Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 61 to 90 of 110718
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0091
Koji Yoshida
The purpose of this study is to operate the spark ignition engine by the dual combustion cycle. The dual combustion cycle has two combustion processes, these are the constant volume combustion and the constant pressure combustion. The lean combustion and the direct fuel injection were applied to realize the dual combustion cycle for spark ignition engines. The combustion of lean mixture was corresponding to the constant volume combustion. The fuel was directly injected to combustion chamber and was burned with the remained oxygen after the lean combustion, so that this was corresponding to the constant pressure diffusion combustion. The combustion experiments were conducted by using the constant volume vessel. The lean propane-air mixture of which equivalence ratios were 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 were used and liquid n-heptane was injected by using the high-voltage electrical discharge.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0090
Hiroto Tanaka, Tatsuya Sato, Shuntaro Takano, Yuya Motoki, Hyota Hoshino, Yuya Higuchi, Akira Iijima, Hideo Shoji
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. However, because HCCI engines lack a physical means of initiating ignition, it is difficult to control the ignition timing. Another issue of HCCI engines is that the combustion process causes the cylinder pressure to rise rapidly. The time scale is also important in HCCI combustion because ignition depends on the chemical reactions of the mixture. Therefore, we investigated the influence of the engine speed on autoignition and combustion characteristics in an HCCI engine. A four-stroke single-cylinder engine equipped with a mechanically driven supercharger was used in this study to examine HCCI combustion characteristics under different engine speeds and boost pressures.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0089
Hiroki Oso, Akira Tanaka, Kentaro Nagai, Takahiro Yamazaki, Hideyuki Goto
The EURO4 standard has been enforced since the year 2017 for European quadricycle. The vehicles are regulated upper limit of unladen weight and engine displacement, in addition to the exhaust emissions and the net power. In order to meet those regulations, the engine for European quadricycle is demanded low exhaust emissions and light weight. Further, it is required to be achieved good drivability, low fuel consumption, low noise and more compact. We introduce technologies to meet demand for European quadricycle in compliance with EURO4. The limit values of exhaust emissions have been strengthened in EURO4 standard compared to the previous one. As devices to improve the exhaust emissions, the exhaust-after-treatment devices and the common rail injection system are well known, whereas those devices make engine systems heavier. In addition, to satisfy high torque at low speed for better drivability, larger displacement is effective.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0088
Hikaru Yamada, Koji Yoshida
The purpose of this study is to explore an effect of the coconut oil methyl ester (CME) and vegetable oil methyl ester (VME) on a low compression ratio diesel engine performance. CME and VME were produced from coconut oil and vegetable oil with methanol, respectively. Vegetable oil was assumed to contain 60 wt.% of soybean oil and 40 wt.% rapeseed oil. The engine performance was measured in the steady operating condition at 3600 rpm of engine speed. The ignition timings of CME and VME were advanced and the maximum cylinder pressures of CME and VME were higher as compared with the diesel fuel at low compression ratio, because CME and VME consisted of medium chain fatty acid methyl esters. The ignitability of CME was superior to VME, because CME consisted of saturated fatty acid. The brake thermal efficiency of diesel fuel was slightly higher than CME and VME at any compression ratios.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0115
Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Hidenori Kosaka
To investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, a correlation for the heat transfer coefficient in a combustion chamber of a diesel engine was investigated based on heat flux measured by the authors in the previous study(8) using the rapid compression and expansion machine. In the correlation defined in the present study, thermodynamically estimated two-zone temperatures in the burned zone and the unburned zone are applied. The characteristic velocity given in the correlation is related to the speed of spray flame impinging on the wall during the fuel injection period. After the fuel injection period, the velocity term of the Woschni’s equation is applied. It was shown that the proposed correlation well expresses heat transfer phenomena in diesel engines.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0116
Naohiro Hasegawa, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Mitsuru Iwasaki
