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Viewing 110071 to 110100 of 110593
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200071
GEORGE E A HALLETT
Ignition is discussed in a broad and non-technical way. The definition of the word ignition should be broad enough to include the complete functioning of the ignition apparatus, beginning from the point where mechanical energy is absorbed to generate current and ending with the completion of the working stroke of the engine. The ignition system includes the mechanical drive to the magneto or generator and the task imposed on the system is by no means completed when a spark has passed over the gap of the spark-plug. Ignition means the complete burning of the charge of gas in the cylinder at top dead-center, at the time the working stroke of the piston commences. The means employed to accomplish this result is the ignition system. In the present-day type of gasoline engine a spark produced by high-voltage electricity is almost universally used for ignition. This high-voltage electricity is produced by a transformer.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200063
J H HUNT
A brief outline of the elementary principles of the operation of jump-spark ignition systems is given preliminarily to the discussion of the advantages of battery-type systems, and four vital elements in a jump-spark ignition system are stated. A diagram is shown and explained of an hydraulic analogy, followed by a discussion of oscillating voltage and oscillograms of what occurs in the primary circuit of an ignition system when the secondary is disconnected. The subjects of spark-plug gaps and current values receive considerable attention and similar treatment is accorded magneto speeds and spark polarity, numerous oscillograms accompanying the text. The effects of magneto and of battery ignition on engine power are stated and commented upon and this is followed by a lengthy comparison of battery and magneto ignition, illustrated with charts.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200064
S VANCE LOVENSTEIN
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200065
A L PUTNAM
Although disc wheels have not been produced in such great quantities as some of the other types, they have advanced far enough in practical application to demonstrate their possibilities and fundamental correctness. Distinction should be made between the wheel itself, the single-taper dished disc and other features such as tire, rim and hub applications. Single-taper dished-disc wheels were developed in France and in this country at about the same time but, on account of the variation in European and American tire practice, the resultant wheels took different forms. The author describes these forms and comments upon them, the argument being favorable to the single-taper disc, and the statement is made that, given the data as to the service expected, the weight and power of the car, the single-disc wheel will compare favorably with any other type, since, when properly designed, the strains are diffused over the entire surface.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200066
M D SCOTT
These experiences relate to the Akron-Boston motor-truck express, established in April, 1917, the Wingfoot Highway Express between Akron and Cleveland which began active operations in January, 1919, and the Goodyear Heights motor omnibuses for passenger service in Akron inaugurated in December, 1917. The preliminary difficulties are reviewed and a mass of specific data regarding construction, operation, maintenance and costs is presented in textual and tabular form, the latter including a summary of pneumatic-tire accomplishment, comparative truck efficiency, an operating summary for six months, the operating cost and efficiency of two 3½-ton twin trucks running on pneumatic and on solid tires respectively, and an operative summary of the Goodyear Heights buses.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200067
C S WALKER
The early wheels merely rolled, carried weight and resisted side strains; later they were called upon to transmit braking forces and still later the driving force. Prior to the automobile, wire wheels were not called upon to support much weight and the usual type was that used for bicycles. When automobiles were first built, bicycle-type wire-wheels were employed and used until the demand for larger wheels presented unsurmountable obstacles. From that time a development was in progress in this country and in England that resulted in the triple-spoke wire-wheel which has grown in popularity since 1912. The different types of wheels are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of wire wheels stated; three diagrams are shown. As the wire wheel is a “suspension” wheel, the car weight is hung or “cradled” from scores of resilient, flexible spokes, and the pull is always on three-quarters of the spokes.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200068
ZAY JEFFRIES
Iron ranks first of all the metals; copper, lead and zinc come fairly close together in tonnage; tin ranks next; and aluminum is fifth of the non-ferrous metals. The place of aluminum in the automotive industry is shown in a diagram and another brings out the production of copper and aluminum, both receiving comment. The metallography of aluminum alloys is discussed in some detail, as well as the phenomena of growth and aging, charts and photomicrographs being shown and commented upon. The effect of alloying on physical properties is treated in a similar manner in considerable detail and a comparison of aluminum with other metals follows. Forging alloys are described and some miscellaneous aluminum-alloy forged parts are pictured. The advantages of forging alloys are enumerated and many of their present uses specified; other contemplated uses for the newest alloy are for cast disc-wheels for passenger cars, differential carriers and cast rear-axle housings.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200069
C F KETTERING
