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Technical Paper

Assessing Tire Performance from Vehicle Dynamic Transfer Functions

2018-10-30
2018-32-0048
The aim of this study is to develop techniques which can be used to assess tire performance for a motorcycle. This approach focusses on using vehicle level performance parameters and transfer functions to assess tire performance. Several vehicle level dynamic parameters and transfer functions like cornering speeds, lateral acceleration, roll angles and roll rates, roll transfer function, lateral acceleration factor respectively are used to understand the effect of tires on motorcycle dynamic behavior. Tire behavior is then studied by assessing maneuverability of the motorcycle in maneuvers like slalom and lane change. A subjective assessment is then performed to understand rider’s feedback and relate the same with objective findings. Interesting results on the relationship between subjective perception of the riders, tire force characteristics and objective measurements are presented.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on the potentiality of a GDI system applied to a two-stroke engine: analysis on pollutant emission and fuel consumption reduction

2018-10-30
2018-32-0047
The small two-stroke engine represents a strategic typology of propulsion system for applications in which lightweight and high power density are required. However, the conventional two-stroke engine will not be compliant with forthcoming legislations about pollutant emissions and new solutions, such as electrification, are seriously taken into account by industry to overcome the two-stroke engine drawbacks. In this scenario, a promising way to allow the two-stroke engine to be competitive is represented by the use of direct injection systems, in order to overcome the long-standing issue of short circuiting fuel. The authors in previous studies developed a low-pressure direct injection (LPDI) system for a 300 cm3 two stroke engine that was ensuring the same power output of the engine in carbureted configuration and raw pollutant emissions consistent with a four stroke engine of similar performance.
Technical Paper

Consideration to Mechanism and Improvement of Steering Motion due to Banking the Motorcycle

2018-10-30
2018-32-0049
In order for a motorcycle to turn, it is necessary to steer and bank its body. It seems that the relationship between the steering and the banking is related to the maneuverability of the motorcycle. For example, a rider expresses a phenomenon that the steering by the banking is excessive than his expectation as “instability”. Therefore, in order to further improve the maneuverability of the motorcycle, I considered the mechanism and improvement of steering motion due to the banking This paper starts with examining the relationship between time history response and eigenvalues of Sharp model. As a result, this phenomenon seems to be the capsize mode. To examine the capsize mode, I examined the relationship between the capsize and the equations of motion of Sharp model. As a result, I point out that the capsize mode is almost represented by the first order differential equation for the roll angular velocity and steady state terms in the equation of motion of its steering system.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Study on Closed-Loop Acceleration Control of Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0050
In this study a preliminary investigation regarding closed-loop acceleration control for motorcycles is presented. Comprehensive considerations for the implementation of such a controller are discussed. Challenges, which are addressed, are a stable and sufficiently accurate measurement with the help of low-cost sensors and the consideration of the varying available maximum acceleration for set point calculation. In case of torque control, the maximum available torque is scaled by the throttle and thus automatically meets the limitation. Using acceleration as control variable, the varying set point limitation must be considered. According to current hypothesis, a precise closed loop control of the motorcycle longitudinal dynamics can be realized on the basis of the reference variable acceleration, yielding new possibilities in drive train control. The current control of the longitudinal dynamics is done by specifying a target output torque.
Technical Paper

Study on Weave Behavior Simulation of Motorcycles Considering Vibration Characteristics of Whole Body of Rider

2018-10-30
2018-32-0052
In motorcycles, the mass difference between a vehicle and a rider is small and motions of a rider impose a great influence on the vehicle behaviors as a consequence. Therefore, dynamic properties of motorcycles should be evaluated not merely dealing with a vehicle but considering with a man-machine system. In the studies of a simulation for vehicle dynamics, various types of rider models have been proposed and it has already been reported that rider motions have a significant influence on the dynamic properties. However, the mechanism of the interaction between a rider and a vehicle has not been clarified yet. In our study, we focused on weave motion and constructed a full vehicle simulation model that can reflect the influences of the movements of the rider’s upper body and lower body. To construct the rider model, we first measured the vibrational characteristics of a human body using a vibration test bench.
Technical Paper

Road Simulation Techniques for Reproducing Vehicle Behavior at Motocross Running on a Track

