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Viewing 109741 to 109770 of 110083
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170021
F. C. MOCK
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170018
O. C. BERRY
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170019
A. L. NELSON
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170016
ROLAND CHILTON
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170017
J. B. REPLOGLE
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170014
J. EDWARD SCHIPPER
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170015
WALTER T. FISHLEIGH
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170042
E. H. SHERBONDY
This paper first traces the early development of aviation engines in various countries. The six-cylinder Mercedes, V-type twelve-cylinder Renault, and six-cylinder Benz engines are then described in detail and illustrated. Various types of Sunbeam, Curtiss, and Austro-Daimler are also described. The effect of offset crankshafts, as employed on the Benz and Austro-Daimler engines, is illustrated by pressure and inertia diagrams and by textual description. The paper concludes with a section on the requirements as to size of aviation engines, four curves showing the changing conditions which affect the engine size requirements. These curves relate to variations of temperature, air density, engine speed, airplane speed and compression ratio required to compensate for decrease in air density, all as related to varying altitude.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170043
R. M. ANDERSON
This paper emphasizes the importance of using standardized testing equipment in order that mental calculations may be avoided in interpreting the reports of other engineers. The situation and environments of the engine-testing plant, cooperation among the men conducting tests, standardized methods of conducting tests, value of venturi meters and testing of accessories are among the subjects discussed in the first part of the paper. The subject of the testing of engine cooling systems is treated at some length, the importance of obtaining operating conditions being emphasized. The paper concludes with two sections covering spark-plug testing and tests for preignition.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170045
Albert Champion
Abstract The author first mentions hot-tube ignition, which preceded the spark-plug, then the low-tension type of make-and-break ignition, following with the development of spark-plugs. He compares the conical and petticoat types of porcelain and discusses at some length the insulating materials used in spark-plugs, such as porcelain, mica, steatite, glass and quartz. In this connection he covers the composition of the material, its dielectric strength, carbon-absorbing ability, heat-conductivity, mechanical characteristics, and the difficulties of glazing. Under the heading of general design of spark-plugs the author takes up such points as assembly of insulator and center electrode, electrodes, gaskets, and separable and integral plugs.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170044
RALPH H. SHERRY
The author states that the purpose of the paper is to outline that phase of metallurgical work pertaining to the connection between the laboratory and production in the automotive industry. Reasons are cited for selecting certain designs for parts to facilitate machining, complete or partial case-hardening, finishing and assembling. The next step is the choice of materials, a subject which is treated at some length. The author then takes up in turn the field for standardization in steel specifications, inspection of materials, physical testing of steels, uniformity of composition of metals, heat-treating operations, methods of carburizing, depths of case-hardening, treatment after carburization, errors in overspeeding hardening operations and drawing heat-treatment at low temperatures. Types of pyrometers, operations on hardened work, inspection for hardness and selection of hardening equipment are some of the other topics discussed.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170038
E. L. Woods
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170039
ARNOLD P. YERKES
The author first considers the size of farm on which tractors can be used profitably. Confining his remarks to certain of the central and north central states, he points out the fact that there is a strong tendency for farms from 20 to 100 acres to be combined with others to make units of a more efficient size for the application of modern farming methods. Farms from 100 to 500 acres, representing 65 per cent of the total farm acreage, are the greatest users of tractors. Farms over 500 acres contain 25 per cent of the farm land, and also represent an important tractor market. Efficient sizes of tractors are next treated; three and four-plow sizes are generally preferred. Belt work, representing 50 per cent of a typical tractor's work, and other special duties performed by the tractor are next referred to.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170040
OTTO M. BURKHARDT
The forces necessary to induce and maintain gasoline engine speeds of 3000 r.p.m. or faster, as well as other forces closely associated with high speeds, are numerous. The author has, however, confined his discussion to the three most important groups of forces upon which, in the main, the smooth running and the life of an engine depend. The different component forces were determined in respect to two engines of equal capacity for twenty-four crank positions, uniformly spaced at intervals of 30 degrees, which constitutes two revolutions and one complete cycle in the case of four-stroke cycle engines. Medium-sized six and twelve-cylinder engines were chosen for investigation. Corresponding components were combined as resultant forces and graphically represented in magnitude and direction. Several such characteristic diagrams of the resultant forces acting upon crankpins and main bearings of the two engines investigated are reproduced throughout the paper.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170041