The automotive industry was considered a mechanical one until fuel difficulties caused a realization that the internal-combustion engine is only a piece of apparatus for the effective utilization of chemistry. The only great cloud on the horizon of the automotive industry today is the fuel problem, one way to dispel it being to increase the supply and the other to make the automotive device do what it has been designed to do. The author reviews the production of oil and of automotive apparatus, considers the available fuels and states the two distinct parts of the fuel problem as being first carburetion and distribution, external to the engine and one of purely physical relationship, and, second, the combustion of fuel inside the engine cylinder. The subjects of regulating combustion by additions to the fuel, the chemistry of fuels and the burning of heavy fuels are discussed at length.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200070
J F FOX
ABSRACT It has long been recognized that, in automotive engines, particularly those of six or more cylinders, excessive vibration is apt to occur despite all precautions taken in balancing; and that this is because the engine impulses coincide at certain speeds with the torsional period of the crankshaft, or rate at which it naturally twists and untwists about some point or points as nodes. Very serious vibration occurred in the main engines for the United States submarines S 4 to S 9, which are required to complete five specified non-stop shop tests and an investigation was made of which the author reports the findings in detail, illustrated with photographs and charts.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200055
V E LACY
The author states that the problems of inland waterway transportation are more a matter of public education than anything else and that, given the waterway on which suitable boats can be navigated, the problems of the vessels themselves and their methods of propulsion are by no means difficult. Referring to the New York State Barge Canal, the thought passes to the problem of motive power for canal barges. The author believes the internal-combustion engine in some form will be found eventually to be the most desirable, although at present little thought is being given to any power other than steam; the author discusses what form of this type of engine would be most suitable. Canal-barge engine requirements are considered at some length and the necessity of positive engine reversibility is emphasized, the conditions affecting this being outlined. The amount of power necessary for a canal barge is discussed, the governing factors being outlined.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200056
W E LAY
Two series of tests were made in 1918; one to determine whether the mixture giving best economy and that giving maximum power is a constant quality for all conditions of speed and power output; the other to ascertain what effect changes in the temperature of the fuel-intake system have on the quality of the mixture which gives the maximum power and that which gives best economy. The standard United States ambulance four-cylinder engine was used for these tests, its carbureter having a primary air passage, a primary fuel-jet, an auxiliary air passage with an air-valve and a secondary fuel-jet, the manifold being cast integrally with the cylinder block and a curved riser conducting the fuel mixture from the carbureter to it. The testing methods and fuel consumption measurements are described.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200057
R W LOHMAN
The paper relates to some of the methods and apparatus which can be used to advantage in large-scale farming operations. The laying out of a production program, the transportation of men and supplies, special implements for raw-land preparation, tractor dynamometers, large tractors, special plowing and tilling implements, four-wheel-drive tractors and road haulage are discussed. An operation chart applying to an area of 40,000 acres is first presented and analyzed. Regarding hours of operation, the author maintains that with a suitable organization and proper selection of motive power and implements, tractors can be kept in motion 20 hr. per day and gives a time-table. Consideration is then given in some detail to the problems of electric lighting, the implements used in raw-land preparation, the power required for various operations, types of tractor construction, plowing and harrowing, harvesting, hauling and tractor-train schedules, the whole being copiously illustrated.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200058
C A NORMAN
Design factors are considered from the thermodynamic standpoint only, which excludes several factors affecting power and economy. The problem of air heating includes a consideration of its influence on pressure, the consequent lowering of pressure being counteracted to some extent by the resulting improvements in carburetion and distribution and by more rapid and complete combustion; the effects of delayed combustion, with a study of the thermodynamic conditions and possible improvements; and the results that are actually obtainable from lean and rich fuel mixtures. Fuel economy is difficult because its factors conflict with those of power. The benefit of the expansion of any elastic working medium to economy is emphasized. Charts from previous papers, showing the ratio of air to fuel by weight, are referred to and discussed, best economy being obtained with mixtures leaner than those giving maximum power.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200059
E B SMITH
In investigating the forces that tend to break up and destroy roads, the most destructive of these being that of impact, the United States Bureau of Public Roads devised a method of receiving the impact of a truck on a small copper cylinder and determining its amount by measuring the deformation of the cylinder. The impact values are largely dependent upon the type and construction of the truck. Unsprung weights have a great influence upon the impact value of the blow on the road surface and a reverse influence upon the body of the truck; these effects are in two different directions. The present aim of the Bureau is to investigate this impact and the effect of the unsprung weight on the road. Most of the tests have been made on solid tires, a few have been made on worn solid tires and some on pneumatic tires. The Bureau intends to elaborate all of these tests, including different types of pneumatic tire, different unsprung weights and special wheels, such as cushion or spring wheels.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200060
P S TICE
