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Viewing 91 to 120 of 110083
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0094
Guoqing XU, Yuri Martin Wright, Panagiotis Kyrtatos, Konstantinos Bardis, Michele Schiliro, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Ignition and combustion processes inside pre-chamber spark plugs employed in stationary gas engines exhibit considerably longer durations compared to conventional, open chamber ‘’G-type’’ capacitive discharge ignition systems. The strength and timing of the turbulent flame jets subsequently issuing into the main chamber strongly depend on the pre-chamber combustion process and, thus, high sensitivity with respect to the specific engine operating conditions it experienced. This poses considerable difficulties in optimizing engine operational conditions as well as controlling engine performance. This paper investigates the influence of engine operating conditions on the pre-chamber combustion event using both experimental and numerical methods. A miniaturized piezo-electric pressure transducer was designed and placed inside the engine cylinder head to record the pre-chamber inner volume pressure, in addition to conventional pressure indication inside the main chamber.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0097
Epaminondas Mastorakos, Patton Allison PhD, Andrea Giusti PhD, Pedro De Oliveira, Sotiris Benekos, Yuri M. Wright, Christos Frouzakis PhD, Konstantinos Boulouchos
A combined modelling and experimental investigation of the turbulent jet ignition system has been undertaken in a specially-designed flow rig (constant-pressure chamber) with the aim to identify the key physical processes occurring in this promising technology for natural gas engines. Performing this research at atmospheric pressures allows optical access that is difficult to achieve in a realistic engine environment. Various aspects such as: the nature of the fluid escaping the pre-chamber (i.e. unburnt, partially-burnt, fully-burnt); the probability of ignition of the mixture in the main chamber; the effects of geometrical parameters such as nozzle diameter and shape and chamber length; and the effect of flow in the main chamber and of mixture strength in both chambers, are systematically studied. Diagnostics include schlieren and OH* and CH* chemiluminescence imaging, and OH and CH2O planar laser-induced fluorescence.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0096
Laura Sophie Baumgartner, Stephan Karmann, Fabian Backes, Andreas Stadler, Georg Wachtmeister
Due to its molecular structure, methane provides several advantages as fuel for internal combustion engines. First, owing to the single carbon atom per molecule, a formation of particular matter becomes drastically more unlikely and second the carbon to hydrogen ratio of methane reduces the amount of carbon dioxide by 20 % at the same energy output. To cope with nitrogen oxide emissions a high level of excess air is beneficial, which on the other hand deteriorates the flammability and combustion duration of the mixture. One approach to meet these challenges and ensure a stable combustion process are fuel scavenged prechambers. The flow and combustion processes within these prechambers are highly influenced by the position, orientation, number and overall cross-sectional area of the orifices connecting the prechamber and the main combustion chamber.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0080
Ross Ryskamp, Gregory Thompson, Daniel Carder, John Nuszkowski
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a form of dual-fuel combustion that exploits the reactivity difference between two fuels to control combustion phasing. This combustion approach limits the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and soot while retaining high thermal efficiency. The research presented herein was performed to determine the influences that high reactivity (diesel) fuel properties have on RCCI combustion characteristics, exhaust emissions, fuel efficiency, and the operable load range. A 4-cylinder, 1.9 liter, light-duty CI engine was converted to run on diesel fuel (high reactivity fuel) and compressed natural gas (CNG) (low reactivity fuel). The engine was operated at 2100 revolutions per minute (RPM), and at two different loads, 3.6 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and 6 bar BMEP.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0081
Luigi De Simio, Michele Gambino, Sabato Iannaccone
In recent years the use of alternative fuels for internal combustion engines has had a strong push coming from both technical and economic-environmental aspects. Among these, gaseous fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas have occupied a segment no longer negligible in the automotive industry, thanks to their adaptability, anti-knock capacity, lower toxicity of pollutants, reduced CO2 emissions and cost effectiveness. On the other hand, diesel engines still represent the reference category among the internal combustion engines in terms of consumptions. The possibility offered by the dual fuel (DF) systems, to combine the efficiency and performance of a diesel engine with the advantages offered by the gaseous fuels, has been long investigated. However the simple replacement of diesel fuel with natural gas does not allow to optimize the performance of the engine due to the high THC emissions particularly at lower loads.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0079