A. K. SCHANZE
This paper deals only with water-cooled engines, the cooling system being considered as made up of four main units-the water jacket, the circulating system, the radiator and the fan. Water-jacket problems are first considered, followed by a comparison of pump and gravity (thermosyphon) systems of circulation. The next section is devoted to radiator requirements. The balance of the paper relates to the fan. Five curves show graphically the correlations of the various factors of cooling, power consumed, air velocity and volume, engine speed, fan speed, air and water temperatures and the element of time, the results applying to different types and sizes of fans. These curves are of service in the selection of fans for radiator cooling purposes. The classification of fans, fan power consumption and speed, fan belts and pulleys, disadvantages of high fan speed, types of fan bearings, and applications of fans are the subjects next taken up.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170050
J. A. WILLIAMS
This paper discusses the principles of battery ignition and then describes high-tension magneto ignition. A comparison between the two types of ignition is given, and the paper concludes by illustrating diagrammatically how and why a very hot spark causes the engine to produce more power and to economize on fuel consumption.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170051
Burns Dick
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170052
WALTER C. KEYS
After pointing out the existing dearth of easily workable data and formulas covering automobile suspensions, the author mentions the elements that contribute to riding comfort. He then outlines what he considers a good suspension, tabulating the spring dimensions of five hypothetical cars, typical of those on the American market. Curves of spring deflection are included in the paper. Functions of rear springs, the damping effect essential in good suspensions, “thin leaf” springs and spring lubrication are next discussed. In conclusion the author covers means of improving a car's riding qualities and cites a very interesting test for determining spring performance by means of the impressions made on a photographic plate by light from electric lamps mounted on wheels and fenders of an automobile and on the passengers.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170053
H. E. RICE
The author discusses in this paper a few of the problems involved in the design of ignition equipment. Some of these problems have been solved and some remain to be solved. The early history of the development of ignition apparatus is traced, reference being made to the vibrating coil type of ignition operated by dry cells or storage batteries, various types of magneto and dual-magneto systems, and combined generator and storage battery systems. The balance of the paper refers more particularly to batteries and ignition proper. The two types of battery ignition, open-circuit and closed-circuit, are described and the current characteristics of each are shown graphically by means of curves. Some of the problems encountered in the development of present battery systems are next considered and such topics as reduction of inertia in the contact-arm, overcoming harmonic vibration, advantages of one-piece cams and the function and design of the condenser are treated in detail.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170046
HENRI G. CHATAIN
The author states that the objects of the paper are to define and trace the development of the various processes of carburetion, and to offer such suggestions along these lines as may assist the investigator in developing motorboats, automobiles and self-contained unit motor cars for railway purposes. The surface carburetor is mentioned chiefly as of historic interest. In considering the jet carbureter the author discusses the proportion of gas desired, the effect of the varying inertia of the air and the liquid gasoline and the breaking up of the combustible needed. Following sections review the devices for using kerosene, such as gasoline jet carbureters to which heat is applied, devices of the fixed gas type, the introduction of combustible directly into the cylinder, forcing combustible directly upon a hot surface in the cylinder and devices which raise the combustible to the boiling point.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170047
W. P. DEPPÉ
The author first compares mineral oils with certain other liquids in order to point out clearly certain of their characteristics. He then shows the economic benefits that would result from making more of the crude available for use as fuels. He discusses such topics as cracking methods in use, advantages of dry gas, initial flame propagation, gas producers, hot mixtures, wet mixtures and difficulties of correcting existing engines. He concludes by proposing as a solution of the gasoline problem the more general use of superheated homogeneous fixed dry gases made in vaporizing devices independent of engine cylinders, and outlines means for attaining this end. Performance data covering the use of mixtures of kerosene and gasoline on several cars are included in a table, and several charts throughout the paper illustrate many of the topics discussed.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170049
