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Viewing 91 to 120 of 109758
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0449
Yinzhi He, Bin Wang, Zhe Shen, Zhigang Yang, Gunnar Heilmann, Tao Zhang, Guoxu Dong
Abstract Beamforming techniques are widely used today in aeroacoustic wind tunnels to identify wind noise sources generated by interaction between incoming flow and the test object. In this study, a planar spiral microphone array with 120 channels was set out-of-flow at 1:1 aeroacoustic wind tunnel of Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center (SAWTC) to test exterior wind noise sources of a production car. Simultaneously, 2 reference microphones were set in vehicle interior to record potential sound source signal near the left side view mirror triangle and the signal of driver’s ear position synchronously. In addition, a spherical array with 48 channels was set inside the vehicle to identify interior noise sources synchronously as well. With different correlation methods and an advanced algorithm CLEAN-SC, the ranking of contributions of vehicle exterior wind noise sources to interested interior noise locations was accomplished.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0455
Harshad Hatekar, Baskar Anthonysamy, V. Saishanker, Lakshmi Pavuluri, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Abstract Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0457
Kenji Matsumoto, Hideharu Koga
Abstract Piston ring wear in gasoline engine induces deterioration of emissions performance due to leakage of blow-by gas, instability of idling caused by reduced compression in combustion chamber, and to generate early degeneration of engine oil. We examined anti-wear performance of DLC coating on piston ring, which had been recently reported as an effective method for improving the abrasion resistance. As a result, wear rate remained low under the condition of DLC existence on sliding surface, but once DLC was worn out completely, wear of the piston ring was accelerated and its life became shorter than piston ring without DLC. In this research, we designed reciprocating test apparatus that operates at much higher velocity range, and characterized the frictional materials of the piston ring and sleeve and the DLC as a protective film, a vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) was actively used as a means to form certain level of convex and concave shape on its surface.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0460
Erina Yasuda, Hiroki Kobayakawa, Seiji Amano, Yuto Otsuki, Tomohiro Ukai
Abstract The number of vehicles with engines using idling stop systems and hybrid systems to improve fuel consumption has recently been increasing. However, with such systems the frequent starts and stops of the engine, where the oil film between the bearings and shaft is squeezed out and direct contact between the components is more likely, can result in increased wear of the engine bearings, particularly in the main bearing. Bearings with resin overlays have been shown to display superior resistance to wear from such start-stop cycles. Moreover, cast iron shafts without quenching treatment have also been used in engines for cost reduction. Because the cast shaft has low hardness and unstable surface graphite after abrasive finishing, increase in the wear amount cannot be suppressed by conventional resin overlay in comparison with steel shaft. Therefore, the resin overlay with improved wear resistance achieved by adding hard particles was developed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0465
HaiYan Yu, Siji Chen
Abstract Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) tube is an important material for the lightweight design of automotive structures. Simulation method of CFRP thin-walled tubes subjected to axial compression using MAT54 in LS-DYNA was investigated. Based on the two-layer shell model combined with MAT54, failure strategy and the parameters sensitivity of the model were discussed in detail. Then the simulation model was verified by using duplicate specimens comprised of carbon fiber/epoxy unidirectional prepreg tape. Furthermore, the modeling methods of crush trigger and different types of loading speed were analyzed. In addition, based on the method of equal energy absorption, energy absorption performance of thin-walled circular and square tubes made from four materials including mild steel, high strength steel, aluminum alloy and CFRP were also compared.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0464
Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie, Jimi Tjong
Abstract Friction between the piston and cylinder accounts for large amount of the friction losses in an internal combustion (IC) engine. Therefore, any effort to minimize such a friction will also result in higher efficiency, lower fuel consumption and reduced emissions. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating is considered as a hard ceramic coating which can provide a dimpled surface for oil retention to bear the wear and reduce the friction from sliding piston rings. In this work, a high speed pin-on-disc tribometer was used to generate the boundary, mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication regimes. Five different lubricating oils and two different loads were applied to do the tribotests and the COFs of a PEO coating were studied. The results show that the PEO coating indeed had a lower COF in a lower viscosity lubricating oil, and a smaller load was beneficial to form the mixed and hydrodynamic lubricating regimes earlier.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0467
Wei Yuan, Brian Jordon, Bita Ghaffari, Harish Rao, Shengyi Li, Min Fan