2018-10-30
2018-32-0051
A Road Simulator was developed to aim reproducing vehicle behavior of actual running on motocross (MX) track in a laboratory. Vehicle behavior while running MX track influence from various inertial forces, such as Jump landing, acceleration at full throttle, reduced speed at full braking and so on, and also load input from a rider to handlebars and footpegs must be considered, these inertial force and load should be apply on vehicle at laboratory test. To reproduce various inertial forces such as falling inertia at jump landing, longitudinal inertia while acceleration or deceleration, and rider body action on vehicle, Active restraint systems must be added rather than traditional method of load simulator that controls wheel axles vertical and longitudinal directions with actuator. Number of hydraulic actuator was increased therefore all actuators must be controlled to eliminate interaction effect of other actuator load and action.
Technical Paper

Influence of secondary flow generation on heat transfer inside the fin type spiral sub-cooled condenser by experimental and CFD analysis

2018-10-30
2018-32-0054
This paper discusses the compact structure, innovative and unique approach of high performance spiral coil sub-cooled condenser for compact power plant/engine applications. The motivation behind this study is to reduce the vehicular emission by improving the coefficient of performance for air-conditioning unit. Since air conditioning system is the most power consumption unit after the power plant, so it significantly affects the fuel consumption and the hazardous gas emissions. In the air condition cycle, the condenser unit is addressed as one of the important devices, and thus, author tried to reduce the energy consumption by improving the performance of condenser. The most advantage point of this study is to use spiral coil sub-cooled condenser, which elaborates the effect of secondary flow generation inside the fluid and is known as the Dean’s effect. This results in the heterogeneous temperature distribution across the periphery of the tube and leads to a greater heat transfer.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Ethanol Fuels on the Power and Emissions of a Small Mass-Produced Utility Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0056
The effect of low level ethanol fuel on the power and emissions characteristics was studied in a small, mass produced, carbureted, spark-ignited engine. Ethanol has been shown to be attractive fuel due to it being renewable, having anti-knock properties, and its potential power and emissions benefits with extensive studies for use in the automotive industry. With increasing availability and the possible mandates of higher ethanol content in pump gasoline, there is interest in exploring the effect of using higher content ethanol fuels in the small utility engine market. In this study, ethanol content was varied from 0% to 25% by mass in 5% increments with a 91 octane gasoline balance. Using a hydraulic dynamometer setup, the engine throttle was set wide open and speed was swept observing engine torque and engine emissions output.
Technical Paper

Durability improvement of cylinder head in alternate fuel engines.

2018-10-30
2018-32-0055
Alternate fuels like LPG and CNG are beneficial in terms of operating cost and emissions as well. They contribute to reduce carbon emissions compared to petrol. These gas fuels are also known for its problems in engines including wear of parts. Cylinder head valve – seat wear is higher in gas engines. This paper discusses the experimental work on reduction of valve –seat wear on 3 wheeler engine. In the development of new higher power version of the gas engines valve-seat interface wear is observed. Mechanism of the wear is investigated. Effect of this wear on performance, leak and emissions were studied, qualitative measurements of valve temperatures were studied at different conditions with different fuels. Combustion gas and part temperatures are higher in gas engines. Simulation test cycle is developed for the wear test and various solutions to reduce wear at the valve – seat interface were evaluated. Cost effective solution is implemented with minimum changes in engine.
Technical Paper

Influences of Butanol Blends on Combustion and Emissions of a Small SI Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0058
In the general efforts to replace the fossil fuels in transportation by renewable fuels the bioalcohols are an important alternative. The global share of Bioethanol used for transportation is continuously increasing. Butanol, a four-carbon alcohol, is considered in the last years as an interesting alternative fuel, both for Diesel and for Gasoline application. Its advantages for engine operation are: good miscibility with gasoline and diesel fuels, higher calorific value than Ethanol, lower hygroscopicity, lower corrosivity and possibility of replacing aviation fuels. In the present work research with different Butanol portions in gasoline (BuXX) was performed on the 2-cylinder SI engine with variations of several parameters on engine dynamometer. In the steady state operation, it was found that Bu-blends generally reduce the emissions of CO, HC, NOx in untreated exhaust gas and have a very little influence on catalytic conversion rates of the 3-way-catalyst.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Acetone- Butanol-Ethanol(ABE) To Achieve Optimum Component Ratio- To Enhance Performance and Reduce Emissions