From a laboratory examination of the controlling relationships between carburetion and engine performance still in progress, the general conclusions so far reached include fuel metering characteristics, the physical structure of the charge, fuel combustion factors and details of engine design and manufacture. In every throttle-controlled engine, the variation in fuel metering for best utilization is inversely functional with the relative loading and with the compression ratio, but the nature of the fuel leaves these general relationships undisturbed. The physical structure of the charge influences largely the net engine performance and the order of variation of the best metering with change in load. Perfect homogeneity in the charge is theoretically desirable but entails losses in performance.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200062
A D T Libby
A discussion of the advantages of magneto ignition resolves itself into a comparison of magneto and battery-ignition systems, resembling early discussions of the relative merits of the direct and the alternating-current electric systems; both are in existence and fulfilling their respective parts. After stating that ignition is closely related to carburetion and generalizing on the subject of ignition, the author discusses the fundamentals of ignition systems at length, presenting numerous diagrams, and passes to somewhat detailed consideration of comparative spark values, using illustrations. Storage batteries and auxiliary devices receive due attention next and numerous characteristic curves of battery and magneto ignition are shown. Impulse couplings are advantageous in starting large truck and tractor engines, which generally use magnetos; these are described.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200061
OLIVER B. ZIMMERMAN
The farm tractor is finding itself among the most essential of mechanical agricultural devices; the industry is young, and controlling basic factors of design are not yet completely crystallized, nor has research had its proper share in the development. Some further factors of the author's earlier article on tractor plowing speeds2 are discussed in this paper. The earlier article dealt chiefly with plowing data on the assumption that there was delivered at the drawbar of the tractor a constant horsepower. This paper starts with a normal condition of a constant engine power which is to be delivered to the crankshaft under governor control for any of the travel speeds analyzed. The tractor is considered as powered by a given brake-horsepower engine, this power being transmitted through sets of gears in which the net bearing and gear efficiency is taken to be 73 per cent.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200047
CARL J BAER
Abstract The author states that production and transportation are so closely interwoven that they cannot be considered separately and that the great problem of transportation can be satisfactorily solved only by the utilization of our navigable inland waterways. He then compares the United States with European countries in regard to the problems of inland waterway transportation and reviews the history of such transportation in this country. The organization of the Mississippi Valley Waterways Association and its activities are described. The need of considering the inland waterways transportation problem as a mechanical engineering problem is emphasized. It is recommended that a standardized system for handling freight on inland rivers be adopted and an outline is given of the requirements of such a system. A statement of Government activities in connection with this problem is presented and the policy of the Government outlined.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200048
THURMAN H BANE
The author describes the Air-Service work at McCook Field, presenting and describing numerous types of airplane, airplane engine and auxiliary aviation apparatus. After reviewing the development and present status of the Air Service, he describes the airplanes developed during the war and comments briefly upon their chief characteristics, referring to the illustrations; airplane engines are treated in a similar manner. Among auxiliaries, mention is made of airplane armament, synchronizing outfits, parachutes and packs, machine-guns, bombs, cameras and photographic equipment, with comment upon their usage and characteristic features. Armored airplanes are considered specifically and the use of variable-pitch propellers exemplified. The relations of military and commercial aviation are stated and the possibilities of airplane transport and airplane hospital ambulance service are mentioned.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200050
C B DRAKE
In view of the inestimable services in the development of standardized transportation rendered to the Army by the Society of Automotive Engineers, particularly during the war, the author believes it important that the Society be acquainted with the intentions and policies of the War Department regarding the engineering development of motor transportation from the viewpoint of the problems and needs of the American Army. The fundamentals of the policies on motor transportation of February, 1919, as approved by the Chief of Staff, are stated and the subsequent changes discussed in some detail. Standardization of chassis as favored by the Army receives specific and lengthy consideration and the Government standardized trucks are commented upon. The standardization of body design and parts specifications are discussed in some detail. It is the policy of the Motor Transport Corps to maintain a thoroughly adequate and efficient engineering branch, which is now operative.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200049
H M CRANE
Emphasizing the necessity of persuading fuel manufacturers to improve the suitability of internal-combustion engine fuel by the mixture of other materials with petroleum distillates, and realizing that efficiency is also dependent upon improved engine design, the author then states that results easily obtainable in the simplest forms of automotive engine when using fuel volatile at fairly low temperatures, must be considered in working out a future automotive fuel policy. The alternatives to this as they appear in the light of present knowledge are then stated, including design considerations. The principles that should be followed to obtain as good results as possible with heavy fuel in the conventional type of engine are then described. These include considerations of valve-timing and fuel distribution. Valve-timing should assist correct distribution, especially at the lower engine speeds.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200052
