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1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220051
CORNELIUS T MYERS
After pointing out that the publication of articles in the trade and technical journals, to the effect that very considerable weight-reductions in motor-truck construction with consequent savings in gasoline and tires are possible, works an injustice to the motor-truck industry and is misleading, the author outlines some of the reasons why such weight-reductions are very difficult to effect, as well as the possibilities of standardizing axle details. The use of aluminum to effect weight-reduction is commented upon and the various advantages claimed for metal wheels are mentioned. In the latter connection the author points out that, while these claims may be true, they are unsupported by reliable data. The greater part of the paper is devoted to an account of a series of tests conducted by a large coal company to determine the relative merits of wood and metal wheels on its trucks.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220054
CHARLES O GUERNSEY
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220053
L G PLANT
The many improvements effected in gasoline-engine construction during the war for airplane, heavy truck, tractor and tank usage have done much toward making the gasoline-driven rail motor-car a practical possibility today. The gasoline-electric cars built by the General Electric Co. are mentioned and light rail motor-car construction is discussed in general terms. Reliability and low maintenance cost are commented upon briefly, and the requirements of service for rail motor-cars are outlined.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220056
K L HERRMANN
The different gear noises are classified under the names of knock, rattle, growl, hum and sing, and these are discussed at some length, examples of defects that cause noise being given and a device for checking tooth spacing being illustrated and described. An instrument for analyzing tooth-forms that produce these different noises is illustrated and described. Causes of the errors in gears may be in the hardening process, in the cutting machines or in the cutters. A hobbing machine is used as an example and its possibilities for error are commented upon. Tooth-forms are illustrated and treated briefly, and the hardening of gears and the grinding of gear-tooth forms are given similar attention.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220058
JAMES A FORD
The process devised by the author was evolved to eliminate the difficulties incident to the finishing of the spline and body portions of a spline shaft, such as is used in transmission gearing, by grinding after the shaft has been hardened, and is the result of a series of experiments. The accuracy of the finished shaft was the primary consideration and three other groups of important considerations are stated, as well as four specific difficulties that were expected to appear upon departure from former practice. Illustrations are presented to show the tools used, and the method of using them is commented upon step by step. The shaft can be straightened to within 0.005 in. per ft. of being out of parallel with the true axis of the shaft, after the shaft has been hardened, and it is then re-centered true with the spline portion.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220055
H J CRAIN, J BRODIE
While investigating the sources and causes of noise in automobiles during an extensive connection with one of the largest automobile companies, the authors recorded their experiences in the shop in the form of notes. Some of these are offered with a view to stimulating the discussion of the subject and with the hope that additional information will be brought out by an exchange of ideas, particularly on the problem of eliminating gear-noises. In many cases they found that noise was caused by failure to allow sufficient clearance for an adequate oil-film. And it was noted frequently that when one noise had been located and silenced another appeared that had not been apparent before. The topics that have been considered include the running-in of brake-bands, engine knocks, oil-pump gear-noise and that of gears in general, the clearances of ball bearings, backlash, and rear-axle bevel-gears.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220060
H A SCHWARTZ, W W FLAGLE
Cleveland Section paper - After commenting upon the two contradictory attitudes toward malleable iron in the automotive industry and outlining its history briefly, the authors discuss the differences between malleable and ordinary gray-iron and supplement this with a description of the heat-treating of malleable castings. Five factors that influence the machining properties of malleable-iron are stated. These were investigated in tests made with drills having variable characteristics that were governed by six specified general factors. Charts of the results are presented and commented upon in some detail, inclusive of empirical formulas and constants and deductions made therefrom.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220057
A J BAKER
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220059
P E HAGLUND, I B SCOFIELD
The authors state the principles governing intensive quantity-production and describe the sources and methods of handling the basic materials that compose the Ford engine-cylinder. The fundamental plan of the River Rouge plant is outlined, illustrations being used to supplement the text that explains the reasons governing the location of the various units of the plant. Details are given of the use made of conveyors with the idea of keeping everything moving. The relation of the blast furnace and coke ovens to the engine cylinder are commented upon, the powerhouse and foundry are described, and the production of the cylinder is set forth step by step.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220038
A A BULL
