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Technical Paper

Environmental and Sustainability Aspects of an Aviation Auxiliary Power Unit Analyzed with the Aid of Exergy

2018-10-30
2018-32-0071
During the past decade environmental and sustainability issues have become major problems to overcome since they have caused regional and global consequences. This paper discusses the environmental and sustainability aspects of Gas Turbine (GT) based aviation Auxillary Power Unit (APU) with the aid of exergy. Exergy is a potential tool to determine exergy destructions and losses and their true magnitudes and exact locations. In this study some exergy based parameters such as: exergetic efficiency, waste exergy ratio, exergy recoverability ratio, exergy destruction ratio, environmental impact factor, and exergetic sustainability index are proposed and investigated. Cycle operating parameters of the gas turbine cycle based APU such as compressor-pressure-ratio (rp,c), Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT) have been chosen for analysis. Mathematical modeling of the cycle has been done and the same has been coded in MATLAB.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rotational Vibration Mechanism of Camshaft at High Engine Speed in Engines with In-line Four-cylinder DOHC Configuration

2018-10-30
2018-32-0072
Engines applied to super sports category motorcycles usually require high output and light weight. To achieve both of them, optimization of engine parts design, keeping durability in mind, is important. One such part is the cam chain. Particularly, in an in-line four-cylinder DOHC type engine, which is widely adopted to motorcycles in this category, when it runs at a high-speed revolution region, where the engine revolution speed is 10,000 rpm or higher, the rotation speed of the camshaft greatly fluctuates in the cycle of fourth-order per one revolution of the crank, and the cam chain tension increases. For this reason, it is particularly difficult to design. In this study, the mechanism of this phenomenon which are generated in the high-speed rotation region of the in-line four-cylinder DOHC engine, were analyzed by simulation. The analysis was conducted not only for the valve train but also for overall engine.
Technical Paper

Study on the prevention of face-plugging of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC)

2018-10-30
2018-32-0069
In order to resolve global atmospheric environmental problems, latest diesel engines for industrial machinery are required to reduce the emission of harmful gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx), and particulate matter (PM). For this reason, some of the diesel engines are equipped with exhaust gas treatment devices such as diesel particulate filter (DPF), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. However, such engine systems sometimes give rise to excessive back pressure increase and deterioration of the catalyst performance by the plugging of the inlet end face of DOC or DPF by soot when they are operated long under low load conditions. In order to resolve these problems, it is necessary for the system to be equipped with some additional devices to raise the exhaust gas temperature to a high level enough to burn out the soot.
Technical Paper

Experimental data of a small-size Gas ICE driven Heat Pump (GHP) and comparison of the environmental performance with an electric heat pump

2018-10-30
2018-32-0070
Worldwide, whenever thermal energy is required one of the most common supply solution is represented by the adoption of an electric heat pump. Nevertheless, other solutions may represent a valid option and the use of a Gas Heat Pump (GHP), based on an Internal Combustion Engine fed by natural gas, is one of these. The experimental results of the operations of a GHP in a small-size enterprise in central Italy are presented: the test site, with its energy requests and technical constraints is described. Furtherly, a comparison with an electric heat pump is carried out by reproducing its behaviour through a 1-D simulation tool developed in the Simulink environment. The advantages that the thermal generator based on the ICE can bring compared to an electric solution from the technical, economic, and environmental point of view are highlighted.
Technical Paper

Development of anti lift control for motorcycle

2018-10-30
2018-32-0076
In Motorcycle market, customers demand the engine control for safe and fast riding. One of those, the Control for maximum acceleration performance without front tire lift(Anti lift control) is already on the market. We developed more accurate control. In order to maximize the acceleration performance, it is necessary to keep the front lift angle as close as possible to zero. So after the front lift angle increased, the engine torque has to be reduced to keep the front lift angle to zero. But the unduly engine torque reduction cause the worse acceleration performance. Front lift Feedback control is effective to optimize engine torque. But if the feedback gain is increased to keep the front lift angle as close as possible to zero, the engine torque will oscillate and it will deteriorate the ride comfort.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Comparison in Small, Fast Running Gasoline Engines for non-Automotive Applications

