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Viewing 109951 to 109980 of 110627
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220040
P M HELDT
The gradual trend toward overhead valves in automobile engines, as indicated by an increase in their use on American cars from 6 per cent in 1914 to 31 per cent in 1922, has been accelerated, in the opinion of the author, by their successful application to aircraft engines and by the publicity given them by their almost universal adoption on racing machines. Tractor engines recently brought out show the advantage of this construction.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220037
C T COLEMAN
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220043
JOHN MAGEE
The author believes the piston-ring problem to be an engineering one worthy of serious study and that it should be possible to standardize types and sizes in a way that will go far toward elminating present difficulties. It is stated that cast iron is the only satisfactory metal suitable for use in the internal-combustion engine and that the foundry offers the greatest opportunity for improvement, in the elimination of poor castings. The superiority of individually cast rings is averred and a formula for their composition is given. Leakage and oil-pumping are discussed, followed by comment upon the width and form most desirable for piston-rings; and some of the difficulties of their manufacture are enumerated, together with suggested improvements, inclusive of inspection and testing methods.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220044
L H POMEROY
After pointing out that the general question of weight reduction is no exception to the fallacies that seem to have beset the development of the automobile from its earliest days, the author outlines briefly the problem confronting the automobile designer. The influence of the weight of the reciprocating parts on the chassis in general and the engine in particular is emphasized as being of greater importance than the actual saving in the weight of the parts themselves, it being brought out that the bearing loading due to inertia is really the factor that limits the maximum engine speed. Reference is made to the mathematical investigation by Lanchester in 1907 of the advantages of using materials of high specific-strength and the conclusions arrived at are quoted in full. A tabulation of the specific strengths of various materials used in automotive engineering practice is presented as showing the advantages of aluminum as compared with steel.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220041
CHESTER S RICKER, JOHN C MOORE
The authors present and discuss the results obtained from combined road and laboratory tests made to determine the amount of power required to maintain a given car speed. The specifications of the car and its engine are stated and the variable-ratio rocker-arm of the engine is illustrated and its advantages explained, together with those of the valve-timing. The subject of manifold gas-velocity is treated in some detail, inclusive of a diagram showing the hot-spot or vaporizing device that was used. The test data are reduced to curve form, eight charts being shown. The curves include those for brake horsepower, indicated horsepower, comparative performance, performance at different throttle-openings and at different loads, fuel consumption and indicated thermal efficiencies.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220042
FERDINAND JEHLE, FRANK JARDINE
The lightness and high thermal conductivity of aluminum pistons are conceded and the paper deals principally with their thermal properties, inclusive of the actual operating temperature of the pistons, the temperature distributions in the piston and the effects of the cooling-water temperature and the piston material on the piston temperature. The apparatus is illustrated and described, and charts are presented and commented upon in connection with a discussion of the results obtained. Theories affecting piston design are presented and discussed, reference being made to diagrams relating to design procedure: The work is supplementary to that done in 1921 by the authors, which they presented in a similar paper to which they refer.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220016
GEORGE E GODDARD
The dimensions of automobile-body seats receive consideration with regard to the features that are conducive to comfort. A diagram is presented upon which the dimensions treated are indicated, and a tabulation of seat dimensions of 12 representative cars is included. Comments are made upon the factors influencing seat dimensions, as well as recommendations regarding the different desirable dimensions. The considerations are inclusive of cushion height, depth and slope, leg-room and head-room, upholstery shape and softness of trimming, foot-rest and other control-element locations, factors influencing entrance and egress provisions, seat widths and advisable front and rear-compartment heights. The author recommends the standardization of a range of locations for the different control elements.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220014
S VON AMMON
As a result of the general policy of the Motor Transport Corps to standardize the materials used for automotive vehicles for Army Service, in cooperation with the Bureau of Standards, the Society of Automotive Engineers and the automotive industry, the Bureau of Standards has been engaged for some time in developing a standard method for testing brake-linings. While the work is not complete, much information has been gained. This paper reports the progress of the work. The equipment developed and the methods used for both main and supplementary tests are described. Information is given regarding the coefficient of friction, as influenced by various factors. The endurance test, showing the comparative behavior of linings under conditions similar to those of severe service, is believed to be satisfactory as developed. Further work is necessary before recommending the conditions for the other test, intended to determine the relative endurance under ordinary or light service.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220015