Vittorio Ravaglioli, Fabrizio Ponti, Matteo De Cesare, Federico Stola, Filippo Carra, Enrico Corti
The continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at combustion control improvement. Nowadays, performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for drivability improvement, efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. These aspects are even more crucial when innovative combustions (such as dual-fuel or RCCI) are performed, due to the high instability and the high sensitivity with respect to the injection parameters that is associated to this kind of combustion. Aging of all the components involved in the mixture preparation and combustion processes is another aspect particularly challenging, since not all the calibrations developed in the setup phase of a combustion control system may still be valid during engine life.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0078
R. vallinayagam, S vedharaj, Yanzhao An, Alaaeldin Dawood PhD, Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi, Bart Somers, Junseok Chang, Mani Sarathy, Bengt Johansson
Light naphtha is a low boiling point fraction of crude oil, and is ideal for partially premixed combustion (PPC). Sufficient premixing can be realized due to its low boiling point and octane rating (RON = 64.5). This study investigates the combustion characteristics of light naphtha and a multicomponent surrogate under various start of injection (SOI) conditions. In this study, LN and a five component surrogate for LN comprising 43% n-pentane, 12% n-heptane, 10% 2-methylhexane, 25% iso-pentane and 10% cyclo-pentane is tested in a single cylinder optical diesel engine. The transition in combustion homogeneity from CI combustion to homogenized charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is compared between LN and its surrogate. The engine experimental results show a good agreement in terms of combustion phasing, ignition delay, start of combustion, in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release between LN and its surrogate.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0077
Matteo Pelucchi, Mattia Bissoli, Cristina Rizzo, Yingjia Zhang PhD, Kieran Somers PhD, Alessio Frassoldati, Henry Curran, Tiziano Faravelli
Pursuing a sustainable energy scenario for transportation requires the blending of renewable oxygenated fuels such as alcohols into commercial hydrocarbon fuels. From a chemical kinetic perspective, this requires the accurate description of both hydrocarbon reference fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, etc.) and oxygenated fuels chemistry. A recent systematic investigation of linear C2–C5 alcohols ignition in a rapid compression machine at p = 10–30 bar and T = 650–900 K has extended the scarcity of fundamental data at such conditions allowing for a revision low temperature chemistry for alcohol fuels in the POLIMI mechanism. Heavier alcohols such as n-butanol and n-pentanol present ignition characteristic of interest for application in HCCI engines, due to the presence of the hydroxyl moiety reducing their low temperature reactivity compared to the parent linear alkanes (i.e. higher octane number).
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0076
Mark A. Hoffman, Ryan O'Donnell, Zoran Filipi
The proven impact of combustion chamber deposits on advanced compression ignition combustion strategies has steered recent works toward the development of thermal barrier coatings, which can mimic their benefits on combustion efficiency and operational range expansion. However, recent work based on statistical thermodynamics has indicated that inter-molecular radiation during the combustion event may subject the combustion chamber walls to non-negligible radiation heat transfer, regardless of the relatively low soot formation within the well-mixed and lean charge. In the present paper, the impact of radiation heat transfer on combustion chamber deposits and thermal barrier coatings is studied. The morphological construction of the combustion chamber deposit layer is shown to be partially transparent to radiation heat transfer, drawing corollaries with ceramic based thermal barrier coatings.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0075
Felix Leach, Riyaz Ismail, Martin Davy, Adam Weall, Brian Cooper
Modern Diesel cars, fitted with state-of- the-art aftertreatment systems, have the capability to emit extremely low levels of pollutant species at the tailpipe. However, diesel aftertreatment systems can represent a significant complexity, packaging and maintenance requirement. Reducing engine-out emissions in order to reduce the scale of the aftertreatment system is therefore a high priority research topic. Engine-out emissions from diesel engines are, to a significant degree, dependent on the detail of fuel/air interactions that occur in-cylinder—both during the injection and combustion events—and also to the induced air motion in and around the bowl prior to injection. In this paper the effects of two different piston bowl shapes are investigated – one with a stepped bowl lip, and the other without.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0073
