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Technical Paper

Theoretical and Fundamental Consideration to Accord between Self-Steer Speed and Rolling in Maneuverability of Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0049
This paper considers the phenomenon that the self-steer speed when riders bank a motorcycle. This paper points out that this phenomenon originates from capsize mode. Further, it is specified that the first order differential equation representing capsize mode is included in the equation of motion of the steering system. Furthermore, it is specified that this differential equation is the first order differential equation for the roll angle. Therefore, as the roll angle increases, the roll angle further increases and the steering angle also changes, which is the mechanism of capsize mode. Finally, as a result of parameter studies, it is stated that the design parameters that most affect capsize mode were front and rear camber stiffness.
Technical Paper

Road Simulation Techniques for Reproducing Vehicle Behavior at Motocross Running on a Track

2018-10-30
2018-32-0051
A Road Simulator was developed with the aim of reproducing actual vehicle behavior while running on motocross (MX) track in a laboratory. Vehicle behavior while running on an MX track is influenced by various inertial forces, such as jump landing, acceleration at full throttle, reduced speed at full braking and so on, and also load input from the rider to handlebars and footrests. As all influences must be considered, these inertial force and external force should be applied to a vehicle in laboratory tests. To reproduce various inertial forces such as falling inertia at jump landing, longitudinal inertia during acceleration or deceleration, and rider body action on the vehicle, Active restraint systems must be added instead of the traditional method of Road Simulator that controls wheel axle’s vertical and longitudinal directions with actuators.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Study on Closed-Loop Acceleration Control of Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0050
In this study a preliminary investigation regarding closed-loop acceleration control for motorcycles is presented. Comprehensive considerations for the implementation of such a controller are discussed. Challenges, which are addressed, are a stable and sufficiently accurate measurement with the help of low-cost sensors and the consideration of the varying available maximum acceleration for set point calculation. In case of torque control, the maximum available torque is scaled by the throttle and thus automatically meets the limitation. Using acceleration as control variable, the varying set point limitation must be considered. According to current hypothesis, a precise closed loop control of the motorcycle longitudinal dynamics can be realized on the basis of the reference variable acceleration, yielding new possibilities in drive train control. The current control of the longitudinal dynamics is done by specifying a target output torque.
Technical Paper

Durability Improvement of Cylinder Head in Alternate Fuel Engines

2018-10-30
2018-32-0055
Alternate fuels like LPG and CNG are beneficial in terms of operating cost and emissions as well. They also contribute to reduce CO2 emissions. These gas fuels are known for its problems in engines including wear of parts. Cylinder head valve - seat wear is higher in gas engines. This paper discusses the experimental work on reduction of valve -seat wear in 3 wheeler engine. In the development of new higher power version of the gas engine valve-seat interface wear is observed. Effect of this wear on performance, leak and emissions were studied, qualitative measurements of valve temperatures were studied at different conditions with different fuels. Combustion gas and part temperatures are higher in gas engines. Simulation test cycle is developed for the wear test and various solutions to reduce wear at the valve - seat interface were evaluated. Cost effective solution is implemented with minimum changes in engine.
Technical Paper

Study on Weave Behavior Simulation of Motorcycles Considering Vibration Characteristics of Whole Body of Rider

2018-10-30
2018-32-0052
In motorcycles, the mass difference between a vehicle and a rider is small and motions of a rider impose a great influence on the vehicle behaviors as a consequence. Therefore, dynamic properties of motorcycles should be evaluated not merely dealing with a vehicle but considering with a man-machine system. In the studies of a simulation for vehicle dynamics, various types of rider models have been proposed and it has already been reported that rider motions have a significant influence on the dynamic properties. However, the mechanism of the interaction between a rider and a vehicle has not been clarified yet. In our study, we focused on weave motion and constructed a full vehicle simulation model that can reflect the influences of the movements of the rider’s upper body and lower body. To construct the rider model, we first measured the vibrational characteristics of a human body using a vibration test bench.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Atomization Timing and Optimal Water Content for an Emulsified Fuel Droplet