J EDWARD SCHIPPER
Stating that the problem of deceleration is just as important and necessary of solution as is the one of providing car-acceleration ability, the author gives a comprehensive survey of present braking practice and outlines future requirements and possibilities. Design factors are considered at length, as well as the subject of what constitutes uniform and effective braking-power, various illustrations and descriptions being included of different types of brake. Brake-actuating means, the calculation of brake-drum size, car-stoppage ability, brake equalizers and brake-linings are commented upon in some detail. The future of brakes is discussed with reference to the use of the engine as a brake, four-wheel and front-wheel brakes, the servo principle of brake operation and various novel braking methods. A brief summary of what is considered good practice with regard to truck brakes is appended.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220013
CHARLES L LAWRANCE
The development of air-cooled engines for aircraft never made much progress until the war, when the British attempted to improve the performance of existing engines by a series of experiments leading eventually to the development of aluminum cylinders with steel liners and aluminum cylinder-heads with a steel cylinder screwed into the head. The advantages of these constructions and the disadvantages of other types are discussed. Results are reported of tests at McCook Field on a modern cylinder-design of this type showing good results, that lead to the belief that large air-cooled engines will be produced in the near future, equal in performance to water-cooled engines of the same power.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220020
ENRIQUE TOUCEDA
Annual Meeting Paper - Addressing the structural engineer and the purchasing agent particularly, the author discusses the relationship between them and the foundryman with regard to malleable-iron castings and enumerates foundry difficulties. The characteristics necessitating adequate gating for such castings are described and illustrated, inclusive of considerations regarding pattern design, followed by a statement of the considerations that should influence the purchasing agent when dealing with foundrymen. Possible casting defects are described, illustrated and discussed, comment being made upon casting shrinkage and machinability. Improvements in annealing-oven construction and operation are reviewed and the records of 100 consecutive heats in different plants are tabulated. The materials for casting that compete with malleable iron are mentioned and its physical characteristics are considered in some detail.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220019
J H NELSON
The author discusses drop-forging practice from the standpoint of the materials used, and strongly advocates a more rigid inspection and testing of raw materials to determine their fitness for use in making automotive forgings. Seven specific possibilities of actual difference between drop-forgings that are apparently identical are stated, the requirements of the inspection of raw stock are commented upon, and the heat-treatment and testing of finished forgings are considered at some length. Tabular data of the chemical analyses and physical properties of 107 different heats of carbon-steel used recently are presented and show a variation in drawing temperatures of 140 deg. fahr. in steels of practically the same chemical composition to meet the same physical-property specification, based on more than 1000 tests on this grade of steel taken from production stock. The concluding summary has five specific divisions.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220018
G DOUGLAS JONES
Stating that the trend of tractor development must be toward the small tractor that is capable of handling all of the power work on a farm, the author quotes farm and crop-acreage statistics and outlines diversified farming requirements, inclusive of row-crop cultivation. Tractor requirements are stated to be for a sturdy compact design to meet the demands of the diversified farm, which include plowing, seeding, cultivating, hauling and belt-power usage, and these requirements are commented upon in general terms. Consideration is given to farm implements in connection with tractor operation, and the placing of cultivating implements ahead of the tractor is advocated.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220017
O B ZIMMERMAN, T G SEWALL
The authors enumerate some of the questions that are involved and, after outlining a previous paper on the subject of plows, analyze these questions in part by the aid of diagrams and applied mathematics. Comparative draft data are presented in tabular form and commented upon, as well as comparative hitch-length data. Tractor reactions are explained and discussed in some detail in a similar manner, special attention being given to the reactions on a slope and up-hill. The reactions on cross-furrow slopes are considered, comparisons being made between two tractors that were reported upon in the University of Nebraska tests. The factors involving tractor stability and resistance against overturn are analyzed. The authors state that the analysis presents a definite method of attack for the more correct solution of the proper hitching-point, as well as being a study relating to lug design.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220024
B M IKERT
