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Viewing 109951 to 109980 of 110607
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220028
Merrill C Horine
The author states that motor transport today is threatened with arrested progress due to the lack of economic coordination between motor-vehicle operation, highway construction and legislative regulation. Highways constructed at considerable cost to the public have gone to pieces in many places, sometimes years before their bond issues have matured. Efforts to preserve these roads have been confined principally to heavy taxation and restriction of motor transport; they have not been made upon a sound economic basis, largely because principles of highway-transport economics are not only imperfectly understood, but have hardly been studied sufficiently to provide any definite basis of understanding.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220027
A C GODWARD
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220025
H C BUFFINGTON
The Chicago Service Meeting paper relates specifically to the type of garage equipment that is used to handle the motor vehicle in preparation for its repair. The devices illustrated and described are those designed to bring in disabled cars, and include wrecking cranes and supplementary axle trucks; portable cranes and jacks on casters for handling cars in a garage; presses, tire-changing equipment and wheel alignment devices; engine and axle stands; and miscellaneous minor apparatus. The different factors mentioned emphasize the great need of standardization. The thought is not to do away with a car's individuality, but to construct all parts so that cars may have efficient service to the highest degree through the agency of every serviceman.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220026
C M MANLY, C B VEAL
Specifying the four general plans that have been followed by chassis builders in securing body equipment as being the building of bodies in their own shops; on contract by the body maker to plans and specifications of the chassis builder; by a local body maker to the order of the dealer or the owner; and the assembling from stock of standard sectional units recommended by the dealer or selected by the owner, the authors discuss each of these plans in detail. With regard to the plan of using standardized sectional bodies, the different sizes of chassis used for commercial purposes are separated into four specified groups and the production of a complete standard line including a number of styles of body for each chassis is commented upon and illustrated, inclusive of detailed considerations of the all-metal body.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220061
R W DANIELS
The author gives a short history and general description of duralumin and quotes the Navy specification of its physical properties as drawn by the Naval Aircraft Factory. The manufacture of duralumin is described and commented upon, inclusive of an enumeration of the improvement in physical properties produced at each stage. The physical properties are stated for annealed, heat-treated and hard-rolled duralumin, and some of the possible automotive applications are suggested, inclusive of wormwheels, hearings, gears, connecting-rods, rims and wheel parts and chassis and body trimming. A report by the research department of the Fifth Avenue Coach Co. on the results of a test it made on duralumin wormwheels is included and the author details the advantages he claims as being attendant upon the use of duralumin.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220062
E KARL WENNERLUND
The author states that the purpose of every plan of wage incentive is to stimulate the worker to a greater effort than is generally obtained on a straight day's-work basis; to reward him somewhat in proportion to his effort; and to gain other advantages such as greater attention to conditions that curtail production, more uniform labor costs and the elimination of inefficient employes. He states further that nearly all industries engaged in repetitive work are now on an incentive basis. After outlining the most successful wage-incentive plans and enumerating some of the conditions that must be met, inclusive of four specific fundamental principles of industry that are stated, the group-bonus plan is explained and the application of group standard-time is discussed at some length, supplemented by tabular data. Experience with grouping is then related and conditions favorable to grouping are mentioned.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220063
GEORGE E A HALLETT
The general method of procedure taken by the Air Service before beginning the actual design and construction of the necessary types of aircraft engine is outlined and the four steps of the development subsequent to a very complete study of existing domestic and foreign engines are stated. After checking over the layouts, if all the details are agreed upon by both the designer and the Engineering Division, the contract is placed, usually for two experimental engines, and the construction work is begun. Acceptance tests are made to demonstrate that the engine is capable of running at normal speed and firing on all cylinders. These are followed by the standard performance test made on the dynamometer at McCook Field. The results of the latter test determine whether the engine can enter the 50-hr. endurance test. The engine is then torn-down and inspected for wear. Suggested modifications are embodied in reconstructed engines which eventually fulfill the requirements.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220064
Edward P Warner
