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1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230026
J F MURPHY
The author describes a system of automotive transportation for intra-city hauling and the moving of merchandise between railroad terminals that has enabled the company he represents to serve the city of St. Louis and the railroad terminals there with a high degree of efficiency through the utilization of tractor and semi-trailer units and a thorough supervision of their movements. The units are described and illustrated, and the conditions governing their usage are set forth. The salient features of the paper include discussions of the necessity for adequate terminals, off-track versus on-track railroad depots, the volume of tonnage, tractor and semi-trailer operation and methods of procedure and control, weight and protection of loads, haulage distance, economy and a specific statement of the principal advantages gained through the use of automotive equipment of the type described.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230025
BRAINERD TAYLOR
The paper is a presentation of a practical solution for the coordination of military and commercial transport with rail and water transport. The necessity for combining and coordinating transportation facilities with the idea of organizing a homogeneous transportation network of waterways, railways and highways, proved to be the essence of success in military operations during the World War. The utter inadequacy of pre-war and war-time transport facilities, when organized in the separate fields of railroad, maritime shipping and port operations, and the decentralized elements of highway transport, caused the United States Army to make a comprehensive study and plan of the world's war-time transportation with particular attention to the organization of motor transport as the necessary factor in coordinating all transportation facilities. The salient features and general principles of this study and the resultant plan are stated.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230024
OSCAR W SJOGREN
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230023
C M EASON
The author (Chicago Tractor Meeting paper) divides the history of the application of mechanical power to farm work into three periods, reviews each one and comments upon the various phases of progressive development that influence the type of tractor most desirable for satisfying present needs. The requirements of farm work are outlined, and the different types of tractor built and being constructed to meet these demands are reviewed, discussion of large versus small tractors, type of drive, power needed, control, methods of operation and the factors constituting general-purpose service being included. So far as adopting the tractor for farm usage is concerned, the author believes that the present limitation of such utilization lies with the tractor industry and with tractor engineers, rather than with the farmer.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230022
DON T HASTINGS
The author states that the word “service” has been and still is the most abused word in the automobile language and enumerates some of the causes of poor service. Good service is then considered as constituting a sales asset. The new attitude toward service is described and the progress of the building-up of a combined flat-rate and piece-work system is outlined. The flat-rate and the piece-work features are analyzed, inclusive of the methods applied to each and comments upon the results obtained. Records form an all-important part, and these are kept on special forms that are illustrated; the method of their utilization is given in detail. The duties of the different members of the service personnel are specified, and it is shown how the different factors are made to combine and produce service that satisfies the car-owner.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230021
OTIS C FUNDERBURK
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230020
S O BJORNBERG
Detroit Section Paper - Since a gear is a product of the cutting tool, the gear-cutting machine and the operator, it can be no more accurate than the combined accuracy of these fundamental factors. All gear manufacturers aim to eliminate split bearings, high and low bearings, flats and other inaccuracies in tooth contour, because a gear having teeth the contours of which comply with the geometrical laws underlying its construction is by far the most satisfactory. Illustrations are presented to convey an understanding of the geometrical principles involved, together with other illustrations of testing instruments and comments thereon. The application of these instruments is termed quality control, which is discussed in some detail under the headings of hob control, machine control and gear control.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230019
Glenn Muffly
ABSTRACT
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230048
F H FORD
Instead of representing light intensity by lines to indicate photometric values the author recommends an arrangement for denoting the intensity by varying degrees of tint on the surface of a chart that is supposed to represent the roadway. In the opening paragraph the thought is brought out that present-day automobile lighting-equipment is not designed in such a way as to make its performance a selling feature and the several reasons why the efficient distribution of light on the road has been overlooked are pointed out, emphasis being laid on the fact that the average car-designer is not an illuminating engineer, and that even if he did wish to use the best light available on the car he would have to make personal tests of the devices under all conditions of night driving before being in a position to recommend the most efficient head-lighting device.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230047
J E HALE