The object of the paper is to consider some of the fundamental factors that affect oil consumption; it does not dwell upon the differences between lubricating systems. Beyond the fact that different oils apparently affect the oil consumption and that there is a definite relation between viscosity and oil consumption, the effect of the physical characteristics, or the quality of the oil, does not receive particular attention. The methods of testing are described and the subject is divided into (a) the controlling influence of the pistons, rings and cylinders; (b) the controlling influence of the source from which the oil is delivered to the cylinder wall.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220015
J EDWARD SCHIPPER
Stating that the problem of deceleration is just as important and necessary of solution as is the one of providing car-acceleration ability, the author gives a comprehensive survey of present braking practice and outlines future requirements and possibilities. Design factors are considered at length, as well as the subject of what constitutes uniform and effective braking-power, various illustrations and descriptions being included of different types of brake. Brake-actuating means, the calculation of brake-drum size, car-stoppage ability, brake equalizers and brake-linings are commented upon in some detail. The future of brakes is discussed with reference to the use of the engine as a brake, four-wheel and front-wheel brakes, the servo principle of brake operation and various novel braking methods. A brief summary of what is considered good practice with regard to truck brakes is appended.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220045
H G FARWELL
The author describes the major features of brake and clutch practice that he observed in 1920 while traveling in England, Belgium, Italy and France, comparing them briefly with American practice of the same period. He analyzes the types of brake and clutch used on 165 cars exhibited at the London automobile show of that year, giving the percentage of the different types in evidence. Numerous illustrations that are described and commented upon in greater or less detail appear in the paper and in the discussion which followed it, these being inclusive of most of the best-known types of brake and clutch in use in the United States and in Europe.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220030
C Fayette Taylor
After indicating the line of development since November, 1918, toward making the internal-combustion engine better adapted to aircraft service, the successful application of the supercharger to improve engine performance at great altitude is described and the over-dimensioned and over-compressioned engine also is discussed as a means toward that end. The use of anti-knock compounds to permit the use of high compression-ratios at small altitudes without knocking is commented upon and engine size is considered for both airplane and dirigible service. Further review includes air-cooling experiments in reference to the air-cooled radial engine, refinement of aviation-engine details, and improvements in aircraft powerplant parts and fuel-supply systems. For commercial aviation, powerplant reliability and low cost are stated as essentials. Illustrations are presented of the supercharger and of the engines and sylphon fuel-pump mentioned.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220066
E H SHAUGHNESSY
The author outlines the history of the Air-Mail Service and states that the recent policy has been to carry out the intent of the Congress, to align the service with the desire of the administration for economy and to discontinue too rapid expansion. After a description of the routes and divisions and a listing of the present landing-fields and radio stations, the present equipment is outlined and commented upon, tabular and statistical data being presented. The discussion covers the organization and performance of the service, the casualties, the cost of operation and the policy governing future plans.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220065
C N MONTEITH
The author presents, in outline only, the various features of airplane-development investigation that have been prosecuted. After mentioning the principal types of airplane designed and built shortly before the armistice and the types in service on the battle front at that time, four specific requirements for increasing the speed, the rate of climb and the ability to reach great altitudes are enumerated and commented upon, the further statement being made that an increase in performance can result from any one or from a combination of all four. Remarks upon design features are interspersed with the discussion of performance improvements, brief explanations being given of the variable-area and the variable-camber-wing schemes, the idea of having a thick wing-section with trailing and leading edges hinged, and that of modifying the wing-section by making the leading edge a small detachable airfoil that can be shifted.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220031
J G VINCENT
Grouping the influences that are retarding the development of aviation into five specified divisions, the author, who took a prominent part in the development of the Liberty engine and other wartime aviation activities of the Government, discusses each one, in the order of its importance, in an effort to point out the limitations that exist as differentiated from misconceived non-existent limitations and to indicate remedial measures stimulative to a provident trend and vigorous growth of aviation. The subjects of adequate landing-fields, the real and imaginary dangers of flying, single and multi-engine airplanes, passenger comfort and commercial considerations are treated at some length, prefatory to an outline of the trend of airplane design and an enumeration of powerplant requirements.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220064
Edward P Warner