An optimization of thermal management system in a gasoline engine is considered to improve thermal efficiency by minimizing the cost increase without largely changing the configuration of engine system. In this study, the influence of water temperature and intake air temperature on thermal efficiency were investigated using an inline four-cylinder 1.2L gasoline engine. In addition, one-dimensional engine simulations were conducted by using a software of GT-SUITE. Brake thermal efficiency for different engine speeds and loads could be quantitatively predicted with changing the cooling water temperature in the cylinder head. Then, in order to predict the improvement of the fuel consumption in actual use, vehicle mode running simulation and general-purpose engine transient mode simulation were carried out by GT-SUITE. As a result, it was found that by controlling the temperatures of the cooling water and intake gas, thermal efficiency can be improved by several percent.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0113
Daijiro Ishii, Hiromi Saito, Yuji Mihara, Yasuo Takagi
In order to establish standard method to evaluate cooling loss in combustion chamber of internal combustion engines based on measurement of instantaneous heat flux / wall temperature with higher response and accuracy than previously reported coaxial type thin-film temperature sensor by applying thin film fabrication technology based on PVD method (Physical Vapor Deposition method) which improved to realize higher responsiveness than the conventional sensor was developed by the authors, and it was confirmed that the sensor has sufficient durability in conditions in which the hydrogen jet and flame directly contacts surface of the sensor by thin-film material change. The influence of the improvement on the measurement accuracy was verified by numerical analysis including thermoproperty evaluation. In this report, the configuration of measurement system that can measure minute voltage from the sensor with low noise and high response is reported.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0028
Huang Hui-Hui, Tsai Chien-Hsiung, He Wei-Ta
In this study, the temperature of solid/fluid inside a continuously variable transmission (CVT) of a 400 cc scooter is investigated numerically utilizing ANSYS FLUENT. The moving reference frame (MRF) technique with conjugate heat transfer between gases and solid rotation/translation are implemented to carry out the simulation. The emphasis of the present study is put on the effects of CVT housing configuration, belt’s thermal conductivity, and the heat dissipated from the crankcase on the thermal-flow-field of CVT. The numerical results show that the temperature of the drive/driven pulleys are concurred with those of experimental results. It is found that the proposed design of partition plate inside the CVT housing can direct the flow into belt and prevent the fluid around driven and drive pulley from mixing, and can further decrease the temperatures of the belt and pulley.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0124
Ashutosh Jahagirdar, Ravindra Kharul, Nitin Bhone, Ashok Kulkarni
Anti-Hop Clutches are popular for bikes above 400 cc. They offer the advantage of better driving stability in lower gears and during down shifting. The currently used designs of such clutches are having different constructions with complex geometry parts and almost 30% more number of parts (compared to standard clutch) are used in some designs to achieve the desired 'Driving Assist' and 'Coasting Slip' effect. The production process used, demands for specialized tools for manufacturing the complex geometry of parts and the price of the clutch assembly is more than double as compared to standard, equivalent design of multi plate wet clutches. These type of clutches are commonly known as - Anti Hop Clutch or Slipper Clutch or Assist and Slip clutches. To achieve same performance benefits with simpler design, less number of parts with a Flexibility to alter the Assist and Slip effect to suit the application, Endurance Technologies Ltd. developed a new concept.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0125
Rianti Sulamet-Ariobimo, Gregah Yudha, Tono Sukarnoto, Yusep Mujalis, Yoska Oktaviano
Lighter automotive components are produced to respond to global issue regarding energy. Lighter components can be achieved by replacing the material to those known as lighter material such as aluminium or applying thin wall casting technique. Lightweight automotive components will mean lower fuel consumption. Based on the success in making thin wall ductile iron plate (TWDI) with a thickness to 1 mm using a vertical casting, it encourages the implementation of the design to create lightweight automotive components. The design was applied to produce a thin wall two-cylinder engine ductile iron connecting rod which will be upgraded with austempering process. This connecting rod will be applied in Vespa PX150. The designs were simulated in Z-Cast simulation software and analyzed to determine the most optimum design. The chosen design was casted in a foundry to match the simulation. Evaluation of the characteristics will be run in the second stage of the research.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0126
