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1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230006
R E CARLSON
The paper is a report covering an investigation made by the Bureau of Standards to secure data that can be used as a basis for estimating the effect of a change in gasoline volatility on the fuel consumption of cars now in service throughout the United States. Actual tests began in August, 1922, to determine the effect of four fuels of different characteristics on the number of car-miles obtainable per gallon of fuel, as well as on crankcase-oil dilution. Descriptions are given of the fuels used, the test-cars, the apparatus, the tests and the test methods, inclusive of the crankcase-oil dilution investigation, voluminous tabular data accompanying the text. Table 12 gives a summary of the results and these are discussed briefly. The program for a proposed similar investigation under low-temperature conditions is outlined.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230007
J H HOLLOWAY, H. A. HUEBOTTER, G A YOUNG
This Annual Meeting paper is a report of a series of tests conducted during the summer of 1922 by the authors at the Engineering Experiment Station of Purdue University. The work consisted of research into the operation of internal-combustion engines under comparatively high compression on ordinary gasoline without detonation. The compression-ratio of the engine was 6.75 and the compression pressure was 122 lb. per sq. in., gage. The ingoing charge was passed through a hot-spot vaporizer and thence through a cooler between the carbureter and the valves. Jacket-water temperatures between 150 and 170 deg. fahr. were carried at the outlet port of the jacket. The theory held by the authors as to the causes of detonation of the combustible charge is presented briefly. The source of the two phases of detonation encountered in this work is believed to be overheated areas in the combustion-chamber.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230008
C S KEGERREIS, G A YOUNG
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230009
ROBERT E WILSON, DANIEL P BARNARD
Since the authors presented a paper on this subject that included the test results of only three fuels, the number of fuels investigated has been increased to 14 and several improvements have been made in the method relating to the manner of the preparation of the equilibrium solution and in the apparatus used for the measurement of vapor-pressures. In addition to describing these improvements, the present paper includes data on the fuels; a series of empirical curves from which it is possible to determine, aided by the data from the distillation curve, the dew-points of non-aromatic hydrocarbon fuel; a table showing a comparison of the more important properties of the fuels; and definite evidence that the 85-per cent point is the best single measure of the effective volatility of a motor-fuel, from a standpoint of distribution and crankcase-oil dilution.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230010
LLOYD F BAYER
The term “natural gasoline” has been accepted generally by the petroleum industry as applying to the gasoline product extracted by any process from natural gas. Two processes are in use. The older one is the compression process applied to casinghead gas, which is produced from the oil-bearing sands of oil wells and carries vapors from the oil with which it has been in contact. This process of subjecting the relatively rich gas to a high pressure and then cooling it to or below atmospheric pressure, results in the direct condensation of gasoline which is weathered later to remove the “wild” unusable vapors. The later method is the absorption process in which the gas is brought into contact with a heavy oil, originally of no gasoline-content, which absorbs the gasoline. The enriched oil is then heated to distill off the gasoline, and these two operations of absorption and distillation are repeated continuously within a closed system.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230012
E H LOCKWOOD
Annual Meeting Paper - The heat-dissipating properties of three types of radiator core have been investigated at the Mason Laboratory, Yale University. These include the fin-and-tube, the ribbon and the air-tube groups, so classified according to the flow of the water and the air. The ratio of the cooling surface to the volume is shown to be nearly the same in the fin-and-tube and the air-tube cores, while that of the ribbon core is somewhat greater. A formula is derived for computing the heat-transfer coefficient, which is defined as the number of heat units per hour that will pass from one square foot of surface per degree of temperature-difference between the air and the water and is the key to radiator performance, as by it almost any desired information can be obtained. When the heat-transfer coefficients have been found for a sufficiently wide range of water and air-flows the cooling capacity of a radiator can be computed for any desired condition.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220011
NEIL MACCOULL
That all of the variable factors of automobile friction-losses such as the quantity and viscosity of lubricants, the efficiency of worm-gearing and part-load Modifications are not appreciated, is indicated by an examination of the literature on this subject which reveals a lack of necessary data. Experiments to determine the mechanical losses, including all friction losses between the working gases in the engine and the driving-wheels of the vehicle, are described and supplementary data are included from Professor Lockwood's experiments at Yale. Three distinct possibilities for increasing the fuel economy of a motor vehicle are specified and enlarged upon, gearset experiments to secure and develop data for a four-speed gearset being then described and commented upon at length; photographs and charts illustrative of the equipment used and the resultant data are included.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220012