Carlo Beatrice, Giacomo Belgiorno, Gabriele Di Blasio, Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Technologies for direct injection of fuel in compression ignition engines are in continuous development in order to get an increasingly high injection pressure. One of the most investigated component of this system is the injector; in particular, main attention is given to the nozzles characteristics as diameter, number, angle, internal shape. The reduction of nozzle hole diameter seems the simplest way to increase the fuel velocity and to promote the atomization process. On the other hand, the number of the holes must increase to keep the desired mass flow. On this basis, a new logic has been applied for the development of the next generation of injectors. The tendency to increase the nozzle number and to reduce the diameter has led to the replacement of the nozzle with a circular plate that moves vertically. The plate motion allows to obtain a cylindrical surface for the delivery of the fuel on 360° degrees; while the plate lift is calibrated to obtain the desired fuel mass flow.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0072
Gabriele Di Blasio, Carlo Beatrice, Giacomo Belgiorno, Francesco Concetto Pesce, Alberto Vassallo
The paper describes the challenges and results achieved in developing a new high speed Diesel combustion system capable of exceeding the threshold of 100 kW/l. The high-quality state-of-art components of the automotive diesel technology was provided in order to set-up a single-cylinder research engine demonstrator. Key design parameters were identified in terms boost, speed, injection pressure and nozzle flow rates. In this regard, an advanced piezo injection system capable of 3000 bar maximum injection pressure was selected, coupled to a robust base engine featuring advanced combustion bowl and intake ports. The matching among the low compression ratio wide bowl, the high-density charge motion, engine speed and the highly efficient injector nozzles have been thoroughly examined and experimentally parametrized.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0071
fadila maroteaux, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Ignition delay time is key to any hydrocarbon combustion process. In that sense, this parameter has to be known accurately, and especially for internal combustion engine applications. Combustion timing is one of the most important factors influencing overall engine performances like power output, combustion efficiency, emissions, in-cylinder peak pressure, etc. In the case of low temperature combustion (LTC) mode (i.e. HCCI mode for example), this parameter is controlled by chemical kinetics and there is no direct control method as in spark ignition engine. For HCCI engine applications and especially Diesel engine, fuels with lower octane ratings such as n-heptane, diesel fuel, dimethyl ether (DME) are preferred. These fuels display a two stage ignition behavior, and therefore it is very difficult to build an accurate ignition delay time model over the wide range of engine operations.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0070
Stefano D'Ambrosio, Daniele Iemmolo, Alessandro Mancarella, Nicolò Salamone, Roberto Vitolo, Gilles Hardy
A precise estimation of the recirculated exhaust gas rate and oxygen concentration as well as a predictive evaluation of the possible EGR unbalance among cylinders are of paramount importance, especially if non-conventional combustion modes, which require high EGR flowrates, are implemented. In the present paper, starting from the equation related to convergent nozzles, the EGR mass flow-rate is modeled considering the pressure and the temperature upstream of the EGR control valve, as well as the pressure downstream of it. The restricted flow-area at the valve-seat passage and the discharge coefficient are carefully assessed as functions of the valve lift. Other models were fitted using parameters describing the engine working conditions as inputs, following a semi-physical and a purely statistical approach. The resulting models are then applied to estimate EGR rates to both conventional and non-conventional combustion conditions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0069
Hyunwook Park, Jugon Shin, Choongsik Bae
Spray and combustion characteristics of diesel fuel were investigated in order to get a better understanding of the evaporation and combustion behavior under simulated cold-start conditions of a diesel engine. The experiment was conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber and the target ambient conditions were selected as the engine cranking. Mie scattering and shadowgraph techniques were conducted to visualize the liquid and vapor phase of the fuel under non-combustion condition (O2 concentration=0%). In-chamber pressure and direct flame visualization were acquired for spray combustion condition (O2 concentration=21%). The fuel was injected with an injection pressure of 30MPa, which is a typical value during cranking period. The liquid penetration of the fuel was increased at 573K of ambient temperature compared to that at 663K due to the poor evaporation characteristic and the increased fuel viscosity from the lower fuel temperature.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0068