Huynh Thanh Cong, Takahiro Kashima, Daisuke Komasaki, Yuta Saito, Akihiko Azetsu
To explore the production and oxidation characteristics of soot in the flame of diesel jet under the condition equivalent to the direct injection diesel engine condition, the effect of three different important parameters (including injection pressure, injection duration, and oxygen concentration) are experimentally examined. For these purposes, a small CVCC (constant volume combustion chamber) with the volume of 60cc equivalent to the volume of combustion chamber of automotive diesel engine is used. To obtain the experimental data of soot production and oxidation, in experiments, the ambient condition of temperature, pressure and oxygen concentration before injection timing are prepared by the combustion of lean hydrogen mixture (with help of 8 spark plugs) at a high temperature and pressure condition around 1000K and 4.5MPa. The common rail type injector with 8 injection holes for modern diesel engine is attached to this vessel.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0130
V. Bevilacqua, M. Boeger, G. Corvaglia, M. Penzel, K. Fuoss
The continually increasing stringent requirements in terms of emissions and performance lead to the demand for further development of gasoline engines, in order to satisfy the regulations and to be competitive in the market. One of the main limitations in simultaneously improving the efficiency and performance of SI engines is the knock behaviour. This phenomenon limits either the possibility to adopt a higher compression ratio, which would be beneficial for the engine efficiency, or it causes a poor combustion timing which leads to a higher fuel consumption and a lag in performance. As a result, having the possibility to judge the risk of knock during the design phase can be beneficial to increase the potentials of the engine. In this work, a methodology for the prediction of the knock tendency in spark ignition engines using a 3D-CFD software has been developed.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0095
Preechar Karin, Warawut Amornprapa, Phiranat Khamsrisuk, Pol-ake Budsayahem, Pattara Chammana, Kobsak Sriprapha, Katsunori Hanamura
The soot contamination in used engine oils of diesel engine vehicles was about 1% by weight. The soot and metal wear particle sizes might be in the range of 0-1 µm and 1-25 µm, respectively. The characteristics of soot affecting on metal wear was investigated. Soot particle contamination in diesel engine oil was simulated using carbon black. Micro-nanostructure of soot particles were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser diffraction spectroscopy (LDS). The metal wear behavior was studied by means of a Four-Ball tribology test with wear measured. Wear roughness in micro-scale was investigated by high resolution optical microscopy (OM) , 3D rendering optical technique and SEM image processing method. It was found that the ball wear scar diameter increased proportionally to the soot primary particle size. The effect of biodiesel contamination were also increasing in wear scar diameter.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0094
Preechar Karin, Park Watanawongskorn, Jiramed Boonsakda Eakkawut Saenkhumvong, Sippakorn Rungsritanapaisan, Settavit Srivarocha, Chinda Charoenphonphanich, Nuwong Chollacoop, Katsunori Hanamura
Diesel engines are high thermal efficiency because of high compression ratio but produce high concentration of particulate matter (PM) because of direct injection fuel diffusion combustion. PM must be removed from the exhaust gas to protect human health. This research describes biodiesel engine performance, efficiency and combustion behavior using combustion pressure analyzer. It was clearly observed that PM emitted from CI engines can be reduced by using renewable bio-oxygenated fuels. The morphology and nanostructure of fossil fuel and biofuel PMs were investigated by using a Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The morphology of biodiesel and diesel doesn’t have much different in the viewpoint of particulate matter trapping using DPF micro surface pores. The agglomerated ultrafine particles and primary nanoparticles sizes of diesel and biodiesel engine’s PM are approximately 50-500 nm and 20-50 nm, respectively.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0097
Emir Yilmaz, Hayao Joji, Mitsuhisa Ichiyanagi, Takashi Suzuki
In the past two decades, internal combustion engines have been required to improve their thermal efficiency in order to limit hazardous gas emissions. For further improvement of the thermal efficiency, it is required to predict the mass of intake air into cylinders in order to control the auto-ignition timing for CI engines. For an accurate prediction of intake air mass, it is necessary to model the heat transfer phenomena at the intake manifold. From this intention, an empirical equation was developed based on Colburn equation. Two new arguments were presented in the derived formula. The first argument was the addition of Graetz number, where it characterized the entrance region thermal boundary layer development and its effect on the heat transfer inside the intake manifold. As the second argument, Strouhal number was included in order to represent intake valve effect on heat transfer.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0096