S D HERON
The paper reviews some of the salient points arising in the design and development of the modern high-output air-cooled cylinder. It is based to a very large extent upon the work of Dr. A. H. Gibson at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, which in turn was principally a development of the pioneer efforts of Renault, supplemented by some post-war work of the author for British companies and tests made by the engineering division of the Air Service. While the paper may, therefore, lack somewhat in originality, many of the results presented, it is stated, have not been published previously. The problems of an aircraft cylinder of approximately 40 b.hp. are dealt with primarily, but some aspects of automobile-engine cylinder design are considered. The first point treated is the heat to be dissipated, this being followed by a consideration of how to secure an even temperature-distribution in the various parts of the cylinder.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220009
ROBERT E WILSON, DANIEL P BARNARD
The term “oiliness” is defined as that property of lubricants by virtue of which one fluid gives lower coefficients of friction (generally at slow speeds or high loads) than another fluid of the same viscosity. Its importance under practical operating conditions is shown to be greater than is generally recognized. Unfortunately, however, no satisfactory method has ever been developed for the quantitative measurement of this property in comparing different lubricants.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220008
ROBERT E WILSON, DANIEL P BARNARD
The authors state that the coefficient of friction between two rubbing surfaces is influenced by a very large number of variables, the most important being, in the case of an oiled journal, the nature and the shape of the surfaces, their smoothness, the clearance between the journal and the bearing, the viscosity of the oil, the “film-forming” tendency or “oiliness” of the oil, the speed of rubbing, the pressure on the bearing, the method of supplying the lubricant and the temperature. The primary object of the paper is to present the best available data regarding the fundamental mechanism of lubrication so as to afford a basis for predicting the precise effect of these different variables under any specified conditions. Definitions of the terms used are given and the laws of fluid-film lubrication are discussed, theoretical curves for “ideal” bearings being treated at length.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220007
AUGUSTUS TROWBRIDGE
Believing that it is one of the functions of the purely scientific man to direct engineering attention to practical possibilities that will be of use in solving important problems, the author outlines the history of the photographic recording apparatus he describes later in detail and comments upon its general features that are of advantage in engineering practice, with illustrations, inclusive of the use that is made of the string galvanometer. The subject of indicators for high-speed engines is discussed in general terms introductory to a full and detailed description of how this automatic photographic recording apparatus can be used to overcome difficulties that pertain to ordinary indicator-diagrams taken on the internal-combustion engine by former methods. A further use of this apparatus is in anti-knock research and its recent usage for this purpose is described and illustrated.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220006
O C BERRY, C S KEGERREIS
Stating that present internal-combustion engine fuel is too low in volatility for economical use and that this is the cause of engine-maintenance troubles, the authors believe that, since it is not possible to obtain the more volatile grades in sufficient quantity, the only hope of remedying this condition is to learn how to use the heavy fuel, and that the most promising method of doing this lies in the effective use of heat. As the experimental data regarding the best temperature at which to maintain the metal in a hot-spot manifold and the range of temperatures available in the exhaust gases are meager, the authors experimented in the Purdue University laboratory to secure additional data. They present a summary of the results.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220010
Winslow H. Herschel
ABSTRACT
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220005
C A NORMAN
After pointing out that although kerosene costs less than gasoline at the present time and is a cheaper fuel for the farmer to use, the author states that if the industry continues to construct tractors designed to use kerosene as fuel it will not be long before the cost of it is the same as that of gasoline. He argues that automotive engines should be designed to run on any liquid fuel and gives figures on the available supply of petroleum products and distillates in the world at the present time. The requirements laid down by the Government for gasoline are mentioned and it is stated that it is not possible for the oil industry to supply generally to the trade a gasoline meeting the recently adopted Government specifications which the author considers are very lenient.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220004
THOMAS MIDGLEY, T A BOYD