2018-10-30
2018-32-0059
The emulsified fuel means that it is mixed fuel with water and stabilized by surfactant. The difference of boiling points between fuel and water occur the secondary atomization during heating process. The water content strongly influence on the timing of secondary atomization(1). However, the water content is determined empirically. It means that it is the doubtful of compatibility fuel and a combustor. Then the emulsified fuel is needed the engineering evaluation (not empirically) to take advantage of sure secondary atomization. This research focuses on the timing and behavior of secondary atomization with an emulsified fuel droplet and the proposal of engineering evaluation. Moreover, we propose novel test method without the suspending wire to avoid heat transfer from itself. Namely, the novel point is heating process by floating in the high temperature silicone oil. This method can reveal the atomization behavior of a fuel droplet similar to the spray combustion.
Technical Paper

Quasi-Dimensional Simulation of Downsizing and Inverter Application for Efficient Part Load Operation of Spark Ignition Engine Driven Micro-Cogeneration Systems

2018-10-30
2018-32-0061
Within the context of distributed power generation, small size systems driven by spark ignition engines represent a valid and user-friendly choice, that ensures good fuel flexibility. One issue is that such applications are run at part load for extensive periods, thus lowering fuel economy. Employing an inverter (fitted between the generator and load) allows engine operation within a wide range of crankshaft rotational velocity, therefore improving efficiency. For the purpose of evaluating the benefits of this technology within a co-generation framework, two configurations were modeled by using the GT-Power simulation software. After model calibration based on measurements on a small size engine for two-wheel applications, the downsized version was compared to a larger power unit operated at constant engine speed for a scenario that featured up to 10 kW rated power.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Modelling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Integrated with Blade Cooled Gas Turbine Hybrid Cycle

2018-10-30
2018-32-0062
In the area of clean energy production along with higher efficiency, integrated combine power system specifically gas turbine (GT) cycle with solid oxide fuel (SOFC) system is gaining the attention of researchers. In this article, thermodynamic modelling has been presented for SOFC-GT hybrid cycle. A high-temperature SOFC has been successfully integrated with recuperated-blade cooled gas turbine cycle for the proposed hybrid cycle. Using recuperator, the waste heat available at the gas turbine outlet has perfectly been utilized to power up the fuel cell system. However, to maintain the temperature of gas turbine blade within permissible limit, air-film blade cooling scheme has been used. The SOFC-GT hybrid cycle has been operated under steady state condition, and developed MATLAB program has used to solved the governing equations for the components of hybrid cycle.
Technical Paper

Simulation Techniques for Determining Motorcycle Controllability Class according to ISO 26262

2018-10-30
2018-32-0060
The ISO 26262 standard specifies the requirement for functional safety of electrical and electronic systems within road vehicles. We have accumulated case studies based on actual riding tests by subjective judgment of expert riders to define a method for determining the controllability class (C class). However, the wide variety of practical traffic environments and vehicle behaviors in case of malfunction make it difficult to evaluate all C classes in actual running tests. Furthermore, under some conditions, actual riding tests may cause unacceptable risks to test riders. In Part 12 Annex C of ISO/DIS 26262, simulation is cited as an example of a technique for comprehensive evaluations by the Controllability Classification Panel. This study investigated the usefulness of mathematical simulations for evaluating the C class of a motorcycle reproducing a malfunction in either the front or rear brakes.
Technical Paper

Impact of Secondary Air Injection on Small Engine Motorcycle Intended for BS VI Applications

2018-10-30
2018-32-0068
On April 2020, India will move from Bharat Stage IV to Bharat Stage VI where the combined emission limit of Total Hydrocarbons (THC) and Nitrogen oxides (NOx) of 0.79g/km will independently reduce to 0.1g/km and 0.06g/km respectively. This reduction in emission limit however may prove to be challenging for small engines (below 200 cc) with the existing generation of engines predominantly in cold operating conditions. When the vehicle is started after soaking (engine turned off for few hours), considerable amount of THC emission is generated which can be attributed to poor fuel vaporization and incomplete combustion due to flame quenching in the combustion chamber. Also, the catalyst is inactive to chemical reactions until the accumulated heat energy from the hot exhaust mass flow elevates the catalyst temperature to facilitate efficient conversion of THC, CO and NOx to H2O, CO2 and N2. This temperature point is termed as catalyst light off temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of Horizontal Water Cooled Diesel Engine to Achieve High Power Density