2018-10-30
2018-32-0077
Small engines for non-automotive applications include 2-stroke and 4-stroke gasoline engine concepts which have a reduced number of sensors due to cost and packaging constraints. In order to cope with future emission regulations, more sophisticated engine control and monitoring becomes mandatory. Therefore a cost-effective way has to be found to gain maximum information from the existing sensors and actuators. Due to an increasing bio-fuel share in the market, the detection of bio-fuel content is necessary to guarantee a stable combustion by adapting the injection and ignition control strategy. Meaningful information about the combustion can be retrieved from combustion chamber ion current measurements. This paper proposes a general overview of combustion process monitoring in different engines concepts by measuring the ion current during combustion.
Technical Paper

Design, Analysis and Optimization of SI Engine Intake Manifold for FSAE

2018-10-30
2018-32-0073
Fluid dynamics of intake system plays a key role in deciding the performance of an engine. This dynamics is different for fuel injected and carburetted engine and varies according to type of engine, number of cylinders, temperature at inlet, valve timing, valve angle and other factors. Careful design of the intake manifold enables to manipulate the performance characteristics of the engine to the desired level. The present work deals with the analysis of the flow within the intake manifold in steady state and analyze the results to evaluate and improve the ability of the intake port to convey air to the cylinder with the highest possible mass flow rate. Enhanced mass air intake increases the breathability of the engine which in turn increases the volumetric efficiency of the engine. Optimising air flow performance during intake process is the main objective of this work. The performance of the engine can be improved by optimized design of intake manifold.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Transient Behavior of a Two-Wheeler Single Cylinder Engine Close to Idling with Electronic Throttle Control

2018-10-30
2018-32-0074
The introduction of stricter emission legislation and the demand of increased power for small two-wheelers lead to an increase of technical requirements. Especially for single cylinder engines with high compression ratio the transient behavior close to idling is challenging. The demand for two-wheeler specific responsiveness of the vehicle requires low overall rotational inertia as well as small intake manifold volumes. The combination with high compression ratio can lead to a stalling of the engine if the throttle is opened and closed very quickly in idle operation. The fast opening and closing of the throttle is called a throttle blip. Fast in this context means that the blipping event can occur in one to two working cycles. Previous work was focused on the development of a procedure to apply reproducible blipping events to a vehicle in order to derive a deeper physical understanding of the stalling events.
Technical Paper

Design of Atkinson Cycle Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0080
So far, researches on internal combustion engine are still ongoing, and plenty of technologies are still progressing, therefore, before electric cars become popular, internal combustion engines still could not be replaced. However, with the regulation of vehicles’ fuel consumption gradually becomes more severe, auto makers must strive to improve their engines’ fuel economy. Atkinson cycle is commonly adopted to improve engine’s fuel economy, which uses longer expansion stroke to generate more work; Miller cycle enhances thermal efficiency through the early closure of intake valves to decrease pumping losses. Using Ricardo Wave engine simulation software to carry out Atkinson cycle’s design by importing Variable Valve Timing (VVT), and analyzing results by increasing compression ratio, air fuel ratio, so does importing Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. Finally adopting the simulation results to design the Atkinson Cycle engine.
Technical Paper

A study of friction behavior of a single cylinder gasoline engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0078
In order to improve the performance, fuel economy and future emission norms of a reciprocating engine, it is important to reduce the overall engine frictional losses. In this paper, author conducts an experimental study on the friction characteristics due to pumping loss, valve-train system, piston assembly, auxiliaries and transmission for a 110 cc, single cylinder 4 stroke gasoline engine using frictional strip down analysis. This paper deals with the friction performance results for the new concept piston skirt design called the unsymmetrical skirt for least piston skirt friction. Also, parameters like piston profile, oil film thickness optimized for least friction. The piston profile is arrived for optimum contact pattern with least piston slap noise. The modified engine reduced the engine friction by 9% in comparison to the base engine.
Technical Paper