The various methods employed to measure detonation or fuel knock in an internal-combustion engine, such as the listening indicator, temperature and bouncing-pin, are discussed and the reasons all but the last cannot be employed to give satisfactory indications of the detonation tendencies of fuels are given. The bouncing-pin method, which is a combination of the indicator developed by the author and the apparatus designed by Dr. H. C. Dickinson at the Bureau of Standards, is illustrated and described. In this method the evolution of gas from an electrolytic cell containing sulphuric acid and distilled water measures the bouncing-pin fluctuations in a given period of time. The accuracy of this method of comparison is brought out in a table. The qualities that a standard fuel must possess are explained and the objections to a special gasoline are pointed out.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220003
THOMAS MIDGLEY, W K Gilkey
The paper is intended to familiarize automotive engineers with the general subject of spectroscopy, by pointing out the various methods that can be employed to determine the actual instantaneous pressures obtained in normal combustion, the temperature-time card of the internal-combustion engine and the progress of the chemical reactions involved in normal and abnormal combustion. The subject of spectroscopy is outlined and explained, illustrations are presented of different types of spectra, and spectroscopes and their principles are discussed. The remainder of the paper is devoted to an outline of what the spectroscope can reveal about the nature of combustion.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220002
THOMAS MIDGLEY,
The paper is an exposition of the theoretical analysis made by the author of the experimental work of Woodbury, Canby and Lewis, on the Nature of Flame Movement in a Closed Cylinder, the results of which were published in THE TRANSACTIONS for the first half of 1921. No experimental evidence is presented by the author that has not been derived previously by other investigators. The relation of pressure to flame travel is derived first, the relation of mass burned is considered and a displacement diagram constructed, described and analyzed. The break of the flame-front curve, called the “point of arrest,” enters prominently into the discussion and computations; the pressure in the flame-front is studied; the reaction-velocities are calculated; and general comments are made.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220001
HARRY R RICARDO
The author describes the research work on the internal-combustion engine done recently in his laboratory in England, and presents his deductions therefrom, based upon an analysis of the evidence he has obtained to date. Fuels are discussed at length under three specific headings, many tabular data being included and commented upon, and the calculation of thermal efficiency described. Mean volatility and detonation are discussed and the author's present views regarding turbulence are stated, this being followed by a brief summary of the conclusions reached by Mr. Tizard, a colleague of the author, following recent investigations. The influence of the nature of the fuel upon detonation is presented, a lengthy discussion of the subject of stratification being given under three specific divisions, inclusive of comment upon the benefits derived from using weak fuel-mixtures.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220031
J G VINCENT
Grouping the influences that are retarding the development of aviation into five specified divisions, the author, who took a prominent part in the development of the Liberty engine and other wartime aviation activities of the Government, discusses each one, in the order of its importance, in an effort to point out the limitations that exist as differentiated from misconceived non-existent limitations and to indicate remedial measures stimulative to a provident trend and vigorous growth of aviation. The subjects of adequate landing-fields, the real and imaginary dangers of flying, single and multi-engine airplanes, passenger comfort and commercial considerations are treated at some length, prefatory to an outline of the trend of airplane design and an enumeration of powerplant requirements.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220029
E W TEMPLIN
Stating that the means and methods of transporting freight over the highways are governed by six factors, the author enumerates them as being the number of ton-miles of goods to be shipped, the shipping points and destinations, the kinds of highway available, the types of vehicle most suitable, the cost of operation per ton-mile and the rates that should be charged for the service. The purpose of the paper is not to answer these questions but to determine whether present practice is headed in the right direction. The conditions the highway must meet, in addition to the gross load of the vehicles, are the maximum tire load, the pressure per square inch exerted by the tire upon the pavement and the value of any impact blow upon the pavement. The impact blows of pneumatic tires are practically negligible, while solid tires build up the impact to many times the weight of the wheel load; this is proved by impact tests of tires which are described in some detail and illustrated.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220032
H C DICKINSON
Dr. Dickinson outlines the history of the Research Department since its organization, indicates why the universities are the principal bases of operation for pure research, describes how the department functions as a clearing-house with regard to research data and comments upon the bright prospects for the future. He enumerates also the facilities the Research Department has for the coordination of research problems. The practical achievements of the Department have resulted from its recent concentration upon the three major projects of study with regard to the tractive resistance of roads, with reference to fuel and to testing programs, and of an effort to render financial assistance to the Bureau of Standards and the Bureau of Mines that would enable these Bureaus to continue their elaborate research programs, details of all of this work being included.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220030