Aerodynamic analysis relates mainly to questions of performance and stability, the latter including both maneuverability and control, but the designer's problems concern chiefly the prediction of the best possible performance. Accurate analysis, which would include a summation of the elemental resistances of an aircraft part by part and the making of many corrections, supplemented by tests of models in a wind-tunnel, involves much labor and expense. When a preliminary choice of dimensions and specifications for a new type of an airplane is to be made or there is a question of the performance attainable with a given load and power, a shorter method becomes necessary. This is to be found in the derivation of simplified formulas and graphs.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210010
CHARLES A. HEERGEIST
Automobile body building derives its origin from carriage body building, which was highly developed before automobiles were thought of. The introduction of automobile bodies fitted to a metal frame changed body builders' rules and calculations. The influence of the metal frame is discussed briefly and the limiting sizes of body members are considered also. According to the ideas expressed, the weight of bodies can be reduced if the metal frame is designed so as to support the weight of the passengers and the body. The dead-weight also can be reduced if the frame is built in proportion to the amount of weight carried, the number of passengers and the style of bodies being considered. But in the construction of enclosed bodies, as in sedans, coaches and broughams, very little weight can be saved if stability, durability and lasting quality are to be retained.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210011
FRANK A HOWARD
After stating that the meaning of the term “gasoline” seems to be generally misunderstood for the reason that it has been assumed that gasoline is, or ought to be, the name of a specific product, the author states that it is not and never has been a specific product and that although gasoline has a definite and generic meaning in the oil trade it has no specific meaning whatever. It means merely a light distillate from crude petroleum. Its degree of lightness, from what petroleum it is distilled and how it is distilled or refined are unspecified. Specifically, “gasoline” is the particular grade of gasoline which at a given moment is distributed in bulk at retail. It can be defined with reasonable precision as being the cheapest petroleum product acceptable for universal use as a fuel in the prevailing type of internal-combustion engine.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210012
C F KETTERING
Two distinct problems are involved in fuel research work, multi-cylinder distribution and the chemical constitution of the fuel mixture after it enters an engine cylinder. In discussing elementary combustion, the author refers to the components of the energy of combustion as gravitational, kinetic and barometric, and elaborates his theme with the aid of diagrams and charts showing normal and abnormal combustion. After emphasizing the necessity of theorizing at some length, anti-knock substances are discussed, inclusive of substances apparently dissimilar that have the same chemical constituents. The ignition point and fuel utilization are treated, followed by comments upon fuel studies that have been made, with accompanying indicator-cards. The future objectives of fuel research are outlined as being along lines of physical and of thermo-chemistry, the simple laws of elementary physics, and cooperation with the producers and refiners of the fuel.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210033
OSCAR W. SJOGREN
Before taking up the results of the tests, the author states briefly the provisions of the Nebraska tractor law, the kind of tests conducted and the equipment used. Applications covering 103 different tractors were received during the season; of the 68 that appeared for test, 39 went through without making any changes and 29 made changes. The results of the tests are described and illustrated by charts. The fuel consumption was studied from the three different angles of volumetric displacement, engine speed and the diameter of the cylinders, the tractors being classified accordingly and the results presented in charts which are analyzed. The weaknesses of the tractor as shown by the tests are commented upon at some length with a view to improvement of the product.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210029
L L SCOTT
The paper describes the steam-operated 2-ton truck developed by E. C. Newcomb and the author. It has a direct drive-shaft from the engine to a rear-axle worm, with a 5 to 1 gear-reduction at the axle, and is operated without any transmission or clutch. The engine has been simplified since the author's first report on it in 1919, the changes relating to valve-gear, crankshaft and cam design. After presenting illustrations and describing them, the author gives nine specific advantageous features in this steam powerplant and comments upon them, submitting charts of torque curves which are analyzed. The engine control, fuel, oil and water consumption are next described and discussed and the results of acceleration tests are then shown in tabular form, with comments thereon.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210030
N J SMITH
The object of this paper is to point out some of the difficulties of motor-truck maintenance and to suggest lines of improvement. The buyer and user of a motor truck sometimes experiences disappointments due to the lack of coordination between the engineering and sales departments of a truck company. The term “service” is often misunderstood by the purchaser and misrepresented by the salesman, which results in dissatisfied customers. Salesmen should have accurate information on the service policy of their company and on all guarantees which they are authorized to make. After rehearsing many of the difficulties encountered in truck maintenance, the author discusses in some detail the needed improvements in truck design, passing then to details of maintenance practice and methods of handling repairs.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210031
J C THORPE