Preparing BMW Motorrad´s Boxer Engine for the Future: Improving Performance, Driveability and Efficiency while Fulfilling Future Emission Standards

2018-10-30
2018-32-0083
Engine development mostly revolves around the same competing goals. With the implementation of the EU4 and EU5 emission standards for motorcycles, this competition between increased performance, better driveability and efficiency, and fulfilling the Emission standards got even stronger. Though the automotive industry offers a variety of solutions for the named topics, their implementation in a high performance motorcycle engine with specific needs regarding packaging, a wide operating range and full load behaviour, represents a special challenge. This paper presents the approach of BMW Motorrad to meet these goals on the example of the boxer engine, focusing on the methodology throughout the development process. The gas exchange system of the engine was optimized using 1D gas dynamic simulations and 3D CFD analysis for a redesign of the valve train, ports and valves.
Technical Paper

Model-based approach for engine performance optimization

2018-10-30
2018-32-0082
Model-based approach for engine performance optimization How model-based testing and optimization can support the improvement of performance, drivability, durability and fuel consumption of motorcycle (race) engines //Abstract State-of-the-art motorcycle engines consist of numerous variable components and require a powerful motor management to meet the growing customer expectations and the legislative requirements (e.g. exhaust and noise emissions, fuel consumption) at the same time. These demands are often competing and raise the level of complexity in calibration. In the racing domain, the optimization requirements are usually higher and test efficiency is crucial. Whilst the number of variables to control are growing, the time to perform an engine optimization remains or is even shortened. Therefore, simulation is becoming an essential part of the engine calibration optimization.
Technical Paper

Study of a charged engine for motorbike application

2018-10-30
2018-32-0079
Legislation bodies are increasingly pushing vehicles manufacturers all over the world towards the reduction of emissions and fuel consumption of new developed vehicles. These strict requirements applied to motorbikes manufacturers present them with a big challenge, since the efficiency improvement must be achieved without affecting the performance, in terms of torque and power first, and throttle response and drivability, which are significantly important to a motorbike owner. In order to meet the stringent consumption targets, in the recent years, the strategy of “downsizing” has become widespread in the automotive field. The reduction of engine displacement together with the adoption of turbocharging allows shifting the engine operating points in an area of higher efficiency with obvious advantages in terms of fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Static Stress and Thermal Analysis of Connecting Rod using FE-Analysis

2018-10-30
2018-32-0034
In series of automobile engine components, a connecting rod is used to convert linear motion of the piston to reciprocating motion of the crankshaft. In this paper, the static and thermal stress analysis of connecting rod made up of 42CrMo4 is conducted, using finite element method. After measuring the dimension of connecting rod, the model is developed in Solidworks software and imported to Solidworks Simulation software. Static stress analysis is done by fixing the crank end and load is applied at the piston end of connecting rod. Maximum stress point and section prone to failure is found out by this analysis. Also, the thermal analysis of the connecting rod is performed.The purpose of this study is to show the performance of connecting rod under different loading condition with considerable reduction in weight.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Match-Blended PRF and TSF Fuels with Ethanol in an Instrumented CFR Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1672
The CFR F1 engine is the standard testing apparatus used for rating the research octane number (RON) of gasoline fuels. Unlike the motor octane number (MON) method, where the intake port temperature after the carburetor is controlled by an electric heater, this temperature can vary with the heat of vaporization of the fuel in the RON method. In order for a CFR engine to be determined “Fit for Use” for octane testing, adjustments are made to the controlled intake air temperature upstream of the carburetor based on changes to barometric pressure and the condition of that particular CFR engine. This work shows the effects of changes to intake port temperature on the CFR knockmeter octane rating, combustion characteristics, and other modern knock intensity metrics for fuels with base primary reference fuels (PRFs) and toluene standardization fuels (TSFs).
Technical Paper