2018-10-30
2018-32-0057
The power generation, agriculture, and transportation sectors are dominated by diesel engines due to better thermal efficiency and durability. Diesel engines are also a major contributor to the air pollutants such as NOx and particulate matter. Acetone -butanol-ethanol(ABE) is considered a promising alternative fuel as it emits less pollutants compared to conventional fuels. In current study the ABE fuels with different component ratio {ABE (6:3:1), ABE (6:2:2), ABE (6:1:3), ABE (3:6:1), ABE (3:5:2). ABE (3:4:3), ABE (3:3:4), ABE (3:2:5), ABE (3:1:6)} shall be prepared. Their physio-chemical properties like kinematic viscosity, density, specific gravity and calorific value will be check {density ABE(6:3:1)10:0.81990,ABE(6:3:1)20:0.81849,ABE(6:3:1)30:0.81714,ABE(6:3:1)40:0.81437.
Technical Paper

EVALUATION OF ATOMIZATION TIMING FOR AN EMULSIFIED FUEL DROPLET

2018-10-30
2018-32-0059
The emulsified fuel means that mixed the fuel with water and stabilized by surfactant. The difference of boiling point between fuel and water occur the secondary atmization in the heating process. The water content strongly influence on the timing of secondary atomization. However, the water content is determined empirically. It means it is the doubtful of compatibility fuel and combustor. Then the emulsified fuel is needed the engineering evaluation (not empirically) for taking advantage of sure secondary atomization. This research focuses on the timing and behaviour of secondary atomization of an emulsified fuel droplet and the proposal of engineering evaluation. Moreover, we propose novel test method without the suspending wire to avoid heat transfer from itself. Namely, the novel point is heating process by floating in the high temperature silicone oil. This method can reveal the atomization behaviour of fuel droplets similar to the spray combustion.
Technical Paper

Simulation Techniques for Determining Motorcycle Controllability Class According to ISO 26262

2018-10-30
2018-32-0060
The ISO 26262 standard regulates the safety functions of electrical and electronic systems within road vehicles. We have accumulated case studies based on actual riding tests by subjective judgiment of expert riders to define a method for determining the controllability class (C class). However, the wide variety of practical traffic environments and unpredictable vehicle behaviors in case of malfunction prevent riding tests from being truly comprehensive. Furthermore, under some conditions, actual riding tests may pose unacceptable risks to test riders. In Part 12 Annex C of ISO/DIS 26262, simulation is cited as an example of a technique for comprehensive evaluations using the Controllability Classification Panel. This study investigates the usefulness of numerical simulations for evaluating the C class of a motorcycle experiencing a malfunction in either the front or rear brakes.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation of the operations of a small-size ICE-based CHP in an Italian industrial context

2018-10-30
2018-32-0063
The distributed generation of electricity is worldwide growing thanks to the inherent advantages it brings to local users: in this context, micro-cogeneration systems allow cheap, affordable and reliable power and heating supply. The experimental operation of a 25 kWe Yanmar micro-CHP, based on a 4-stroke, 4-cylinder lean-burn internal combustion engine fed by natural gas exploiting the Miller cycle, during a time period of 1 year is here analysed. The system is coupled with an absorption chiller and is installed in a small-size enterprise in central Italy, in order to supply the thermal base load of the company and part of the electric request. The main characteristics and the performance of the engine are widely analysed, in particular the electric and thermal efficiencies are mapped through the whole year and the most remarkable differences due to the seasonal environmental conditions are underlined.
Technical Paper

The techniques to achieve high power density in the horizontal water cooled diesel engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0064
The horizontal water cooled diesel engine has a structure including all component parts such as a fuel tank that are necessary to drive engine, and is often a single cylinder engine. It is mounted on many applications such as power tiller and water pump because of high general versatility of installing owing to belt drive. Because the simple structure of single cylinder makes engine reasonable price and low running cost, it is active mainly in Southeast Asia. The market requires this type of engine more high power while a compact structure is also required from the viewpoint of mountability and operability. In other words, “High power density” that is improving the output per body size has been required. We have responded to the demand of “High power density” by increasing output without changing the engine size. In order to keep the engine size, we have been increasing displacement by using our peculiar stroke-up expertise and original bore-up know-how.
Technical Paper

Quasi-dimensional simulation of part load operation for micro-cogeneration systems driven by spark ignition engines