Aerodynamic analysis relates mainly to questions of performance and stability, the latter including both maneuverability and control, but the designer's problems concern chiefly the prediction of the best possible performance. Accurate analysis, which would include a summation of the elemental resistances of an aircraft part by part and the making of many corrections, supplemented by tests of models in a wind-tunnel, involves much labor and expense. When a preliminary choice of dimensions and specifications for a new type of an airplane is to be made or there is a question of the performance attainable with a given load and power, a shorter method becomes necessary. This is to be found in the derivation of simplified formulas and graphs.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220065
C N MONTEITH
The author presents, in outline only, the various features of airplane-development investigation that have been prosecuted. After mentioning the principal types of airplane designed and built shortly before the armistice and the types in service on the battle front at that time, four specific requirements for increasing the speed, the rate of climb and the ability to reach great altitudes are enumerated and commented upon, the further statement being made that an increase in performance can result from any one or from a combination of all four. Remarks upon design features are interspersed with the discussion of performance improvements, brief explanations being given of the variable-area and the variable-camber-wing schemes, the idea of having a thick wing-section with trailing and leading edges hinged, and that of modifying the wing-section by making the leading edge a small detachable airfoil that can be shifted.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220066
E H SHAUGHNESSY
The author outlines the history of the Air-Mail Service and states that the recent policy has been to carry out the intent of the Congress, to align the service with the desire of the administration for economy and to discontinue too rapid expansion. After a description of the routes and divisions and a listing of the present landing-fields and radio stations, the present equipment is outlined and commented upon, tabular and statistical data being presented. The discussion covers the organization and performance of the service, the casualties, the cost of operation and the policy governing future plans.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220046
E H LOCKWOOD
Metropolitan-New England Sections Paper - The loss of power due to the friction of the various parts of the chassis has been carefully and elaborately investigated by a dynamometer, the dual purpose being the determination of the amount of internal frictional resistance of the front or rear wheels and the measurement of the power that can be delivered at the rear wheels with the concomitant rate of fuel consumption. The rolling-friction due to the resistance of the wheels as a whole is taken up first and afterward the separate resistances of the tires, bearings and transmission are studied under varying conditions of inflation-pressure and load. The five frictional resistances that were chosen as giving the most useful information are those of the front tires, the rear tires, the front bearings, the rear bearings and the engine.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220045
H G FARWELL
The author describes the major features of brake and clutch practice that he observed in 1920 while traveling in England, Belgium, Italy and France, comparing them briefly with American practice of the same period. He analyzes the types of brake and clutch used on 165 cars exhibited at the London automobile show of that year, giving the percentage of the different types in evidence. Numerous illustrations that are described and commented upon in greater or less detail appear in the paper and in the discussion which followed it, these being inclusive of most of the best-known types of brake and clutch in use in the United States and in Europe.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220048
F O ELLENWOOD
After pointing out that the operating temperature is a vital factor in the life of a pneumatic truck-tire, the author outlines an investigation that was conducted at the plant of the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. This sought to determine (a) the best means of measing tire temperatures; (b) the temperature effect of inflation-pressure, load, long runs, frequency of stops, and the sizes of the rim and the tire; (c) the temperature of various designs of tire; and (d) some suitable means of reducing large-tire temperatures. The main reason for the rise in the temperature of a tire is stated to be the generation of heat resulting from rapid flexing; and the various factors having to do with this generation of heat and its dissipation to the atmosphere are listed. The laboratory testing-machine and the methods and apparatus employed to measure the temperatures are described.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220047
H M Crane
The author indicates what the history of spring-suspension has been but discusses only the conventional type of four-wheeled design in which the front wheels are used for steering and the rear wheels for driving and braking. The problem of front-axle spring-suspension is mentioned, but that of proper rear-axle spring-suspension, especially for passenger cars, is discussed in detail because it is a much more difficult one. The advantages of the Hotchkiss drive for shaft-driven cars and some of its distinct disadvantages are stated, shaft-driven, rear-axle mountings being commented upon in explaining the factors that influenced the design of the spring-suspension device developed by the author. The advantageous features of this device are enumerated, inclusive of the effects of tire reactions.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220050
R E PLIMPTON
