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Viewing 110641 to 110670 of 112266
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350086
J. F. Campbell
THIS paper covers in a general way the development of a complete fuel injection system, including fuel injector, discharge nozzle, control system, fuel system, etc., and the application of the system to Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines, Wright Aeronautical Cyclone, Curtiss Conqueror and Allison V-1710 engines, also the installation of the Pratt and Whitney Wasp engine in service airplanes and the performance obtained with the system.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350087
Clarke C. Minter
COMBUSTION roughness is defined as the ratio of the rise in pressure to the time required for the burning. It is pointed out that evidence shows that the time required to burn a charge in an engine is directly proportional to the volume of the charge. A measure of the “natural roughness” of a combustion chamber is given by the ratio of the compression pressure to the clearance volume. The question of how flame speed varies during the burning is taken up and it is brought out that flame speed goes through a maximum when half the volume of the charge is burned. In designing a combustion chamber for smoothness of burning, it is necessary to consider the variations in the speed of flame propagation, and to attempt to bring the maximum speed early in the burning so as to get the flame off to a good start. In this manner it is possible to avoid unduly rapid increases in pressure at a late stage of the burning.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350084
Stanwood W. Sparrow
THE engine considered in this paper is an eight-in-line of 3 1/16-in. bore and 4¼-in. stroke having a piston displacement of 250 cu. in. After comparing the performances of the “FD” and the 8-250 engines, Mr. Sparrow relates in detail the changes made in the engine under consideration and states the results obtained by tests, also commenting thereon. The subjects considered include valve timing and lift, intake pulsations, distribution, compression ratio, ignition, blowby, oil consumption, cylinder-block cracking, valves and valve seats, valve springs, pistons, crankshaft failure, connecting rods, and bearings. Numerous data are presented in chart form, together with other pertinent illustrations of the subjects discussed.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350082
R. D. Evans
THE principal functions of a tire on an automotive vehicle are: (a) to carry the weight of the vehicle, to cushion it over road irregularities, and to eliminate noise; (b) to provide sufficient traction for accelerating, driving, and braking; and (c) to provide adequate steering control at high speeds. Adequate steering control, taken for granted in the early days of automobiles, becomes highly important as driving speeds increase. The property of tires whereby steering is accomplished is called cornering power. This power is practically negligible in hard wheels, but is possessed by pneumatic tires due to the extended area of road contact. Cornering thrust is developed when the plane of the rotating tire makes an angle with its path of travel. The thrust is proportional to this angle up to the point where slippage begins. When a tire is cambered, the cornering force is increased or diminished depending on whether the tire leans “into” or “away from” the curve.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350085
A. J. Blackwood
STARTING, oil pumping, sludging and wear are the subjects considered specifically in connection with low operating temperatures. Tabular data and curves relating to starting are presented. Sludge is more dangerous in cold-weather operation, and the importance of selecting a quality non-sludging oil is emphasized. Tests to determine the causes of sludging are described, and the five conclusions reached are stated. The indications that wear is due to corrosion, rather than to removal of lubricant from cylinder walls, are analyzed. With regard to kerosene and Diesel engines, the author states that it seems reasonable to believe that the effect of operating temperatures, as such, with resultant moisture condensation, will result in at least equal relative wear to that which obtains in the gasoline engine. In conclusion, seven general rules are stated whereby the utmost satisfaction may be obtained during operation at low temperatures.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350083
R. F. Gagg
AN outline of some current problems in aircraft engines with particular reference to the types used for main-line scheduled-transport operations is presented, it being limited so far as possible to a consideration of the conventional four-stroke gasoline-engine. Types of airline service are considered and, as regards engine sizes, it is remarked that airline service demands engines in a range of sizes from the maximum available to about 250 hp. as a minimum. Statistics of the present performance of airline engines are given, and it is stated that the horsepower output required to meet the contemplated schedule with the most adverse wind normally expected on the route is a nearly correct measure of the true effective size of the airline engine; further, that its durability and performance should, in general, be judged on that basis. The importance of fuel consumption is stressed.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350080
J. M. Orr
SOUND transportation and safety engineering are being successfully applied to accident control, Mr. Orr states, which involves human engineering to a greater degree than in any other phase of fleet management and operation. After stating accident facts and costs, Mr. Orr presents selected quotations from representative fleet operators and other authorities regarding operating practices, relations with the general public, accident control, future design of highways, driver evaluation, accident-proneness and the like, together with an illustrated description of a portable testing-laboratory for making tests of drivers. Accident trends in commercial fleets are analyzed, as well as accident aspects in various types of fleets. Other authorities are quoted on various matters relating to training, methods and practices.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350081
W. Z. Friend, E. Q. Beckwith
ALTHOUGH considerable information concerning the properties and merits of propane and butane as motor fuels has been available, most of it has not sufficiently covered the economics of their supply, availability and price. Therefore, the authors present typical data obtained by their use. Subsequent to an analysis of the sources, properties, advantages and heating values of propane and butane, two sets of test data comparing these fuels with gasoline are submitted and commented upon. Further data obtained in actual road-operation under load are presented also, together with a discussion of the economic factors which includes comparisons with gasoline as fuel. Production and distribution problems are considered, as well as the most feasible applications of propane and butane. The authors conclude that, for highway use, their cost per gallon delivered to the fuel tank will generally be as high as, or higher, than the price of regular-grade gasoline.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350079
N. Mitchell
OF the 455,000 trucks or passenger-carrying motor-vehicles in the United Kingdom at least 5500 are now fitted with compression-ignition engines, 57 per cent of these being fitted to passenger-carrying vehicles. The engines are of the direct-injection and of the separate-chamber types. This paper does not discuss the merits of one system as compared with another, but merely the findings as regards costs and general service as derived from data supplied by the manufacturers and users. By courtesy of the London Passenger Transport Board, data are presented on compression-ignition engines as compared with gasoline engines operating in the London area and the experiences regarding the adoption of the former are related. Another operating company has in service 50 vehicles equipped with Gardner direct-injection engines. Several direct-injection systems are illustrated, and curves for comparative fuel-consumptions of the Leyland engine, using gasoline and using gas oil, are presented.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350078
Austin M. Wolf
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350076
W. B. GOODMAN
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350074
Louis A. Graham
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350075
W. J. Cumming
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350070
George S. Engle
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350069
H. J. UHL
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350072
F. M. YOUNG
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350068
I.M. Bernhardt
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350066
C. F. BECKER
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350067
John C. Leslie
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350065
S. B. Shaw
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350062
N. E. Hendrickson
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350061
James J. Shanley
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350064
C. B. VEAL
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350058
Otto R. Schoenrock
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350060
T. R. Kelley
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350059
H. W. McQuaid