THE author describes the results of a deliberate attempt to make motor vehicles ride on air that is at a low pressure, through the usage of an air-cushion tire having greater carcass flexibility than is usual and by enlarging the size of the tire section so as to provide a greater area of contact between the tire and the pavement. The goal tried for was to increase the area of contact sufficiently so that air pressures ranging from 20 to 35 lb. per sq. in. could be employed in actual practice. Fundamental conditions are considered first, followed by statements as to what advantages the air-cushion tires containing air at low pressure give to a car. The effects on car operation are presented at some length, inclusive of considerations regarding car speed, steering ability, front-wheel shimmy, traction, braking control, blow-outs, side-sway, and other factors of influence.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230050
A J OTT, C L OTT
A grinding-machine for finishing spur-gears is illustrated and described; claims are made that it will grind transmission gears on a production basis after they have been heat-treated and will produce correct tooth-contour, smooth finish and accurate tooth-spacing, these features being necessary in producing gears that are interchangeable and that run quietly. This machine is of the generating type, its action being that of rolling a gear along an imaginary rack and using the grinding wheel as one tooth of the rack. The dished grinding-wheel is reversible, 30 in. in diameter, mounted below the gear, and can be swiveled to the right or left of the center position up to an angle of 25 deg. The work-spindle carries the indexing and the generating mechanisms at the rear, where they are accessible and yet are protected.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230049
OSCAR A KNIGHT
In production grinding the progress made during the past few years has been along the line of grinding multiple parts simultaneously, such as piston-rings, ball and roller-bearing cups and so forth. This kind of grinding brought about the use of wider wheels to cover the entire surface of the work, whereas formerly narrow wheels had been used with the traversing table method. With the development of these operations came the cylindrical grinding of square and distributor cams; also square shafts, using the oscillating cam-grinding attachments; piston-relief grinding with the same attachments; and two-wheel or double-wheel grinding for such parts as steering-knuckles and pinion shafts of different diameters or where two diameters are separated by some protrusion, as in steeringgear worm-shafts.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230044
W W DAVISON
Wire wheels, having been used exclusively on bicycles, naturally were adopted as standard by the builders of the early types of automobile. But as the automobile soon increased greatly in weight and as its builders believed that the best results could be attained by wheels of large diameter, wire wheels were found to be lacking in strength and were discarded in favor of wood wheels of the artillery type, which at that time were being imported from France. When a few years later, wire wheels again appeared on some of the English models, the prejudice against them still remained and it was not until about 1914 that they began to find favor in the industry. Drivers of racing cars, however, continued to use wire wheels because they obviated the flywheel effect and lent themselves to quicker braking and accelerating.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230046
John F Duby
Since accurate wheel-alignment is of much greater importance than has been realized generally and because so much confusion existed regarding proper methods of securing it, the author explains a method for obtaining correct alignment that will insure easy steering and cause the least amount of tire wear. Correct wheel-alignment is defined and the differences between front-wheel and rear-wheel alignment-requirements are stated. “Toe-in” and “camber” are analyzed, their requisite values are discussed and the manner of determining them is explained. Axle-tilt and wheel-wabble are considered also in their relation to the subject, and a summary is given of the proper procedure to secure correct wheel-alignment.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230043
E FAVARY
The five types of final-drive now in use on motor vehicles are stated by the author to be (a) the chain-and-sprocket, (b) the bevel-gear, (c) the worm-gear, (d) the double-reduction and (e) the internal-gear. The advantages of each type as emphasized by its maker are presented and commented upon, and the same procedure is followed with reference to their disadvantages. Following these comparisons of the different drives, which cover about the first third of the paper, the bearing loads and shaft stresses of typical semi-floating and full-floating axles are calculated for the conditions (a) maximum torque plus the normal radial-load on the wheel, (b) the wheel locked and skidding forward when the brakes are applied and (c) the wheel skidding sidewise while the truck is moving. A tabulation of the results obtained from the mathematical calculations is included.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230045
J W WHITE
Disc wheels are the answer to a demand for something better at a more reasonable price. The art of making wood wheels has been established, the machinery has become standardized and further reduction in cost is improbable; whereas the cost of suitable wood is steadily advancing and the trend, consequently, is upward. When the wire wheel was first introduced its use was a mark of distinction and to it can be traced the origin of the sport model, but its price cannot be reduced and it cannot compete, therefore, with the disc wheel on a price basis. The development of the disc wheel brought an equal distinctiveness of design and of pleasing appearance, but its progress has been different. The initial expenditure involved in the production of disc wheels is large; but the output also is large, and, as the volume increases, the prices become lower.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230056
E E LA SCHUM