After generalizing on the need for greater consideration in automobile design for service and maintenance requirements, the author discusses the accessibility of car parts at some length with the idea of pointing out difficulties encountered by service-station mechanics when parts are inaccessible, this having a bearing also on the length of time required for repair work and the consequent increased cost to the car owner. Specific instances are given and illustrated in which improvements in design could be made to obviate trouble. These are inclusive of cylinders, cylinder blocks, pistons, bolts, cap-screws, nuts, valves, dashboard instruments and general take-up adjustment. Special emphasis is placed upon certain inaccessible parts that necessitate excessive dismantling.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220023
L Valentine Pulsifer
Dividing the ability of an automobile finish to remain new into the elements of proper quality of the materials, engineering of application systems, methods of application and care of the finish, the author states that the responsibility for them rests jointly upon the manufacturer of the varnishes and paints, the builder of the automobile and the owner of the finished product. Five basic materials that are necessary in automobile painting are specified and discussed. Engineering systems of application and the actual methods of application are treated in some detail, inclusive of drying, and of surfacing or rubbing. The care of the finish is important and the precautions necessary in this regard are outlined. The paper deals with the application and not the manufacture of the different varnishes and paints that are mentioned.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220022
C N. DAWE
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220021
G R NORTON
The process of continuous die-rolling and the products possible with this method of manufacture are described and illustrated. The improvements that have been made were the result of efforts to produce more complicated sections by this process, with greater accuracy, and these are discussed at some length. The physical characteristics of steel that must be considered are commented upon and forming that is effected in one pass is described, consideration being given the requirements of rolled forging blanks. The cost of operation is treated and the equipment used is discussed, showing how this process differs from other methods of making the same things, as to both the operations necessary and the character of the product.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220028
Merrill C Horine
The author states that motor transport today is threatened with arrested progress due to the lack of economic coordination between motor-vehicle operation, highway construction and legislative regulation. Highways constructed at considerable cost to the public have gone to pieces in many places, sometimes years before their bond issues have matured. Efforts to preserve these roads have been confined principally to heavy taxation and restriction of motor transport; they have not been made upon a sound economic basis, largely because principles of highway-transport economics are not only imperfectly understood, but have hardly been studied sufficiently to provide any definite basis of understanding.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220027
A C GODWARD
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220025
H C BUFFINGTON
The Chicago Service Meeting paper relates specifically to the type of garage equipment that is used to handle the motor vehicle in preparation for its repair. The devices illustrated and described are those designed to bring in disabled cars, and include wrecking cranes and supplementary axle trucks; portable cranes and jacks on casters for handling cars in a garage; presses, tire-changing equipment and wheel alignment devices; engine and axle stands; and miscellaneous minor apparatus. The different factors mentioned emphasize the great need of standardization. The thought is not to do away with a car's individuality, but to construct all parts so that cars may have efficient service to the highest degree through the agency of every serviceman.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220026
C M MANLY, C B VEAL
Specifying the four general plans that have been followed by chassis builders in securing body equipment as being the building of bodies in their own shops; on contract by the body maker to plans and specifications of the chassis builder; by a local body maker to the order of the dealer or the owner; and the assembling from stock of standard sectional units recommended by the dealer or selected by the owner, the authors discuss each of these plans in detail. With regard to the plan of using standardized sectional bodies, the different sizes of chassis used for commercial purposes are separated into four specified groups and the production of a complete standard line including a number of styles of body for each chassis is commented upon and illustrated, inclusive of detailed considerations of the all-metal body.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220061
R W DANIELS
The author gives a short history and general description of duralumin and quotes the Navy specification of its physical properties as drawn by the Naval Aircraft Factory. The manufacture of duralumin is described and commented upon, inclusive of an enumeration of the improvement in physical properties produced at each stage. The physical properties are stated for annealed, heat-treated and hard-rolled duralumin, and some of the possible automotive applications are suggested, inclusive of wormwheels, hearings, gears, connecting-rods, rims and wheel parts and chassis and body trimming. A report by the research department of the Fifth Avenue Coach Co. on the results of a test it made on duralumin wormwheels is included and the author details the advantages he claims as being attendant upon the use of duralumin.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220062
E KARL WENNERLUND