H. R. Guru Kiran, J. M. Mallikarjuna
Today, homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are becoming very popular because of their potential to reduce soot and nitric oxides (NOx) emissions simultaneously. But, their performance and emission characteristics are very much dependent upon fuel injection strategy and parameters. However, they also have many challenges viz., improper combustion phasing, high rate of pressure rise and narrow operating range. Therefore, addressing them is very essential before making them a commercial success. This study focuses on evaluating the effect of fuel injection strategy and parameters on the performance and emission characteristics of a HCCI engine by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. In this study, a four-stroke engine operating in the HCCI mode is considered and the CFD analysis is carried out by using the CONVERGE.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0101
K. Thammakul, C. Charoenphonphanich, H. Kosaka, M. Tongroon
Primary energy source such as fossil fuel keep decreasing due to various kind of usage. According to less amount of the fossil fuel, human seeks for an alternative fuel source such as alcohol. Alcohol like ethanol can be produced easily from strarchy plant. But using alcohol as blended fuel with diesel fuel doesn't work well because alcohol has low cetane number, lack of lubricity and very low miscibility with diesel fuel. To overcome this, fumigation system or port fuel injection of alcohol seems interesting. Although it requires more complicate system but it can compensate the miscibility issue and alcohol can be used in higher dose to give more energy. Diesel engine produces a lot of emission such as NOx and some other carbon content emission like HC, CO and soot due to they run in lean condition as their characteristic. Modern diesel engines are now coupled with exhaust gas recirculation system to help reduce in main emission like NOx.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0099
Kazunobu Sakamoto
The purpose of this study is to improve the accuracy of durability predictions for motorcycle body components through the implementation of a fatigue analysis that uses the finite element method (FEM) to identify the fatigue failure characteristics of arc welds, die-cast aluminum alloys, and thermo-plastics. In addition to highly accurate load conditions and stress analysis, a fatigue analysis that also takes into consideration the fatigue failure mechanism is essential to making accurate durability predictions. Fatigue tests were carried out under several load conditions using specimens of several different shapes that simplified the actual structures. The fatigue life of the weld toe is assumed to be the difference of the crack propagation rate due to the loading mode. The durability of die-cast aluminum alloys was found to be sensitive to the microscopic structure due to the casting process.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0104
C.J. Chiang, T.F. Kuo, Weiliem Abubakar, G. Lee, W.R. Huang
The purpose of this thesis is to establish a dynamic an Ultracapacitor model, including equivalent circuit model, a thermal dynamic model and an aging model. Model parameter identification is conducted based on Alternative Current Impedance Spectroscopy (ACIS) experiment and least squares method to obtain the Ultracapacitor equivalent series resistance (ESR), constant phase element magnitude (Adl), electrolyte resistance (Rel) and constant phase element exponent (γ) at various voltages and temperatures. Various mathematical models are applied to describe the aging process of parameters. The Ultracapacitor aging model is then validated against voltage and temperature measurements under various charge/discharge cycles at nature heat dissipation condition. All the experiment results indicated that the Ultracapacitor aging model is capable of predictions the dynamic behaviors of Ultracapacitor after various periods of aging process.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0103
T. Painrungrot, C. Charoenphonphanich, H. Kosaka, M. Tongroon
Ethanol is a good choice for alternative fuel which is prefer to dual fuel diesel engine. In this study, ethanol will be injected in to the intake manifold to cool down the intake temperature and reduce the amount of diesel fuel consumption. And also, use a technique called internal exhaust gas recirculation. The exhaust valve will be reopened during the intake stroke for 4mm. to vaporized the injected ethanol in the combustion chamber. The objective of this research is to study the effect of injection timing of dual fuel (diesel) on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a supercharged, single cylinder 4-stroke direct injection compression ignition engine including ethanol fumigation and internal EGR, and also varying the injection pressure of diesel. Then using ethanol fuel as a secondary fuel to replace the energy input from diesel fuel by 10, 20, and 30%.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0106