Abstract Lightweight metals such as Al and Mg alloys have been increasingly used for reducing mass in both structural and non-structural applications in transportation industries. Joining these lightweight materials using traditional fusion welding techniques is a critical challenge for achieving optimum mechanical performance, due to degradation of the constituent materials properties during the process. Friction stir welding (FSW), a solid-state joining technique, has emerged as a promising method for joining these lightweight materials. In particular, high joining efficiency has been achieved for FSW of various Al alloys and Mg alloys separately. Recent work on FSW of dissimilar lightweight materials also show encouraging results based on quasi-static shear performance. However, coach-peel performance of such joints has not been sufficiently examined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0472
Gyoko Oh
Abstract To prevent corrosion of the inlet part with aqueous ammonia injection, high chromium corrosion-resistant materials have been applied for welded joints of mufflers. Bending fatigue strength of welded joint samples of flange pipes was defined through fatigue experiments, modeling that high fluctuating stresses exist in the inlet and outlet flange pipes of a muffler caused by the vibration of a moving vehicle. Factors that caused fatigue to failure such as welding bead shape and metallographic structure were identified through local stress measurements, FEM stress simulations, microscopic observations, and SEM-EDS composition analyses. By comparing with sample A having a smaller flank angle and sample B having a larger flank angle, the results suggested that the difference of bending fatigue strengths at 200,000 cycles was 24% when based on nominal stress, and the difference was 10% when based on measured maximum stress.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0473
Satoshi Nakada, Toru Furusawa, Eiichiro Yokoi, R Carbas, M Costa, E Marques, G Viana, LFM da Silva
Abstract In recent years, adhesive bonding is increasingly being applied in the construction of vehicle frames in order to improve body stiffness and crash performance. Regarding crash performance, the behavior of impacted components is affected by the fracture energy value of the adhesive. However, the relationship between the ductility and fracture energy values under mixed-mode loadings has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this paper, the fracture energy of three structural adhesives in a static mixed-mode loading using Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens is presented. To derive the fracture energy values, the Compliance Based Beam Method (CBBM) was used, which allowed for precise determination of fracture energy values. Static mixed-mode loading tests were performed in six configurations of mixed-mode loading, ranging from pure peel mode state to almost pure shear mode state.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0474
Chady Khalil, Yannick Amosse, Guillaume Racineux
Abstract In this study, a proposed new 3-in-1 process using the magnetic pulse welding (MPW) for welding similar and dissimilar metals and for hybrid joining between FRC and metals is developed. Welding between (a) AA1199 sheets and XES, (b) AA1199 and XSG which is zinc coated steel, (c) 5754-aluminum alloy and XES were performed and (d) hybrid joint between PA66-glass-FRC and 5754-aluminum was achieved. SEM observations and EDX analysis for the weld interface between aluminum and steel showed where detectable very thin layers of intermetallics and the wavy interface pattern typical for impact welding was identified. X-Ray microtomography observation for the joining region in the FRC showed the good state of the composite structure after joining. 3D numerical simulation using LS-Dyna was used for the selection of the welding parameters. Quasi-static lap shear testing for the welds revealed a failure in the weak metal sheet and not in the weld.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1066
Christoph Beerens, Alexander Mueller, Kimm Karrip
Abstract As emissions regulations and carbon footprint are more and more demandingly controlled, thermal efficiency of engine components must be optimized. Valve group components have to allow for ever increasing temperatures, endure aggressive condensates or even contribute directly to rising efficiency and emissions demands. Even with integrated and cooled exhaust manifolds, the exhaust valves are meeting full combustion temperatures, especially for stoichiometric combustion. MAHLE has developed a new technology in order to measure valve temperatures in real time, i.e. Transient Valve Temperature Measurement (TVTM). This is a complex methodology using thermocouples installed inside of the valves, offering the possibility to run the engine at different conditions, without any functional changes in the valve train system at all. Specifically valve rotation is not affected and thus temperatures all around the valve seat can be captured during rotation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1087
Pengfei Zang, Zhe Wang, Yu Fu, Chenle Sun
Abstract The Linear Internal Combustion Engine-Linear Generator Integrated System (LICELGIS) is different from conventional crank-based engine for reducing frictional losses by eliminating the crankshaft. Thus, the LICELGIS piston stroke is not constrained geometrically and the system compression ratio is variable. During steady-state operation, the LICELGIS converts the fuel chemical energy into electric power with piston assembly reciprocating motion, which can be used as a range-extender in hybrid electric vehicles. The LICELGIS scavenging process is prerequisite and key for the system steady-state operation, which has remarkable influence on mixture gas and, eventually, on engine combustion performance. In order to achieve high scavenging performance, a LICELGIS is investigated in this paper. The LICELGIS motion characteristics and scavenging process were analyzed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1077