2018-10-30
2018-32-0064
The horizontal water cooled diesel engine has a structure including all component parts such as a fuel tank that are necessary to drive engine, and is often a single cylinder engine. It is mounted on many applications such as power tiller and water pump because of high general versatility of installing owing to belt drive. It has a simple structure because of single cylinder, and is active mainly in Southeast Asia. At the same time, the market requires this type of engine higher power while a compact structure is also required from the viewpoint of easy to supply and use. In other words, “High power density” that is improving the output per body size has been required. We have responded to the demand of “High power density” by increasing output without changing the engine size. In order to keep the engine size, we have been enlarging displacement by using our peculiar stroke-up expertise and original bore-up contrivance.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Correlation of Chemiluminescent Species and Heat Release Distributions Using Large Eddy Simulation

2018-10-30
2018-32-0066
A mixed timescale subgrid model of a large eddy simulation was used to simulate the turbulence regime in diesel engine combustion. The combustion model used the direct integration approach with a diesel oil surrogate mechanism (developed at Chalmers University of Technology and consisting of 70 species and 309 reactions). Additional reactions for the generation and consumption of OH*, CO2*, and CH* species were added from recent kinetic studies. Collisional quenching and spontaneous emission resulted in de-excitation of the excited state radical. A phenomenological soot formation model (developed at Waseda University) was combined with the LES code. The following important steps were considered in the soot model: particle inception where naphthalene grows irreversibly to form soot, surface growth with the addition of C2H2, surface oxidation (induced by OH radicals and O2 attack), and particle coagulation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Data of a Small-Size Gas ICE Driven Heat Pump (GHP) and Comparison of the Environmental Performance with an Electric Heat Pump

2018-10-30
2018-32-0070
Worldwide, whenever thermal energy is required one of the most common supply solution is represented by the adoption of an electric heat pump. Nevertheless, other solutions may represent a valid option and the use of a Gas Heat Pump (GHP), based on an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) fed by natural gas, is one of these. The experimental results of the operations of a GHP in a small-size enterprise in central Italy are presented: the test site, with its energy requests and technical constraints is described. Furtherly, a comparison with an electric heat pump is carried out by reproducing its behavior through a 1-D simulation tool developed in the Simulink environment. The advantages that the thermal generator based on the ICE can bring compared to an electric solution from the technical, economic, and environmental point of view are highlighted.
Technical Paper

Study on the Prevention of Face-Plugging of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)

2018-10-30
2018-32-0069
In order to meet the reinforcement of worldwide environmental regulations, latest diesel engines for industrial machinery are required to reduce the emission of harmful gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx), and particulate matter (PM). For this reason, some of the diesel engines are equipped with exhaust gas treatment devices such as diesel particulate filter (DPF), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. However, applications of such industrial diesel engines bring about excessive back pressure increase and deterioration in the performance of the catalysts when continuous operation is performed at low load conditions: soot accumulates on the inlet faces of DOC and DPF, causing face plugging issues. To resolve this issue, it is necessary for the system to be equipped with certain additional devices to raise an exhaust gas temperature to a high level enough to burn out the soot [1].
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Operations of a Small-Size ICE-Based CHP in an Italian Industrial Context

2018-10-30
2018-32-0063
The distributed generation of electricity is worldwide growing thanks to the inherent advantages it brings to local users: in this context, micro-cogeneration systems allow cheap, affordable and reliable power and heating supply. The experimental operation of a 25 kWe Yanmar micro-CHP, based on a 4-stroke, 4-cylinder lean-burn internal combustion engine fed by natural gas exploiting the Miller cycle, during a time period of 1 year is here analyzed. The system is coupled with an absorption chiller and is installed in a small-size enterprise in central Italy, in order to supply the thermal base load of the company and part of the electric request. The main characteristics and the performance of the engine are widely analyzed, in particular the electric and thermal efficiencies are mapped through the whole year and the most remarkable differences due to the seasonal environmental conditions are underlined.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rotational Vibration Mechanism of Camshaft at High Engine Speed in Engines with In-Line Four-Cylinder DOHC Configuration