Real Driving NOx Emissions from Euro VI Diesel Buses

2018-09-10
2018-01-1815
Since 2013, Euro VI heavy-duty on-road vehicles have been on the market in the Europe. Regulated exhaust emissions, especially nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, have been cut down to a very low level, independent of fuel (diesel or natural gas). Multiple research papers have shown that the regulated emissions from the Euro VI and US 2010 heavy-duty on-road vehicles tested on chassis dynamometers really deliver emission level which correspond the type approval requirements, independent of the test cycle used. In-service Conformity, which is included in the Euro VI legislation, requires heavy-duty on-road engine manufacturers to test and prove their engines to comply with the emission legislation during the engine in-use period. The measurements are carried out in the field using PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) equipment. This kind of testing, depicting real driving emissions (RDE), is the final stage to really ensure low real-life emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of a measurement method to determine the heat transfer coefficient in piston cooling galleries

2018-09-10
2018-01-1776
Piston cooling galleries are critical for the pistons’ capability to handle increasing power density while maintaining the same level of durability. However, piston cooling also accounts for a considerable amount of heat rejection and parasitic losses. Knowing the distribution of the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) inside the cooling gallery could enable new designs which ensure effective cooling of the areas decisive for durability while minimizing parasitic losses and overall heat rejection. In this study, an inverse heat conduction method is presented to determine the spatial HTC distribution inside the cooling gallery based on surface temperature measurements with an IR camera. The method utilizes a specially machined piston with a thin layer of known thickness between the cooling gallery and the piston bowl. The piston – initially at room temperature – is heated up with warm oil injected into the cooling gallery.
Technical Paper

Feasibility of Virtual Environments to Develop Future Driving Cycles

2018-09-10
2018-01-1816
The current test procedure for testing emissions from new vehicles, the World Harmonised World Test Procedure (WLTP), was introduced in September 2017. The WLTP was developed by collecting over 765,000 kilometres worth of data in order to isolate driver behaviour from other real world variables. However, this is a very time consuming and costly process. This paper discusses the suitability of a cheaper and timely alternative. Driver behaviour can have a significant impact on the emissions produced from the same vehicle. This study explores the feasibility of utilising virtual environments as an alternative to real world testing to isolate driver behaviour to develop future drive cycles. The use of virtual environments have some significant advantages over real world testing. The virtual environments can be strictly controlled in terms of the weather, topography and vehicle characteristics, thereby aiding the isolation of driver behaviour from other variables.
Technical Paper

The nozzle flows and atomization characteristics of the surrogate fuel of diesel from indirect coal liquefaction at engine conditions

2018-09-10
2018-01-1691
Recently, all world countries facing the stringent emission regulations have been encouraged to explore the clean fuel. The diesel from coal indirect coal liquefaction (DICL) has been verified that can reduce the soot and NOx emissions of compression-ignition engine. However, the atomization characteristics of DICL rarely studied. The aim of this work is to numerically analyze the inner nozzle flow and the atomization characteristics of the diesel from coal indirect liquefaction (DICL) and compare the global and local flow characteristics of the DICL with the NO.2 diesel (D2) at engine conditions. A surrogate fuel of the DICL (a mixture of 72.4% n-dodecane and 27.6% methylcyclohexane by mass) was built according to its components to simulate the atomization characteristics of the DICL in the high temperature and high pressure environment (non-reacting) by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES).
Technical Paper

Impacts of an on-board safety device on the emissions and fuel consumption of a light duty vehicle

2018-09-10
2018-01-1821
Vehicle emissions and fuel consumption are significantly affected by driving behavior. Many studies of eco-driving technology such as eco-driving training, driving simulator and on-board eco-driving device have reported potential reductions in emissions and fuel consumption. Use of on-board safety devices is mainly for safety, but also affects the vehicle emission and fuel consumption. In this study, an on-board safety device was installed to alert the driver and improve the driving behavior. A portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure vehicle exhaust concentrations, including hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The driving parameters including vehicle speed, acceleration and position were also recorded. A specific test route was designated for the experiment to cover both urban and highway conditions.
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