C. J. Chiang, J. W. Wu, T. F. Kuo, Kenny Purnomo
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines create a more efficient power source for either stationary power generators or automotive applications. Control of HCCI engines, however, is difficult since the ignition cannot be actuated directly. For the purpose of model-based analysis and control design, a crank-angle based HCCI engine model is developed in this paper based on experimental data from a single-cylinder engine. The zero-dimensional dynamic engine model is constructed based on conservation of mass and energy, and ideal gas law. Subsystems in this model included valve lift profile, cylinder volume, mass flow rate, intake and exhaust runner dynamics, cylinder dynamics, combustion model and heat-transfer model. Inputs to the model include engine speed, intake temperature, fueling rate, intake throttle and exhaust throttle positions.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0105
C. J. Chiang, T. F. Kuo, Anton Halim, S. C. Cheng, Y.Y. Ku
The main function of diesel particulate filter (DPF) is to remove the particulate matter (PM) from diesel engine emission. However, the accumulated PM restricts the exhaust flow through the DPF and increases the back pressure which may negatively impact fuel consumption. Therefore, the particulate filter needs to be regenerated by burning off the accumulated particulate, which is achieved either by passively use of a catalyst or by actively introducing high heat into the exhaust system. In the exhaust after treatment system considered in this paper, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is installed upstream of the DPF to facilitate the regeneration process. In order to combust the captured particulate in the DPF, a small amount of fuel can be injected into the exhaust, upstream of the DOC, when necessary.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0110
Daisuke Kagawa, Tomoaki Kodama, Yasuhiro Honda
The main purpose of Student Formula Japan competition (hereafter called “SFJ”) is to let students learn the basic ability necessary for engineers through design, fabrication and test projects. In this study the authors decided to adopt Honda BC-PC37E which was an engine for motor cycles. Then the engine have strength enough for the light weight, downsizing design. As the course of the competition consists of short straights and many corners for running within equal to or less than middle speed range, the engine must have excellent acceleration performance to reduce the lap times in the corners. The effective engine performance is necessary for the flat torque in all of engine speed range, especially in low engine speed range. As the regulation allows that a turbocharger is fitted to an engine, its introduction is effective for getting high torque in the low engine speed range.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0107
C. C. Chou, T. F. Kuo, T. H. Tsai, Y. H. Su, J. H. Lu, Y. Y. Ku
The urea-water-solution based selective catalyst reduction (SCR) system is one of the effective devices for reduction of NOx from diesel engines. In an effort to understand the various levels of oscillation observed in the NOx measurement downstream of a SCR in which the urea dosage is controlled by a crankshaft-link pump, a zero-dimensional dynamic SCR model is developed in this paper based on conservation of mass. The model contains three states including the concentrations of NOx and ammonia in the SCR and the surface coverage rate of the catalyst. The temperature-dependent reactions considered in the model include the adsorption, desorption and oxidation of ammonia and the NOx reduction with the reaction constants provided by the catalyst company. The dynamic SCR model is validated both at steady state and during transient under various engine operating conditions and urea dosing rates.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0121
P. Nuccio, D. De Donno, A. Magno
An original 2-stroke prototype engine, equipped with an electronically controlled gasoline direct-injection apparatus, has been tested over the last few years, and the performances of these tests have been compared with those obtained using a commercial crankcase-scavenged 2-stroke engine. Very satisfactory results have been obtained, as far as fuel consumption and unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas are concerned. Large reductions in fuel consumption and in unburned hydrocarbons have been made possible, because the injection timing causes all the injected gasoline to remain in the combustion chamber, and thus to take part in the combustion process. Moreover, a force-feed lubrication system, like those usually exploited in mass-produced 4-stroke engines, has been employed, because of the presence of an external pump. In fact, it is no longer necessary to add oil to the gasoline in the engine, as the gasoline does not pass through the crankcase volume.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0123
Girish Kokane, Dinesh Kalani, Ravindra Kharul, Muragendra Magdum