2018-10-30
2018-32-0061
Within the context of distributed power generation, small size systems driven by spark ignition engines represent a valid and user-friendly choice, that ensures good fuel flexibility. One issue is that such applications are ran at part load for extensive periods, thus lowering fuel economy. Employing an inverter allows engine operation within a wide range of crankshaft rotational velocity, therefore improving efficiency. For the purpose of evaluating the benefits of this technology within a co-generation framework, two configurations were modeled by using the GT-Power simulation software. After model calibration based on measurements on a small size engine for two-wheel applications, the downsized version was compared to a larger power unit operated at constant engine speed for a scenario that featured 10 kW rated power.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Modelling of an Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Integrated with Blade Cooled Gas Turbine Hybrid Cycle

2018-10-30
2018-32-0062
In the area of clean energy production along with higher efficiency, integrated combine power system specifically gas turbine (GT) cycle with solid oxide fuel (SOFC) system is gaining the attention of researchers. In this article, thermodynamic modelling has been presented for SOFC-GT hybrid cycle. A high-temperature SOFC has been successfully integrated with recuperated-blade cooled gas turbine cycle for the proposed hybrid cycle. Using recuperator, the waste heat available at the gas turbine outlet has perfectly been utilized to power up the fuel cell system. However, to maintain the temperature of gas turbine blade within permissible limit, air–film blade cooling scheme has been used. The SOFC-GT hybrid cycle has been operated under steady state condition, and developed MATLAB program has used to solved the governing equations for the components of hybrid cycle.
Technical Paper

Impact of Secondary Air Injection on Small Engine Motorcycles intended for BS VI applications

2018-10-30
2018-32-0068
On April 2020, India will move from Bharat Stage IV to VI where the combined emission limit of Total Hydrocarbons (THC) and Nitrogen oxides (NOx) of 0.79g/km will independently reduce to 0.1g/km and 0.06g/km respectively. This reduction in emission limit however may prove to be challenging for small engines (below 200 cc) with the existing generation of engines predominantly in cold conditions. When the vehicle is started after cold soaking (engine off for few hours), considerable amount of THC emission is generated which can be attributed to poor fuel vaporization and incomplete combustion due to flame quenching in the combustion chamber. Also, the catalyst is inactive to chemical reactions until the accumulated heat energy from the hot exhaust mass flow elevates the catalyst temperature to encourage efficient conversion of THC, CO and NOx to H2O, CO2 and N2. This temperature point is termed as catalyst light off temperature.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Correlation of Chemiluminescent Species and Heat Release Distributions Using Large Eddy Simulation

2018-10-30
2018-32-0066
In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for improved advance internal combustion engines in terms of exhaust emissions and engines efficiency. This fact suggests a need for more accurate predictions of thermal conditions, in particular, the gas temperatures inside the combustion chamber. Better thermal predictions would help to control the level of emissions of motor vehicles. In the present study, a mixed timescale subgrid model of large eddy simulation (LES) is applied to simulate the turbulence approach in diesel engine combustion. The combustion model uses the direct integration approach with an explicit Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) solver called ERENA, and additionally parallelized by OpenMP. The Diesel oil surrogate mechanism was used which was developed at Chalmers University of Technology, consisting of 70 species and 309 reactions. Additional reactions for the production and consumption of OH*, CO2* and CH* species are added from recent kinetic studies.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Flat-Wall Impinging Spray Flame and Its Heat Transfer under Small Diesel Engine-Like Condition (Second Report) : Combined Effect of Injection Pressure/Nozzle Hole Diameter and Impingement Distance

2018-10-30
2018-32-0065
Substantial amount of fuel energy input is lost by heat transfer through combustion chamber walls in the internal combustion engines. Therefore, these heat losses account for reduced thermal efficiency, in that spray-wall impingement plays a crucial role in Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines. The aim of this study is to understand the heat transfer mechanisms caused by spray-wall interaction in order to provide new insights into thermal efficiency improvement. The combined effect of injection pressure, impingement distance and nozzle hole diameter was investigated for further understanding heat loss mechanism. Experiments were conducted using a constant volume vessel at high pressure and high temperature. The fuel was injected using a single-hole nozzle with diameters of 0.122 and 0.133 mm. The injection pressures were selected as 80, 120 and 180 MPa. The impingement distances were set at 30, 40 and 50 mm.
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