Nicolas Arnault, Nicolas Batailley, Arnaud Maria, Laurent Bechu
Abstract PSA Group, SOLVAY and SOGEFI have teamed-up to produce the first Plastic Diesel Fuel Filter fully made of recycled polyamide 66, ready for mass-production. This has been achieved by using the brand new plastic compound developed by SOLVAY Engineering Plastics. This material is 100% recycled from airbag wastes, providing a premium material able to stand demanding applications requirements supplied through circular economy, which is quite unusual in automotive industry yet. SOGEFI has used this material through its existing plastic injection process, and tested the parts on extensive bench validation tests. It confirmed that this material is fully compatible with standard injection process, and that all the tests have been passed successfully. Finally, PSA Group has driven the choice of the tested parts: DV engine 1.6l Euro6b application, homologated the material grade and evaluated the whole validation process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1070
Da Shao, Xu Sichuan, Aimin Du
Abstract The electromagnetic valve actuator (EMVA) is considered a technological solution for decoupling between crankshaft and camshaft to improve engine performance, emissions, and fuel efficiency. Conventional EMVA consists of two electromagnets, an armature, and two springs has been proved to have the drawbacks of fixed lift, impact noise, complex control method and large power consumption. This paper proposes a new type of EMVA that uses voice coil motor (VCM) as electromagnetic valve actuator. This new camless valvetrain (VEMA) is characterized by simple structure, flexible controllable and low actuating power. VCM provides an almost flat force versus stroke curve that is very useful for high precision trajectory control to achieve soft landing within simple control algorithm.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1067
Xiaoguo Storm, Heikki J. Salminen, Reino Virrankoski, Seppo Niemi, Jari Hyvonen
Abstract With the tightening requirements on engine emission and performance, pressure based combustion controls are becoming common in medium speed large bore reciprocating internal combustion engines. The accuracy of the cylinder pressure data including the raw pressure value at its corresponding crank angle, has a vital impact on engine controllability. For instance, this work shows that a 1-bar pressure offset leads to a 0.6% variation in the total heat release (THR) while the 50% heat release crank angle (CA50) can be shifted by 1.5 degrees. Similarly, with a single degree error in the crank position, the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) gets a 1.8 bar error. Thus, in this work the typical errors for cylinder pressure measurement are reviewed and analyzed for large bore four stroke marine and power plant production engines. The main sources of error for pressure measurement are thermal shock and installation defects.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1359
Michael Hamm
Abstract Headlamp performance has changed in the last 20 years significantly. Sealed beam lamps were replaced by VHAD, VOR and VOL types, but still the optical input in terms of tungsten filament based luminous flux remained more stable. With Xenon discharge lamps and now LED the performance of a headlamp may vary strongly and thus the optical performance. Various rating systems have been developed to assess the quality of lamps and light distribution, some based on laboratory based data, some based on static or dynamic street test drives with online measurements and assessments. Basic interest is to understand the performance of the light for a real driver. This article will discuss the influence parameters on achieving a repeatable and precise rating as well as the outer influence that creates glare and varying seeing distance. Mostly mechanical headlamp and car conditioning will influence the result as well as human factors like aiming precision and aiming tolerances.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1360
John D. Bullough
Abstract Nighttime driving cannot be accomplished without vehicle headlighting. A growing body of evidence demonstrates the role of lighting on visual performance and in turn on nightttime driving safety in terms of crashes. Indirect impacts of lighting via comfort or other factors are less well understood, however. A two-part field study using real-world drivers of an instrumented vehicle was conducted to assess the potential role of oncoming headlight glare as a factor in driving behaviors that might be related to increased crash risks. In the first part of the study, drivers' behaviors when navigating through roadway intersections having different levels of crash risk were recorded in order to identify responses that were correlated with the risk level. In the second part, drivers were exposed to different levels of glare from oncoming headlights; several of the same risk-related behaviors identified in the first part of the study were exhibited.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1353
Michael G. Leffert