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Yixin Yang, Giuseppe Conte, Gennaro Merlino
A real-time approach has been developed and assessed to control BMEP (brake mean effective pressure) and MFB50 (crank angle at which 50% of fuel mass has burnt) in a Euro 6 1.6L GM diesel engine. The approach is based on the use of feed-forward NNs (neural networks), which have been trained using virtual tests simulated by a previously developed low-throughput physical engine model. The latter is capable of predicting the heat release and the in-cylinder pressure, as well as the related metrics (MFB50, IMEP – indicated mean effective pressure) on the basis of an improved version of the accumulated fuel mass approach. BMEP is obtained from IMEP taking into account friction losses. The low-throughput physical model does not require high calibration effort and is also suitable for control-oriented applications. However, control tasks characterized by stricter demands in terms of computational time may require a modeling approach characterized by a further lower throughput.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0066
Maria Cristina Cameretti, Roberta De Robbio, Raffaele Tuccillo
The present study deals with the simulation of a Diesel engine fuelled by natural gas/diesel in dual fuel mode to optimize the engine behaviour in terms of performance and emissions. In dual fuel mode, the natural gas is introduced into the engine’s intake system. Near the end of the compression stroke, diesel fuel is injected and ignites, causing the natural gas to burn. The engine itself is virtually unaltered, but for the addition of a gas injection system. The CO2 emissions are considerably reduced because of the lower carbon content of the fuel. Furthermore, potential advantages of dual-fuel engines include diesel-like efficiency and brake mean effective pressure with much lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. In previous papers [1, 2, 3], the authors have presented some CFD results obtained by the KIVA 3V and Fluent codes by varying the diesel/NG ratio and the diesel pilot injection timing at different loads.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0067
Yoshiaki Toyama, Nozomi Takahata, Katsufumi Kondo, Tetsuya Aizawa
In order to better understand in-flame diesel soot oxidation processes, soot particles at the oxidation-dominant periphery of diesel spray flame were sampled by a newly developed “suck” type soot sampler employing a high-speed solenoid valve and their morphology and nanostructure were observed via High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). A single-shot diesel spray flame for the soot sampling experiment was achieved in a constant-volume vessel under a diesel-like condition. The sampler quickly sucks out a small portion of soot laden gases from the flame. A TEM grid hold inside the flow passage close to its entrance is immediately exposed to the gas flow induced by the suction at the upstream of the solenoid valve, so that the quick thermophoretic soot deposition onto the grid surface can effectively freeze morphology variation of soot particles during the sampling processes.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0065
Dr. Helmut Ruhland, Thomas Lorenz, Jens Dunstheimer, Albert Breuer, Maziar Khosravi
An integral part of combustion system development for previous NA gasoline engines was the optimization of charge motion towards the best compromise in terms of full load performance, part load stability, emissions and, last but not least, fuel economy. This situation might have changed with the introduction of GTDI engines. While it is generally accepted that an increased charge motion level improves the mixture preparation of a direct injection gasoline engine, the tradeoff in terms of performance seems to become less dominant as the boosting systems of modern engines are typically sound enough to compensate the flow losses generated by the more restrictive ports. Certainly the increased boost level does not come for free. Increased charge motion generates higher pumping- and wall heat losses. Hence it is questionable and engine dependent, whether more charge motion is always better.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0063
Sebastiano Breda, Alessandro D'Adamo, Stefano Fontanesi, Marco Del Pecchia, Simona Merola, Adrian Irimescu