The author enumerates the distinctive features of buses designed for city, for inter-city and for country service and comments upon them, presenting illustrations of these types of bus. Steam and electric motive power are discussed and the chassis components for bus service are considered in some detail. The general types of bus body are treated, together with the influences of climatic conditions and local preferences. Comfort and convenience factors are discussed at some length and the problems of heating, lighting and ventilation are given constructive attention. Fare-collection devices and methods are commented upon, and the State and local legal regulations are referred to in connection with their effect upon bus operation. Illustrations are included and a table showing condensed specifications for city buses is presented.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220049
G A Green
In the paper an attempt is made to answer the broader phases of the questions: What constitutes a bus? and In what respects does a bus differ from other classes of automotive equipment? by establishing the principles on which the design and operation of motorbuses should be based. The treatment of the subject is in the main impersonal, although specific references to the practice of the Fifth Avenue Coach Co. and illustrations of its equipment are made to emphasize the points brought out. The questions of the unwisdom of overloading, rates of fare and the service requirements are discussed briefly as a preface to the paper proper. The factors controlling bus design are stated to be (a) safety, (b) comfort and convenience of the public and (c) minimum operating cost. The various subdivisions of each are commented on in some detail, and numerous illustrations and tabular data supplement the text.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220052
W L BEAN
The rail motor-cars now used by the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad are illustrated and commented upon, and statistical data regarding their operation are presented. The features mentioned include engine type and size, transmission system, gear-ratio, double end-control, engine cooling, heating by utilizing exhaust gases and exclusion of exhaust-gas fumes from the car interior. A table gives revenue data.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220051
CORNELIUS T MYERS
After pointing out that the publication of articles in the trade and technical journals, to the effect that very considerable weight-reductions in motor-truck construction with consequent savings in gasoline and tires are possible, works an injustice to the motor-truck industry and is misleading, the author outlines some of the reasons why such weight-reductions are very difficult to effect, as well as the possibilities of standardizing axle details. The use of aluminum to effect weight-reduction is commented upon and the various advantages claimed for metal wheels are mentioned. In the latter connection the author points out that, while these claims may be true, they are unsupported by reliable data. The greater part of the paper is devoted to an account of a series of tests conducted by a large coal company to determine the relative merits of wood and metal wheels on its trucks.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220054
CHARLES O GUERNSEY
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220053
L G PLANT
The many improvements effected in gasoline-engine construction during the war for airplane, heavy truck, tractor and tank usage have done much toward making the gasoline-driven rail motor-car a practical possibility today. The gasoline-electric cars built by the General Electric Co. are mentioned and light rail motor-car construction is discussed in general terms. Reliability and low maintenance cost are commented upon briefly, and the requirements of service for rail motor-cars are outlined.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220056
K L HERRMANN
The different gear noises are classified under the names of knock, rattle, growl, hum and sing, and these are discussed at some length, examples of defects that cause noise being given and a device for checking tooth spacing being illustrated and described. An instrument for analyzing tooth-forms that produce these different noises is illustrated and described. Causes of the errors in gears may be in the hardening process, in the cutting machines or in the cutters. A hobbing machine is used as an example and its possibilities for error are commented upon. Tooth-forms are illustrated and treated briefly, and the hardening of gears and the grinding of gear-tooth forms are given similar attention.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220058
JAMES A FORD
The process devised by the author was evolved to eliminate the difficulties incident to the finishing of the spline and body portions of a spline shaft, such as is used in transmission gearing, by grinding after the shaft has been hardened, and is the result of a series of experiments. The accuracy of the finished shaft was the primary consideration and three other groups of important considerations are stated, as well as four specific difficulties that were expected to appear upon departure from former practice. Illustrations are presented to show the tools used, and the method of using them is commented upon step by step. The shaft can be straightened to within 0.005 in. per ft. of being out of parallel with the true axis of the shaft, after the shaft has been hardened, and it is then re-centered true with the spline portion.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220055
H J CRAIN, J BRODIE