The magnitude of the business of the American Railway Express Co. requires that careful consideration be given to the details necessary for economical operation. The equipment comprises 12,755 vehicles, of which approximately one-third are motor-driven and have a carrying capacity of more than one-half the total. On July 1, 1918, when all the express companies were merged into one organization, it was found that the motor-vehicle equipment included 59 different makes and 131 different models. Among the 377 trucks built by one company were 21 different models. Diversity of equipment, of course, complicates the maintenance problem and adds to the cost. Additional expense is incurred frequently by purchasing and experimenting with parts offered by makers of accessories such as carbureters, spark-plugs, wheels and the like. Careful inspection, adequate lubrication and the adoption of “stitch-in-time” methods will save needless expense.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230055
WILLIAM P KENNEDY
The author surveys some of the general conditions prevailing in the street-railway field and the prospective development of a new type of service, in discussing the necessity for closer cooperation between the engineers of the automotive industry and the operating organizations of the railways, the idea being to develop flexible transportation-equipment that will coordinate with the operation of present railway-transportation facilities and to promote the utilization, wherever feasible, of railway power-supply in the employment of flexible bus-type equipment in supplementing and extending railway-organization service. Changing conditions are outlined, the influences tending toward flexible equipment are stated, and the differences of engineering practice pertaining in the railway and automotive fields are commented upon to show wherein railway and automotive engineers can cooperate.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230057
J LYMAN LARSON
A tract comprising several acres of “tamarack” swamp, drained with tile the previous fall and cleared of stumpage the following spring, was utilized to obtain accurate information regarding the tractor and the plowing equipment required for the heavy operations of first breaking of the peat soil, which was from 5 to 7 ft. deep. The paper describes the equipment used, gives details of the procedure and presents the data that were obtained. Three different types of tractor and two types of plow, the latter having either a marsh or a breaker bottom and equipped both with and without a furrow pusher were used. Specifications of the tractors and the plows are given and commented upon, graphs and tabulations of the results being presented also. Power requirements on timbered peat and on grass marsh are compared and the efficiency of the plowing equipment is discussed.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230052
H. P HARRISON
To install conveyors in a going automobile manufacturing plant of moderate size, without interrupting production, and with a minimum amount of rearrangement of the plant and an investment commensurate with the saving to be effected, was the problem, the solution of which is herein described. The conditions that determined whether power-driven or gravity-actuated conveyors should be used are discussed and the various types required for handling raw stock, for machining operations, for sub-assemblies and for finished assemblies are indicated.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230054
O T KREUSSER
To furnish each year better, prompter and less costly service compels the development of field service-branches that operate on a sound business basis such that all the capital involved is applied toward operating all of the floor-space to its maximum capacity, turning-over the stock with the maximum frequency, justifying the existence of the tool equipment and having the right men all pull together. Data are necessary in the conduct of any business on an efficient basis, and the field experience provides a definite channel to bring to the designing and the production organizations the information that is most valuable in making an improved product. Two tendencies of the industry are toward automobiles that become lower in overall costs per mile of transportation and vehicles that function with less trouble, delay and inconvenience.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230051
A H FRAUENTHAL
It is stated that an out-of-round surface having an even number of high-spots requires a checking instrument that has opposed measuring points; and that, if the number of high-spots on the surface is uneven, an instrument having three-point contact, and one of the points of contact located on the center line between the other two, is necessary. Concerning the use of the three-point method, for close work, the angle between the three points of contact must be selected according to the number of high-spots. Divisions of the subject include types of out-of-roundness and those peculiar to certain machines, the three-point measurnig system, errors of the V-block method, use of the V-block for elliptical objects, other methods of checking elliptical forms and indicator-reading correction. Three items for instrument improvement are suggested to manufacturers.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230053
A F SHORE
A statement is made of nine items suggested by the Iron and Steel Division of the Society for consideration with reference to securing greater uniformity in practice when making precision hardness-tests with the scleroscope. Plumbness of the instrument is an important factor and lateral vibrations have a bad effect; these are discussed and surface smoothness of the test-specimen is considered in relation to its effect on accuracy. Other factors treated are the influence of metal-scale on scleroscope readings, the condition of the hammer diamond, and the effect of the mass of the test-specimen. Extreme under-weight specimens, inert and over-weight masses, the effect of hardness on mass and the effect of thickness of the test-specimen receive consideration, together with points concerning testing near test-specimen edges, the effect of curved surfaces and how test-specimens are held. A lengthy comparison between Brinell and scleroscope hardness-testing is made.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230001