C Fayette Taylor
After indicating the line of development since November, 1918, toward making the internal-combustion engine better adapted to aircraft service, the successful application of the supercharger to improve engine performance at great altitude is described and the over-dimensioned and over-compressioned engine also is discussed as a means toward that end. The use of anti-knock compounds to permit the use of high compression-ratios at small altitudes without knocking is commented upon and engine size is considered for both airplane and dirigible service. Further review includes air-cooling experiments in reference to the air-cooled radial engine, refinement of aviation-engine details, and improvements in aircraft powerplant parts and fuel-supply systems. For commercial aviation, powerplant reliability and low cost are stated as essentials. Illustrations are presented of the supercharger and of the engines and sylphon fuel-pump mentioned.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220035
O C BERRY
Economy tests carried out in France indicate that it is possible to obtain a larger number of miles per gallon from cars made there than from cars made in this Country. The author states that it would be well to make a careful study of the factors influencing car economy and to assure that our future car models take full advantage of all possible means of increasing their economy. Figures are presented showing the extent to which economy can be increased by changing such factors as the carbureter adjustment, time of the spark, rear-axle ratio and speed of driving. A car that normally will go 21 miles per gal. under favorable test conditions at 20 m.p.h. was increased to 43 miles per gal. at 20 m.p.h. The study is not complete but has gone far enough to demonstrate its value. This progress report is presented to stimulate thought.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220036
P S TICE
The author gives a brief and purely qualitative treatment of what a vapor is, where it comes from and how it appears; the necessity of vaporizing a liquid fuel before attempting to burn it; the separate effects of the conditions that control vaporization; and the heat-balance of vaporization. This is done to summarize the conditions surrounding and controlling fuel vaporization in the cycle of operation of a throttle-controlled internal-combustion engine, fitted with an intake-manifold and a carbureter. Charts and photographs are included and commented upon, descriptions being given of actual demonstrations that were made at the time the paper was presented. The conclusion is reached that it is well to depend as little as possible upon the cylinder heat and temperature to complete the vaporization of the fuel.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220033
THOMAS MIDGLEY, T A BOYD
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220039
George A Round
Oil-pumping is defined and its results are mentioned. The influence of various operating conditions is brought out, particular reference being made to passenger-car service. The factors that control the rate of oil consumption are described in detail and some unusual conditions are reported. Various features of piston grooving and piston-ring design are mentioned and the effect of changes illustrated. The relative advantages of the splash and the force-feed systems as affecting the development of oil-pumping troubles are set forth and improvements suggested. A new device for reducing oil-pumping dilution troubles is described and illustrated.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220034
F C MOCK, M E CHANDLER
The development of intake-manifolds in the past has been confined mainly to modifications of constructional details. Believing that the increased use of automotive equipment will lead to a demand for fuel that will result in the higher cost and lower quality of the fuel, and being convinced that the sole requirement of satisfactory operation with kerosene and mixtures of the heavier oils with alcohol and benzol is the proper preparation of the fuel in the manifold, the authors have investigated the various methods of heat application in the endeavor to produce the minimum temperature necessary for a dry mixture. Finding that this minimum temperature varied with the method of application of the heat, an analysis was made of the available methods on a functional rather than a structural basis.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220040
P M HELDT
The gradual trend toward overhead valves in automobile engines, as indicated by an increase in their use on American cars from 6 per cent in 1914 to 31 per cent in 1922, has been accelerated, in the opinion of the author, by their successful application to aircraft engines and by the publicity given them by their almost universal adoption on racing machines. Tractor engines recently brought out show the advantage of this construction.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220037
C T COLEMAN
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220038
A A BULL
The object of the paper is to consider some of the fundamental factors that affect oil consumption; it does not dwell upon the differences between lubricating systems. Beyond the fact that different oils apparently affect the oil consumption and that there is a definite relation between viscosity and oil consumption, the effect of the physical characteristics, or the quality of the oil, does not receive particular attention. The methods of testing are described and the subject is divided into (a) the controlling influence of the pistons, rings and cylinders; (b) the controlling influence of the source from which the oil is delivered to the cylinder wall.