O H ENSIGN
Continued lowering in the grade of fuel obtainable compels automotive engineers to produce engines that will utilize it with maximum economy. The manufacture of Pacific coast engine-distillate with an initial-distillation point of about 240 and an end-point of 480 deg. fahr. was abandoned by the principal oil companies early in 1920. Utilizing this fuel efficiently through its period of declining values forced advance solution of some fuel problems prior to a general lowering of grade of all automotive fuels.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200051
A G. DREFS
In the automotive industries there are four major divisions of activity, manufacturing, financing, engineering and sales. The first three and especially the first two are today real problems. There have been no real sales obstacles. The paper discusses production-control, especially the routing of materials, and systems of accounting pertaining to shop production. They cannot be separated without destroying the effectiveness and efficiency of one or both. The divisions of the production department, the planning department, scheduling an order for production and preparing cost data are then considered at length. The distributing of overhead expense and the securing of complete factory costs are then fully discussed and illustrated by diagrams.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200054
W S JAMES, H C DICKINSON, S W SPARROW
Supplementing a “more miles per gallon” movement in 1919, a series of experiments outlined by the S. A. E. Committee on Utilization of Present Fuels was undertaken by the Bureau of Standards, in May, 1920, which included measurements of engine performance under conditions of both steady running and rapid acceleration with different temperatures of the intake charge secured by supplying heated air to the carbureter from a hot-air stove, by maintaining a uniformly heated intake manifold and by using a hot-spot manifold, fuel economy being determined for both part and full-throttle operation. A typical six-cylinder engine was used, having a two-port intake manifold with a minimum length of passage within the cylinder block, an exhaust manifold conveniently located for installing special exhaust openings, rather high peak-load speed and conventional general design.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200053
Since the Fifth Avenue Coach Co. of New York is the largest successful company operating motor-buses in this country, the author gives a rather comprehensive description of this company's systems and methods, stating the three main divisions as being the engineering, mechanical and transportation departments, and presenting an organization chart. Departments concerned with finance, auditing, purchasing, publicity, claims and the like, which follow conventional lines, are not considered. The engineering, research, mechanical, repair and operating departments are then described in considerable detail. Six specific duties and responsibilities of the research department are stated and six divisions of the general procedure in carrying out overhauls for the operating department are enumerated. Regarding fuel economy, high gasoline averages from the company's standpoint mean economy, well-designed and maintained equipment, and skilled and contented operatives.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200040
W R SHIMER
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200042
V R GAGE
A large number of tests were made in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards, using aircraft engines. The complete analysis of these tests was conducted under the direction of the Powerplants Committee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Many of the engines were of the same make, differing in compression ratio or dimensions. The testing program included determinations of the brake-horsepower at various speeds and altitudes, or air densities, and the friction power, or the power required to operate the engine with no fuel or ignition at various speeds and air densities, with normal operating conditions of oil, water and the like. Some tests included determination of the effect of change of mixture ratio and of air temperature, and of different oils. The difficulties caused by the necessity of using indirect methods to ascertain the effect of various factors are outlined. The test analyses and curves are presented.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200044
ARNOLD P YERKES
The comparatively slow introduction of mechanical power for farm operations has been a surprise and a disappointment to many. It is easily understandable why the deficient machines failed to sell but not so clear why really efficient outfits failed to make greater headway. No one can make a thorough study of the existing situation and conclude that any or all of the reasons given are even in a large part responsible for the slowness in adopting the tractor more generally on the farms; it is obvious that there are other strong influences. Most of these are connected with the farm business itself and, by considering the matter in relation to the individual farmer rather than farmers as a class, these influences become more clear.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200041
H C MCBRAIR
The first car credited by the author as being equipped with two or more direct drives is the Sizaire-Naudin, in 1905. The transmissions of this car and of one embodying similar principles of gearing, brought out in 1909, are described and illustrated by diagrams. After the Sizaire-Naudin, the next double direct-drive transmission was the Pleukharp transmission axle, made in 1906, although the real ancestor of the present double-drive rear axles is the 1906 Pilain transmission; both are described and illustrated. Other early American and foreign forms are commented upon and diagrammed, including the Austin design, believed by the author to be the first to use a two-speed axle of the simplest and lightest possible type to provide two direct drives in connection with a separate gearset to give additional forward speeds and the reverse. Modern two-speed axles are reviewed, with critical comment and diagrams, and considerable discussion of gear ratios is included.