The paper treats of the service, commercial and technical aspects of the subject in turn. The author calls attention to the fact that there can be no such thing as free service, because the customer pays in the end, and gives a specific definition of service. He argues that the engineering departments should urge upon merchandising departments intelligent distribution through dealers, the stocking of an adequate supply of parts and the maintaining of a well qualified mechanical force for the purpose of making engineering development work in the form of farm power automotive apparatus effective. There is a great need for a suitable system of training mechanics for tractor service work, and there should be a definite plan to assure that men making repairs and adjustments in the field are well qualified.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210032
A W SCARRAT
The author describes the development of an alcohol-burning tractor engine, after having stated a few of the fundamental requirements for burning alcohol economically and the results that can be attained by following them. The first trials were with 127-lb. gage compression at a normal operating speed. The problems attacked were those of what amount of heat applied to the mixture is desirable and its general effect on economy, output and operation; power output; general operation of the engine; and fuel consumption. The experimental work was done on a 4¼ x 6-in. four-cylinder 16-valve engine; this is described in detail and the results are presented in chart form. The conditions necessary for the proper use of alcohol as a fuel are discussed.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210026
C A WOODBURY, H A LEWIS, A T CANBY
The nature of flame propagation in an automobile engine cylinder has, for some time, been the subject of much discussion and speculation. However, very little experimental work has been done on flame movement in closed cylinders with a view to applying the knowledge directly to the internal-combustion engine. It has become recognized that knocking is one great difficulty which attends the use of the higher-boiling paraffin hydrocarbons, such as kerosene, and that knocking is one of the major difficulties to be overcome in designing higher-compression and hence more efficient engines. It was desirable, therefore, to determine, if possible, the nature and cause of the so-called fuel knock in an internal-combustion engine. The work described in this paper was undertaken to determine the characteristic flame movement of these various fuels and the physical and chemical properties which influence this flame propagation.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210025
W E WILLIAMS
Stating that asphalt, brick and concrete-slab road-surfaces are the only pavements that have given satisfaction for automobile traffic, the author believes further that thus far the concrete-slab surface is the only one worthy of consideration for such traffic. He discusses the merits and demerits of these surfaces and includes an enumeration of the factors that combine to produce a thoroughly satisfactory road surface. Passing to a detailed review of the bearing value of soils and the correction of road failures, the author presents data and illustrations in substantiation of his statements and follows this with a consideration of the reinforcing of a concrete road-slab with steel.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210028
N J OCKSREIDER
In this day of transportation engineering, the requirements of each customer must be diagnosed accurately and the economic waste due to wrong selling eliminated. Stating that 32 classes of trades, divided into 350 sub-classes, use motor trucks, the author expresses the view that, in applying the science of selling by analysis, it is necessary to know the cost of shipping every pound of goods, deducing in turn the correct size of truck for a given kind of work. Referring to the fact that a truck cannot be designed to stand up under all conditions and that selling a truck which is unsuitable for a particular task means a dissatisfied customer, the author gives the opinion that a truck of mediocre merit will in many cases perform more satisfactorily than the best truck built operating under improper conditions.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210027
J B HANEY
The author describes the progress of the work of artillery motorization in the year 1920, beginning this with a statement of the recommendations made by the Westervelt Board, appointed by the War Department to make a study of the subject, for the development of track-laying equipment, the use of wheeled trailers on which the track laying materiel could be loaded and towed over good roads by trucks, and in regard to the possibility of incorporating trailer wheels in the track-laying vehicles themselves. The various types of materiel constructed during 1920 are illustrated, described and commented upon, inclusive of heavy tractors, supply and maintenance equipment, gun-mounts and tanks. It is stated that the recommendations of the Westervelt Board will be the basis of armament development for some time to come.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210003
H M CRANE
In recent years automobile engines for racing purposes have been very generally rated in accordance with their piston displacement. The natural result has been to encourage the highest possible engine speeds to attain the greatest possible piston displacement per minute. Features of engine design that have been developed under this rule include enormous valve areas, usually obtained by a multiplicity of valves, huge inlet pipes and carbureters, extreme valve-timing and very light reciprocating parts, all of which are undesirable in commercial engines. To encourage the design of engines of a type developing higher efficiency at lower engine speeds, the suggestion is made that a rule be formulated under which cars will be rated in accordance with the piston displacement per mile actually used by them. Such a rule would involve rear-wheel diameter and gear-ratio, as well as the piston displacement of the engine.