The author states that the purpose of every plan of wage incentive is to stimulate the worker to a greater effort than is generally obtained on a straight day's-work basis; to reward him somewhat in proportion to his effort; and to gain other advantages such as greater attention to conditions that curtail production, more uniform labor costs and the elimination of inefficient employes. He states further that nearly all industries engaged in repetitive work are now on an incentive basis. After outlining the most successful wage-incentive plans and enumerating some of the conditions that must be met, inclusive of four specific fundamental principles of industry that are stated, the group-bonus plan is explained and the application of group standard-time is discussed at some length, supplemented by tabular data. Experience with grouping is then related and conditions favorable to grouping are mentioned.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220063
GEORGE E A HALLETT
The general method of procedure taken by the Air Service before beginning the actual design and construction of the necessary types of aircraft engine is outlined and the four steps of the development subsequent to a very complete study of existing domestic and foreign engines are stated. After checking over the layouts, if all the details are agreed upon by both the designer and the Engineering Division, the contract is placed, usually for two experimental engines, and the construction work is begun. Acceptance tests are made to demonstrate that the engine is capable of running at normal speed and firing on all cylinders. These are followed by the standard performance test made on the dynamometer at McCook Field. The results of the latter test determine whether the engine can enter the 50-hr. endurance test. The engine is then torn-down and inspected for wear. Suggested modifications are embodied in reconstructed engines which eventually fulfill the requirements.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220064
Edward P Warner
Aerodynamic analysis relates mainly to questions of performance and stability, the latter including both maneuverability and control, but the designer's problems concern chiefly the prediction of the best possible performance. Accurate analysis, which would include a summation of the elemental resistances of an aircraft part by part and the making of many corrections, supplemented by tests of models in a wind-tunnel, involves much labor and expense. When a preliminary choice of dimensions and specifications for a new type of an airplane is to be made or there is a question of the performance attainable with a given load and power, a shorter method becomes necessary. This is to be found in the derivation of simplified formulas and graphs.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220065
C N MONTEITH
The author presents, in outline only, the various features of airplane-development investigation that have been prosecuted. After mentioning the principal types of airplane designed and built shortly before the armistice and the types in service on the battle front at that time, four specific requirements for increasing the speed, the rate of climb and the ability to reach great altitudes are enumerated and commented upon, the further statement being made that an increase in performance can result from any one or from a combination of all four. Remarks upon design features are interspersed with the discussion of performance improvements, brief explanations being given of the variable-area and the variable-camber-wing schemes, the idea of having a thick wing-section with trailing and leading edges hinged, and that of modifying the wing-section by making the leading edge a small detachable airfoil that can be shifted.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220066
E H SHAUGHNESSY
The author outlines the history of the Air-Mail Service and states that the recent policy has been to carry out the intent of the Congress, to align the service with the desire of the administration for economy and to discontinue too rapid expansion. After a description of the routes and divisions and a listing of the present landing-fields and radio stations, the present equipment is outlined and commented upon, tabular and statistical data being presented. The discussion covers the organization and performance of the service, the casualties, the cost of operation and the policy governing future plans.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220046
E H LOCKWOOD
Metropolitan-New England Sections Paper - The loss of power due to the friction of the various parts of the chassis has been carefully and elaborately investigated by a dynamometer, the dual purpose being the determination of the amount of internal frictional resistance of the front or rear wheels and the measurement of the power that can be delivered at the rear wheels with the concomitant rate of fuel consumption. The rolling-friction due to the resistance of the wheels as a whole is taken up first and afterward the separate resistances of the tires, bearings and transmission are studied under varying conditions of inflation-pressure and load. The five frictional resistances that were chosen as giving the most useful information are those of the front tires, the rear tires, the front bearings, the rear bearings and the engine.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220045
H G FARWELL
The author describes the major features of brake and clutch practice that he observed in 1920 while traveling in England, Belgium, Italy and France, comparing them briefly with American practice of the same period. He analyzes the types of brake and clutch used on 165 cars exhibited at the London automobile show of that year, giving the percentage of the different types in evidence. Numerous illustrations that are described and commented upon in greater or less detail appear in the paper and in the discussion which followed it, these being inclusive of most of the best-known types of brake and clutch in use in the United States and in Europe.