The recent interest in alternative non-fossil fuels has lead researchers to evaluate several alcohol-based formulations. However, one of the main requirements for innovative fuels it to be compatible with existing units’ hardware, so that full replacement or smart flexible-fuel strategies can be smoothly adopted. N-Butanol is considered as a promising candidate to replace commercial Gasoline, given its ease of production from bio-mass and its main physical and chemical properties similar to those of Gasoline. The compared behaviour of n-Butanol and Gasoline was analysed in an optically-accessible DISI engine in a previous paper. CFD simulations confirmed the main outcomes of the experimental campaign in terms of combustion behaviour for two operating conditions; in particular, the first-order role of the slower evaporation rate of n-Butanol compared to Gasoline was highlighted when the two fuels were operated under the same injection phasing.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0064
En-Zhe Song, Shi-Chao Chu, Li-Ping Yang, Zhen-Ting Liu
The CFD model of 2135G natural gas engine was established, and working process from intake to combustion was simulated in this paper. Based on the validation of CFD model through experimental method, the combustion characteristic of natural gas engine was studied under different ignition timings and different spark energies. Results indicate that, the in-cylinder indicated mean effective pressure was increased with the ignition timing advancing from 22°CA BTDC to 32°CA BTDC in the same load. Meanwhile, the heat release rate was increased 23.18J/°CA and its phase was advanced 9°CA, the peak pressure was increased 45.95% and its phase was advanced 4.5°CA. On the other hand, when the spark energy decreases from 91.97mJ to 33.1mJ in the same load, the in-cylinder indicated mean effective pressure was decreased. Moreover, the heat release rate was decreased 15.18J/°CA and its phase was delayed 6.5°CA, the peak pressure was decreased 22.46% and its phase was delayed 4.5°CA.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0061
James P. Szybist, Scott W. Wagnon, Derek Splitter, William J. Pitz, Marco Mehl
Numerous studies have demonstrated that EGR can attenuate knock propensity in SI engines at naturally aspirated or lightly boosted conditions. In this study, we investigate the role of EGR under higher load conditions with multiple fuel compositions, where highly retarded combustion phasing typical of modern SI engines was used. It was found that under these conditions, EGR has little effect on mitigating the knock propensity and doesn’t allow significant combustion phasing advance as it does under lighter load conditions. Detailed combustion analysis shows that when EGR is added, the polytrophic coefficient increases causing the compressive pressure and temperature to increase. At sufficiently high boosting conditions, the increase in polytrophic coefficient and additional trapped mass from EGR can increase the pressure and temperature sufficiently to cause pre-spark heat release with some fuels.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0062
Cinzia Tornatore, Daniela Siano, Luca Marchitto, Arturo Iacobacci, Gerardo Valentino, Fabio Bozza
Knock occurrence and fuel enrichment, which is required at high engine speed and load to limit the turbine inlet temperature, are the major obstacles to further increase performance and efficiency of down-sized turbocharged spark ignited engines. A technique that has the potential to overcome these restrictions is based on the injection of a precise amount of water within the mixture charge that can allow to achieve important benefits on knock mitigation, engine efficiency, gaseous and noise emissions. One of the main objectives of this investigation is to demonstrate as the water injection (WI) could be a reliable solution to advance the spark timing and make the engine run at leaner mixture ratios with strong benefits on knock tendency and important reduction on fuel efficiency.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0059
Massimo FERRERA
The 2020+ CO2 and noxious emission limits will impose drastic technological choices. Even though in 2030 65% of road transportation vehicles will be still powered by an Internal Combustion Engine, a progressive increase of hybrids and battery electric vehicles will be confirmed. In parallel, the use of Low-Carbon Alternative Fuels, such as Natural Gas/Biomethane, will play a fundamental role in accelerating the process of de-carbonisation of the transportation sector supporting the virtuous Circular Economy. Since the nineties FCA invested in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered vehicles becoming Market leader with one of the largest related product portfolios in Europe. A progressive improvement of this technology has been always pursued but, facing the next decades, a further improvement of the current CNG powertrain technology is mandatory to achieve even higher efficiency and remove residual gaps versus conventional fuels.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0060
Nicolo Cavina, Nahuel Rojo, Lorella Ceschini, Eleonora Balducci, Luca Poggio, Lucio Calogero, Ruggero Cevolani