With advancements in powertrain technologies & light weighting of vehicle structures, the average driving speeds of motorcycles are increasing. This makes it important to safeguard the vehicle structure from possible impact loads or crash events. The front suspension of a motorcycle typically consists of telescopic front fork which acts as a structural member as well. Thus modern vehicle front forks should be designed keeping in mind frontal impacts as well. Which means the structural stiffness of front fork needs to be optimally designed so that during impacts, the structure should deflect absorbing the bulk of the impact energy safeguarding the rest of the vehicle structure including chassis. At the same time the front fork should not break. The popular design improvement techniques like increasing section modulus, heat treatments to increase strength may or may not have positive effect on impact strength.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0111
Kosaku Sasaki, Dongwon Jung, Takeshi Yokomori, Norimasa Iida
It has been shown that lean burn is effective for improving the thermal efficiency of gasoline SI engines. This happens because the reduction of heat loss by decrease of flame temperature. On the other hand, the fuel dilution of the premixed gas makes the combustion speed low, and cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion are increased by excessive dilution, it is difficult to increase the thermal efficiency of the gasoline SI engine. Influence of ignition by spark discharge is considered as a factor of combustion variation, and it is necessary to understand the effects of spark discharge characteristics on the lean combustion process. Spark discharge in the SI engines supplies energy to the premixed-gas via a discharge channel in the spark plug gap which ignites the premixed-gas. The discharge channel is elongated by in-cylinder gas flow and its behavior varies in each cycles.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0112
Yasunobu Goto, Dongwon Jung, Toshihisa Ueda, Norimasa Iida
Super lean burn technology is conceived as one of methods for improving the thermal efficiency of SI engines[1][2]. For lean burn, reduction of heat loss and the due to decrease in flame temperature can be expected. However, as the premixed gas dilutes, the combustion speed decreases, so the combustion fluctuation between cycles increases. Also, to improve the thermal efficiency, the ignition timing is advanced to advance the combustion phase. However, when the combustion phase is excessively advanced, knocking occurs, which hinders the improvement of thermal efficiency. Knocking is a phenomenon in which unburned gas in a combustion chamber compressed by a piston and combustion gas suffer compression auto-ignition. It is necessary to avoid knocking because the amplitude of the large pressure wave may cause noise and damage to the engine. Also, knocking is not a steady phenomenon but a phenomenon that fluctuates from cycle to cycle.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0038
Rose Mary Simon Palackal, Balagovind Nandakumar Kartha, Karthikeyan Ramachandran, Srikanth Vijaykumar, Pramod Reddemreddy
Today, 99% of the two wheelers in India operate with carburetor based fuel delivery system. But with implementation of Bharath Stage VI emission norms, compliance to emission limits along with monitoring of components in the system that contributes towards tail pipe emissions would be challenging. With the introduction of the OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics) and emission durability, mass migration to electronically controlled fuel delivery system is very much expected. The new emission norms also call for precise metering of the injected fuel and therefore demands extended calibration effort. The calibration of engine management system starts with the generation of pre-calibration dataset capable of operating the engine at all operating points followed by base calibration of the main parameters such as air charge estimation, fuel injection quantity, injection timing and ignition angles relative to the piston position.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0043
Pascal Piecha, Christoph Ninaus, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger, Florian Schumann, Tim Gegg
For many applications, such as scooters, hand-held power tools and many off-road vehicles, two-stroke engines are used as a preferred propulsion unit. These engines convince by a good power to weight ratio, a high durability and low maintenance technology and are therefore the first choice in this field of application. In general, already much development effort has been expended to improve those systems. However, an increasing environmental awareness, the protection of health and the shortage of fossil resources are the driving factors to further enhance the internal combustion process of those adapted two-stroke engines. The current focus here is on the reduction of emissions and fuel consumption with an at least constant power output. An approach to address an improvement of engine efficiency can be covered by applying a lean combustion burn mode.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 110718