F. H. CRAVEN
After a few general introductory remarks the author outlines the operating requirements for tractors, and takes up the matter of the proper sizes of tractors, stated in horsepowers per given number of plows. The use of lower-grade fuels, value of water in the engine, cylinder construction, methods of lubrication and design of drive-wheels are the subjects covered by the balance of the paper.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170048
PHILIP L. SCOTT
The author, from a first-hand study of this engine in the laboratory of Professor Junkers, traces the progress of the developmental work, and discusses the methods of operating the engine, its present status, its application to airplanes, trucks and tractors, details of marine and stationary types, fuel, advantages of and objections to the double-piston construction, and describes at some length the various parts entering into the construction of this type of engine. In conclusion, he summarizes the fundamental advantages of the Junkers engine.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170001
V. E. CLARK, T. F. DODD, O. E. STRAHLMANN
The authors advance for discussion some important problems in the construction of airplanes for military use in this country. The functions of military airplanes designed for strategical and tactical reconnaissance, control of artillery fire and for pursuit are outlined. Problems in construction with reference to the two-propeller system, methods of reducing vibration, application of starting motors, details of the gasoline supply-system, metal construction for airplanes, flexible piping, desirable characteristics of mufflers, shock absorbers, landing gear, fire safety-devices, control of cooling-water temperature, variable camber wings, variable pitch propellers and propeller stresses, are all given consideration. The paper is concluded with suggestions for improvement in design relating to the use of bearing shims, the rigidity of crankcase castings, interchangeability of parts and better detail construction in the oiling, ignition, fuel supply and cooling systems.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170002
H. L. HORNING
It is the purpose of the author to analyze some of the factors that have influenced tractor development. He reviews a number of factors on which the usefulness of tractors depends, showing what the farmer is interested in when buying tractors and how the design should be worked out to secure the greatest general efficiency. The paper then mentions certain general specifications that are required by tractor engines. The author finds that the conditions on about 90 per cent of all farms require a four-cylinder engine of between 16 and 40 hp., operating on the four-stroke cycle. The disadvantages of the two-cylinder horizontal-opposed engine are summarized. An empirical formula is given that can be used to calculate the most satisfactory operating speed of an engine. In concluding the paper a number of the most important general themes of design are outlined. Particular mention is made of the lubrication system and of the special provisions required for kerosene burning engines.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170003
WALTER T. FISHLEIGH, W. E. LAY
The authors outline some of the problems that confront the automobile engineer today, showing how the demand for better performance and economy and the ever-increasing cost of volatile fuels has emphasized the necessity for thorough engineering work in the successful automobile manufacturing plant. Believing that the accurate analysis of the heat distribution in a modern automobile engine will be of great value, the authors describe a comprehensive test, made under their direction, of such an engine. This test includes measurements of the brake horsepower, friction horsepower, fuel consumption and heat losses to jackets, exhaust and cooling air. The engine tested was inclosed in a hood, similar to that used on the car in normal service and an air blast was directed through this hood at speeds approximating those at which the engine would drive a car with a given gear ratio.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160018
ARTHUR M. DEAN
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160019
RUSSELL HUFF
The author has selected fourteen automobiles on which to make a study of the factors of safety used in their design. He considers specifically the front axles, front-wheel spindles, propeller-shafts, clutch-shafts, transmission drive-shafts and rear-axle drive-shafts. The method of calculating the stresses is outlined; compositions of the steels used are given; and complete data are presented showing the factors of safety of the various parts, together with the intermediate figures used in obtaining the factors.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160020
D. L. GALLUP
The author points out the diversity of opinion on what constitutes desirable car performance in the minds of engineers and of the public generally. He believes this is largely due to the great diversity of claims which have been made in advertising literature and decries the sort of tests which have been made the basis of this publicity, pointing out that a majority of them are conducted under such conditions as make it practically impossible for the car owner ever to duplicate or confirm them. The kind of an expression or test which will inform the buying public most is one which will tell what the car will do in the hands of the average owner, and define the conditions under which a demonstration of this ability can be made, such conditions to be relatively simple and easy of fulfillment.