtain consistent heat transfer rate.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900719
Tetsuaki Tsuda, Hirohisa Seto, Junichi Uchida, Yasuhiro Yamamoto, Noriaki Usuki, Toshiaki Shiota, Atsuyoshi Shibuya, Ryoichi Nomi
In search for new corrosion-resistant coatings in application for body panels, chassis & power-train materials, exhaust systems and fuel tanks, a unique molten-salt electrodeposition process has been developed. Ultra-smooth lustrous Al-Mn alloy-coatings with amorphous structure were electroplated on a moving steel-strip at high current densities up to 80 A/dm2 in a continuous bench-scaled electroplating apparatus. Amorphous Al-25wt%Mn alloy-plated steel can be as readily stamped, spot-welded and arc-welded as cold-rolled steel sheets. Al-Mn alloy pre-coated steel exhibited excellent corrosion-resistance in a variety of severe corrosive environments. Industrial-scale batch electroplating apparatus, capable of plating sheet size of 1 m x 1 m, is now under construction, and engineering developments for full-sized continuous strip plating facilities are under way.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900728
Gary P. McKittrick
In order to more fully explain variations in the performance of instrument panel (IP) structural attachment bosses of molded plastic, computerized mold filling analysis was performed on a mold cavity and its melt distribution system (manifold, drops, runners and gates). A comparison of the simulated filling pattern with measured boss stripping torques showed a correlation between boss quality and the conditions experienced by the melt during the molding process. By optimizing the diameters of various flow channels in the mold, an improvement in the quality of certain “problem” bosses is anticipated. Balancing of the filling pattern to improve boss performance is also expected to enhance the processability of the mold. Recommendations which resulted from this study are currently being implemented to quantify benefits and substantiate conclusions.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900725
Richard E. McClelland
The objective is to demonstrate that a pulsed or intermittant flow has the potential to increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. In particular, the application to convection cooling of gas turbine blades and vanes is demonstrated in a test facility designed to simulate the first-stage turbine blade of the AGT1500 gas turbine engine which powers the Army's M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank. The data shows an increase in heat transfer as high as thirty percent over the steady-flow case when air flow is held constant. The change in heat transfer increases with increasing frequency. The magnitude of change increases and decreases due to harmonics in the system, but at no time is lower than the steady flow case.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900726
Pritam S. Bathla, Tonmoy Mukerjee
A model developed to analyze steady, two-dimensional, two-phase flow of Freon-12 with simultaneous heat and mass transfer in a plate type A/C evaporator is described. The results obtained for specified flow rates and qualities at entry indicate that, for given heat input at the walls, dryout conditions prevail in certain regions of the evaporator with correspondingly higher wall temperatures there. This happens particularly when the quality is high and the flow rate is low at evaporator entry. Though the model predictions are plausible, an improved understanding of the evaporation process of Freon-12 will assure greater realism in the predictions. THIS PAPER IS CONCERNED WITH numerical modeling of steady, two-phase flow with heat and mass exchange in the plate type A/C evaporator.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900714
Dominick C. Zaccone, Joseph T. Michalak, Jess A. Elger, James R. Armitage
Abstract: Bake-hardenable steel optimizes the combination of higher formability (low strength and high ductility) needed for part formation and higher final strength needed for dent resistance in the finished part. In outer panel design, it is important to understand the bake-hardening mechanism and its relationship to strain states in the part, bake temperatures and time. Bake-hardening steel exhibits carbon strain-aging that significantly increases the material's strength after part formation. The aging mechanism is created in box-anneal sheet product by the control of annealing parameters and heat composition. Property data from bake-hardenable material currently being used on a door outer application is discussed. Two different aging studies show the relationships between bake hardenability and the variables of strain, baking temperature and baking time. A third study demonsrates that, once strain is induced, strain-age hardening begins to occur at room temperature.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900711
S. Kajitani, Norihiro Sawa, K. T. Rhee
Engine combustion behaviors were investigated when the mixture condition at the intake port was varied. This experimental study was performed for several engine variables including types of cylinder head (gas motions), spark plug loction and MBT timing. Among the variables for the mixture condition at induction were the fuel/air mixture ratio (excess air factor) and the portion of atomized liquid fuel out of total fuel in the mixture. The engine operation was analyzed by obtaining the mean effective pressure, thermal efficiency, heat release history, stability of combustion, and lean misfire limit.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900710
Alvin Lowi, William P. L. Carter
A method for analyzing and evaluating the potential atmospheric ozone formed by the actual emissions of carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds from motor vehicles is described. The method is illustrated using the results of some recently published emission tests performed on a variety of vehicles equipped to utilize gasoline and several alternative fuels including methanol, ethanol, alcohol/gasoline blends, LPG and CNG. The reactivity contributions of the various constituent species as well as the overall ozone potential of the emissions are determined. Some of the scientific and application issues raised by the method are also discussed including the effects of nitrogen oxide concentrations, varying airshed characteristics, emission standards and test procedures.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900718
L. A. Roudabush
The process considerations, manufacturability, corrosion properties, paintability, weldability, and formability of nominal 9 to 15 percent electrodeposited zinc-nickel (Zn-Ni) alloy-coated sheet steels for automotive applications were reviewed. Zn-Ni coatings were selected for use in automobile body panels by several automakers because of their ease of manufacturing, forming, and welding. Although Zn-Ni coatings may be easily manufactured into autobody panels without a change in production procedures, these coatings exhibit poor paintability and poor corrosion resistance, and would be risky to expose in the U.S. automotive environment at the specified 20 to 40 g/m2 coating weights. Zn-Ni coatings will not provide the cosmetic corrosion protection of zinc or zinc-iron (Zn-Fe) coatings, particularly on exterior autobody panels in a fully painted condition.