The recent search for extremely efficient spark-ignition engines has implied a great increase of in-cylinder pressure and temperature levels, and knocking combustion mode has become one of the most relevant limiting factors. This paper reports the main results of a specific project carried out as part of a wider research activity, aimed at modelling and real-time controlling knock-induced damage on aluminium forged pistons. The paper shows how the main damage mechanisms (erosion, plastic deformation, surface roughness, hardness reduction) have been identified and isolated, and how the corresponding symptoms may be measured and quantified. The second part of the work then concentrates on understanding how knocking combustion characteristics affect the level of damage done, and which parameters are mainly responsible for piston failure.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0055
Enrico Corti, Claudio Forte, Gian Marco Bianchi, Lorenzo Zoffoli
The performance optimization of modern Spark Ignition engines is limited by knock occurrence: heavily downsized engines often are forced to work in the Knock-Limited Spark Advance (KLSA) range. Knock control systems monitor the combustion process, allowing to achieve a proper compromise between performance and reliability. Combustion monitoring is usually carried out by means of accelerometers or ion sensing systems, but recently the use of cylinder pressure sensors is also becoming established, especially for motorsport applications. The cylinder pressure signal is often available in a calibration environment, where SA feedback control is used to avoid damages to the engine during automatic calibration.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0057
Roberto Finesso, Omar Marello, Ezio Spessa, Yixin Yang, Gilles Hardy
A model-based control of BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and NOx emissions has been developed and assessed for a Euro VI 3.0L diesel engine for heavy-duty applications. The control is based on a zero-dimensional real-time combustion model, which is capable of simulating the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, brake torque, exhaust gas temperatures, NOx and soot engine-out levels. The real-time combustion model has been realized by integrating and improving previously developed simulation tools. The chemical energy release has been simulated using the accumulated fuel mass approach. The in-cylinder pressure was estimated on the basis of a single-zone heat release model, using the net energy release as input. The latter quantity was obtained starting from the simulated chemical energy release, and evaluating the heat transfer of the charge with the walls.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0053
Silvio A. Pinamonti, Domenico Brancale, Gerhard Meister, Pablo Mendoza
The use of state of the art simulation tools to allow for effective front-loading of the calibration process is essential to off-set these additional efforts; therefore, the process needs a critical model validation where the correlation in dynamic conditions is used as a preliminary insight of representation domain of a mean value engine model. This paper focuses on the methodologies for correlating dynamic simulations with vehicle measured dynamic data (fundamental engine parameters and gaseous emissions) obtained using dedicated instrumentation on a diesel vehicle. This correlation is performed using simulated tests run within the AVL mean value model MoBEO (model based engine optimization).
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0054
Francesco de Nola, Giovanni Giardiello, Alfredo Gimelli, Andrea Molteni, Massimiliano Muccillo, Roberto Picariello
In the last few years, the automotive industry had to face three main challenges: the compliance of more severe pollutant emission limits, better engine performance in terms of torque and drivability and the simultaneous demand for a significant reduction in fuel consumption as well. These conflicting goals have driven the evolution of automotive engines. In particular, the achievement of all these mandatory aims, together with the increasingly stringent requirements for carbon dioxide reduction, led to the development of highly complex engine architectures needed to perform advanced operating strategies. Thus, Variable Valve Actuation (VVA), Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI), turbocharging, powertrain hybridization and other solutions have gradually and widely equipped the modern internal combustion engines, enhancing the possibilities to achieve the required goals.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0051
Ferdinando Taglialatela, Mario Lavorgna, Silvana Di Iorio, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Real time estimation of particle size distribution has a great importance for advanced control strategies that can allow diesel engines to comply with future emission standards. Moreover, knowledge of real time particulate size distribution allows the optimization of the functioning of after-treatment systems. The aim of this paper is to present a Neural Network model able to provide real time information about the characteristics of particulate emissions from a Diesel engine. The model has as inputs some engine parameters such as engine speed, engine load, EGR ratio, etc., and, as output, the particle size distribution. Preliminary results indicated that the model shows, for every engine operating condition, a satisfactory capability of estimating the concentrations of particulate particles with prefixed diameters.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 110083