Abstract This paper compares the material consumption and fire patterns which developed on four nearly identical compact sedans when each was burned for exactly the same amount of time, but with different wind speed and direction during the burns. This paper will also compare the effects of environmental exposure to the fire patterns on the vehicles. The burn demonstrations were completed at an outdoor facility in southeast Michigan on four late model compact sedans. The wind direction was controlled by placing the subject vehicle with either the front facing into the wind, or rear facing into the wind. Two of the burns were conducted when the average observed wind speed was 5-6kph and two of the burns were conducted at an average observed wind speed of 19kph.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1356
Rainer Neumann
Abstract In the last years we recognize a big amount of innovative solutions in the field of automotive lighting and especially in front lighting systems. The major target to improve the light performance and to make driving at night safe is most important. The measure for the performance rating and the ability to compare different systems with a technology neutral process seems to be quite difficult. The legislation is looking for a simplification with clearly defined parameters for the future. Experimental test series recently published causing a lot of discussions as the sensitivity of the aiming of the headlamps can cause completely different performance test results. The paper will report on a study with various production vehicles, all in the same way initially aimed and prepared for all type of technologies.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1382
Michelle L. Reyes, Cheryl A. Roe, Ashley B. McDonald, Julia E. Friberg, Daniel V. McGehee
Abstract Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) show tremendous promise for increasing safety on our roadways. However, while these technologies are rapidly infiltrating the American passenger vehicle market, many consumers have little to no experience or knowledge of them prior to getting behind the wheel. The Technology Demonstration Study was conducted to evaluate how the ways in which drivers learn about ADAS affect their perceptions of the technologies. This paper investigates drivers’ knowledge of the purpose, function, and limitations of the advanced driver assistance technology of adaptive cruise control (ACC), along with ratings of perceived usefulness, apprehension, and effort required to learn to use ACC.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1380
Richard Young
Abstract Dingus and colleagues recently estimated the crash odds ratios (ORs) for secondary tasks in the Strategic Highway Research Program Phase 2 (SHRP 2) naturalistic driving study. Their OR estimate for hand-held cell phone conversation (Talk) was 2.2, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.6 to 3.1. This Talk OR estimate is above 1, contrary to previous estimates below 1. A replication discovered two upward biases in their analysis methods. First, for video clips with exposure to a particular secondary task, Dingus and colleagues selected clips not only with exposure to that task, but often with concurrent exposure to other secondary tasks. However, for video clips without exposure to that task, Dingus and colleagues selected video clips without other secondary tasks. Hence, the OR estimate was elevated simply because of an imbalanced selection of video clips, not because of risk from a particular secondary task.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1374
Michael J. Flannagan, Shan Bao, Anuj Pradhan, John Sullivan, Yu Zhang
Abstract Mcity at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor provides a realistic off-roadway environment in which to test vehicles and drivers in complex traffic situations. It is intended for testing of various levels of vehicle automation, from advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) to fully self-driving vehicles. In a recent human factors study of interfaces for teen drivers, we performed parallel experiments in a driving simulator and Mcity. We implemented driving scenarios of moderate complexity (e.g., passing a vehicle parked on the right side of the road just before a pedestrian crosswalk, with the parked vehicle partially blocking the view of the crosswalk) in both the simulator and at Mcity.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1371
Hao Pan, Xuexun Guo, Xiaofei Pei, Xingzhi Dong
Abstract Brake pedal feel plays an important role in the driver's comprehensive subjective feeling when braking, which directly affects the active safety and riding comfort of passenger car. A systematical mathematical model of the vehicle brake system is built in according with the structure and system characteristics of hydraulic servo brake system. A complete hydraulic servo brake system simulation model composed of brake pedal, vacuum booster, brake master cylinder, brake pipe, brake wheel cylinders, brake calipers is established in AMESim. The effects of rubber reaction plate stiffness, rubber valve opening, brake master cylinder piston, brake caliper, brake pipe deformation and friction liner deformation on brake pedal feel are considered in this model. The accuracy of this model is verified by real road vehicle tests under static and dynamic two different conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1370
Hiroyuki Hara, Masaaki Kawauchi, Masayuki Katayama, Noriyuki Iwamori