2018-10-30
2018-32-0072
In engines having an inline four cylinder DOHC configuration, the rotational vibrations of camshaft increase at high engine speeds above 10000 rpm, causing an increase of tension in the cam chain. It is therefore difficult to realize an optimum designing of a cam chain system when the durability has to be taken into considerations. Using the simulation we analyzed in this research how the rotational vibrations and tension increase at high engine speeds in an inline four cylinder DOHC engine. As its consequent, it is understood that the increases of rotational vibrations and tension caused by the resonance of the spring mass vibration system in which the cam chain serves as springs and the camshafts as the equivalent masses. Also it is found out that the vibration system is of a unique non-linear type in which the resonance of the fourth order frequency is also excited by the crankshaft torque fluctuations of the second order frequency.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Transient Behavior of a Two-Wheeler Single Cylinder Engine Close to Idling with Electronic Throttle Control

2018-10-30
2018-32-0074
The introduction of new emission legislation and the demand of increased power for small two-wheelers lead to an increase of technical requirements. Especially for single cylinder engines with high compression ratio the transient behavior close to idling is challenging. The demand for two-wheeler specific responsiveness of the vehicle requires low overall rotational inertia as well as small intake manifold volumes. The combination with high compression ratio can lead to a stalling of the engine if the throttle opens and closes very quickly in idle operation. The fast opening and closing of the throttle is called a throttle blip. Fast, in this context, means that the blipping event can occur in one to two working cycles. Previous work was focused on the development of a procedure to apply reproducible blipping events to a vehicle in order to derive a deeper physical understanding of the stalling events.
Technical Paper

Environmental and Sustainability Aspects of an Aviation Auxiliary Power Unit Analyzed with the Aid of Exergy

2018-10-30
2018-32-0071
During the past decade environmental and sustainability issues have become major problems to overcome since they have caused regional and global consequences. This paper discusses the environmental and sustainability aspects of Gas Turbine (GT) based aviation Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) analyzed with the aid of exergy. Exergy analysis is a potential tool to determine exergy destructions and losses and their true magnitudes and exact locations. In this study some exergy based parameters such as: exergetic efficiency, waste exergy ratio, exergy recoverability ratio, exergy destruction ratio, environmental impact factor, and exergetic sustainability index are proposed and investigated. Cycle operating parameters such as compressor-pressure-ratio (rp,c), Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT) have been chosen for analysis of the gas turbine cycle based APU. Mathematical modeling of the cycle has been done and the same has been coded in MATLAB.
Technical Paper

Design, Analysis and Optimization of SI Engine Intake Manifold for FSAE

2018-10-30
2018-32-0073
Fluid dynamics of intake system plays a key role in deciding the performance of an engine. This dynamics is different for fuel injected and carbureted engine and varies according to the type of engine. Careful design of the intake manifold enables to manipulate the performance characteristics of the engine to the desired level. The present work deals with the analysis of the flow within the intake manifold in steady state and analyze the results to evaluate and improve the ability of the intake port to convey air to the cylinder with the highest possible mass flow rate. Enhanced mass air intake increases the breathability of the engine which in turn increases the volumetric efficiency of the engine. Optimizing air-flow performance during intake process is the main objective of this work. In the process of optimizing the flow for improving engine performance, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation plays a very important role.
Technical Paper

Development of the Anti-Lift-Control for Motorcycle

2018-10-30
2018-32-0076
In motorcycle market, there is demand for technology that makes it possible to drive fast safely. One such technology has already been commercialized; control that prevents front lift while enabling maximum acceleration performance. We have developed a more accurate version of this control. In order to maximize acceleration performance, it is necessary to keep front lift angle as close to zero as possible. Reducing output driving force helps to keep the front lift angle low, but if output driving force is reduced too much, it will degrade acceleration performance. Feedback control that reduces output driving force when front lift is detected is effective for optimizing this trade off, but increasing feedback gain too much to reduce front lift angle will cause output driving force to change suddenly, making for a less comfortable ride.
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