H M CRANE
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230002
V H GOTTSCHALK
The author describes a series of road service-tests, made on stock cars driven by their usual drivers when using fuel of specified grades, to determine the effect of any changes in the fuel volatility on the gasoline mileage for the respective make of car, as part of a general research program undertaken jointly by the automotive and the petroleum industries. The object was to determine the best fuel as regards volatility, from the general economic standpoint, and what grade of fuel would afford the maximum car-mileage per barrel of crude oil consumed. Factors influencing the selection of cars used are enumerated and the fuels tested are discussed, together with general comment and a description of the test procedure. The results are tabulated and commented upon at some length, inclusive of descriptions of the methods. A summary of the results is presented in the form of conclusions that are stated in four specific divisions.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230003
STEPHEN M LEE, STANWOOD W SPARROW
This Annual Meeting paper is concerned with certain of the methods used and results obtained in two investigations of fuels for high-compression aviation engines. The fuels in question are benzol and ethyl alcohol, either alone or as blended with gasoline. The necessity of mixture-ratio runs in fuel investigations is vigorously emphasized. In that the tendencies of a fuel to detonate or preignite limit the conditions under which it may be used, methods of estimating these characteristics are discussed. Also a graphical representation has been made to illustrate the relation between compression pressure, compression-ratio, volumetric efficiency and indicated power in order that, with a given engine, the effect on detonation of changing engine conditions may be estimated. Results characterizing the performance of the different fuels are mentioned and particular attention is directed to cases where these results are in contrast with current opinion.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230004
THOMAS MIDGLEY, ROBERT JANEWAY
The authors present in this paper an explanation of gaseous detonation based upon what are considered incontrovertible laws, and show by the functioning of these well understood natural laws that gaseous detonation is a phenomenon that does not require any hypothetical assumptions to account for its existence. The physical conditions that must exist within an enclosed container when it is filled with an explosive mixture of gases and these gases are ignited are stated and analyzed mathematically, and an application of this analysis is made to the internal-combustion engine. The apparatus and the procedure are described inclusive of photographs and charts, and it is shown how the formulas can be applied (a) for constant throttle, by varying the temperature of the entering charge and (b) for constant temperature, by varying the throttle opening and the compression-ratio. The results are illustrated and discussed in some detail.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230005
THOMAS MIDGLEY, ROBERT JANEWAY
In the case of the internal-combustion engine, where virtually every separate portion of explosive mixture behaves differently, the usual thermodynamic interpretations of the pressure-volume indicator-card, as applied to steam engineering, have little value. In internal combustion, the pressure-volume diagram is of value only as an expression for the product of the force exerted upon the piston-top times the distance through which the piston moves. The paper (Indiana Section) begins with the fundamental phenomena and develops from them a diagram such that each fuel-mixture particle can be properly exposed for analysis during the process of combustion. This is termed the pressure-volume-quantity card, and it is described in detail and illustrated. An extended consideration of its surfaces follows, inclusive of mathematical analysis.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230006
R E CARLSON
The paper is a report covering an investigation made by the Bureau of Standards to secure data that can be used as a basis for estimating the effect of a change in gasoline volatility on the fuel consumption of cars now in service throughout the United States. Actual tests began in August, 1922, to determine the effect of four fuels of different characteristics on the number of car-miles obtainable per gallon of fuel, as well as on crankcase-oil dilution. Descriptions are given of the fuels used, the test-cars, the apparatus, the tests and the test methods, inclusive of the crankcase-oil dilution investigation, voluminous tabular data accompanying the text. Table 12 gives a summary of the results and these are discussed briefly. The program for a proposed similar investigation under low-temperature conditions is outlined.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230007
J H HOLLOWAY, H. A. HUEBOTTER, G A YOUNG
This Annual Meeting paper is a report of a series of tests conducted during the summer of 1922 by the authors at the Engineering Experiment Station of Purdue University. The work consisted of research into the operation of internal-combustion engines under comparatively high compression on ordinary gasoline without detonation. The compression-ratio of the engine was 6.75 and the compression pressure was 122 lb. per sq. in., gage. The ingoing charge was passed through a hot-spot vaporizer and thence through a cooler between the carbureter and the valves. Jacket-water temperatures between 150 and 170 deg. fahr. were carried at the outlet port of the jacket. The theory held by the authors as to the causes of detonation of the combustible charge is presented briefly. The source of the two phases of detonation encountered in this work is believed to be overheated areas in the combustion-chamber.