While investigating the sources and causes of noise in automobiles during an extensive connection with one of the largest automobile companies, the authors recorded their experiences in the shop in the form of notes. Some of these are offered with a view to stimulating the discussion of the subject and with the hope that additional information will be brought out by an exchange of ideas, particularly on the problem of eliminating gear-noises. In many cases they found that noise was caused by failure to allow sufficient clearance for an adequate oil-film. And it was noted frequently that when one noise had been located and silenced another appeared that had not been apparent before. The topics that have been considered include the running-in of brake-bands, engine knocks, oil-pump gear-noise and that of gears in general, the clearances of ball bearings, backlash, and rear-axle bevel-gears.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220060
H A SCHWARTZ, W W FLAGLE
Cleveland Section paper - After commenting upon the two contradictory attitudes toward malleable iron in the automotive industry and outlining its history briefly, the authors discuss the differences between malleable and ordinary gray-iron and supplement this with a description of the heat-treating of malleable castings. Five factors that influence the machining properties of malleable-iron are stated. These were investigated in tests made with drills having variable characteristics that were governed by six specified general factors. Charts of the results are presented and commented upon in some detail, inclusive of empirical formulas and constants and deductions made therefrom.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220057
A J BAKER
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220059
P E HAGLUND, I B SCOFIELD
The authors state the principles governing intensive quantity-production and describe the sources and methods of handling the basic materials that compose the Ford engine-cylinder. The fundamental plan of the River Rouge plant is outlined, illustrations being used to supplement the text that explains the reasons governing the location of the various units of the plant. Details are given of the use made of conveyors with the idea of keeping everything moving. The relation of the blast furnace and coke ovens to the engine cylinder are commented upon, the powerhouse and foundry are described, and the production of the cylinder is set forth step by step.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210010
CHARLES A. HEERGEIST
Automobile body building derives its origin from carriage body building, which was highly developed before automobiles were thought of. The introduction of automobile bodies fitted to a metal frame changed body builders' rules and calculations. The influence of the metal frame is discussed briefly and the limiting sizes of body members are considered also. According to the ideas expressed, the weight of bodies can be reduced if the metal frame is designed so as to support the weight of the passengers and the body. The dead-weight also can be reduced if the frame is built in proportion to the amount of weight carried, the number of passengers and the style of bodies being considered. But in the construction of enclosed bodies, as in sedans, coaches and broughams, very little weight can be saved if stability, durability and lasting quality are to be retained.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210011
FRANK A HOWARD
After stating that the meaning of the term “gasoline” seems to be generally misunderstood for the reason that it has been assumed that gasoline is, or ought to be, the name of a specific product, the author states that it is not and never has been a specific product and that although gasoline has a definite and generic meaning in the oil trade it has no specific meaning whatever. It means merely a light distillate from crude petroleum. Its degree of lightness, from what petroleum it is distilled and how it is distilled or refined are unspecified. Specifically, “gasoline” is the particular grade of gasoline which at a given moment is distributed in bulk at retail. It can be defined with reasonable precision as being the cheapest petroleum product acceptable for universal use as a fuel in the prevailing type of internal-combustion engine.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210012
C F KETTERING
Two distinct problems are involved in fuel research work, multi-cylinder distribution and the chemical constitution of the fuel mixture after it enters an engine cylinder. In discussing elementary combustion, the author refers to the components of the energy of combustion as gravitational, kinetic and barometric, and elaborates his theme with the aid of diagrams and charts showing normal and abnormal combustion. After emphasizing the necessity of theorizing at some length, anti-knock substances are discussed, inclusive of substances apparently dissimilar that have the same chemical constituents. The ignition point and fuel utilization are treated, followed by comments upon fuel studies that have been made, with accompanying indicator-cards. The future objectives of fuel research are outlined as being along lines of physical and of thermo-chemistry, the simple laws of elementary physics, and cooperation with the producers and refiners of the fuel.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210033
OSCAR W. SJOGREN
Before taking up the results of the tests, the author states briefly the provisions of the Nebraska tractor law, the kind of tests conducted and the equipment used. Applications covering 103 different tractors were received during the season; of the 68 that appeared for test, 39 went through without making any changes and 29 made changes. The results of the tests are described and illustrated by charts. The fuel consumption was studied from the three different angles of volumetric displacement, engine speed and the diameter of the cylinders, the tractors being classified accordingly and the results presented in charts which are analyzed. The weaknesses of the tractor as shown by the tests are commented upon at some length with a view to improvement of the product.