Abstract Driving is an action that depends strongly on visual information. For displays in the cockpit, a combination of “ease of viewing” to inform the driver of danger early and “annoyance reduction” to avoid drops in the driver’s perception is needed. In this study, we tried to capture “ease of viewing” and “annoyance” in one fixed-quantity indicator. We took up a Camera Monitor System (CMS) as the subject and analyzed the effect that annoyance with the display used in CMSs has on driving behavior. Based on our analysis, we hypothesize that evaluating carelessness in viewing behavior is related evaluating to annoyance. Next, we chose a Detection Response Task (DRT) technique as a method to evaluate driving behavior influenced by this annoyance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1369
Abtine Tavassoli, Sam Perlmutter, Dung Bui, James Todd, Laurene Milan, David Krauss
Abstract Vision plays a key role in the safe and proper operation of vehicles. To safely navigate, drivers constantly scan their environments, which includes attending to the outside environment as well as the inside of the driver compartment. For example, a driver may monitor various instruments and road signage to ensure that they are traveling at an appropriate speed. Although there has been work done on naturalistic driver gaze behavior, little is known about what information drivers glean while driving. Here, we present a methodology that has been used to build a database that seeks to provide a framework to supply answers to various ongoing questions regarding gaze and driver behavior. We discuss the simultaneous recording of eye-tracking, head rotation kinematics, and vehicle dynamics during naturalistic driving in order to examine driver behavior with a particular focus on how this correlates with gaze behavior.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1365
Michael Larsen
Abstract Vehicle certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and various forms of type approval. Self-certification requirements used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations can be more open ended, relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of 3rd party certification is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment. One such system is Adaptive Driving Beam (ADB).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1364
Kashif Ali, Vikas Kumar, Virat Kalra
Abstract Vehicle occupant packaging and interior and exterior body design determine the overall visibility that the driver of the vehicle has. Visibility is also dependent on technological features inside and outside the passenger cell like proximity sensors and cameras etc. The focus of this research is to find and analyze the visibility percentages, blind spot angles and blind spot areas using statistical data both individually and as vehicle class put together in order to justify the need for standardization of basic visibility enhancing aids. This study has an added significance considering the Indian road transportation statistics. On an average, 16 people die every hour due to road accidents in India. The aim is to focus on cases that affect visibility in low speed driving, coasting and reversing that causes loss to public and private property.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1395
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Dong Woo Cho, Bum Il Shim
Abstract Seat cushions are considered as one of the important factors influence the seating comfort. In the automotive seat cushions, flexible polyurethane foams have been widely used due to the cushioning performance. Automotive seat designers are paying more attention to the improvement of seat cushion properties. This study introduces an automotive seat that uses an air-mat in the seat cushion along with polyurethane foam. The air-mat can be adjusted with its internal air pressure. The objective of this paper is to examine air-mat seat pressure level on seating comfort. Vibration experiments have been performed on the BSR simulator with random vibration. Tri-axial accelerometers were used to measure vibration at the foot and hip. All measured vibration were about the vertical direction (z-axis). The whole-body vibration exposure parameters (weighted root-mean-square (RMS), vibration dose value (VDV), transmissibility (SEAT value)) were calculated per ISO 2631-1 standard.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1394
Seung Nam Min, Murali Subramaniyam, Seunghee Hong, Damee Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Kyung-Sun Lee, Sun Ho Hur, Hyuk KIM, Se Jin Park
Abstract Drivers’ physical and physiological states change with prolonged driving. Driving for extended periods of time can lead to an increased risk of low back pain and other musculoskeletal disorders, caused by the discomfort of the seats. Static and dynamic are the two main categories must be considered within the seating development. The posture and orientation of the occupant are the important factors on static comfort. Driving posture measurement is essential for the evaluation of a driver workspace and improved seat comfort design. This study evaluated the comfortable driving posture through physiological and ergonomics measurements of an automotive premium driver seat. The physiological evaluation includes electroencephalographic (EEG) for brain waves, Biopac’s AcqKnowledge program, and subjective measurements on 32 healthy individuals. JACK simulation was used for the ergonomics evaluation, i.e., the magnitude of the spinal loads about lumbar vertebrae was estimated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1392
Abhilash CHOUBEY, RAJESH PAL, Kotanageswararao Puli, Pankaj Maheshwari, Sandeep Raina
Abstract The seating system is an inseparable part of any automobile. Its main function is not only to provide a space to the user for driving but also to provide support, comfort and help to ergonomically access the various features and necessary operations of the vehicle. For comfort and accessibility, seats are provided with various mechanisms for adjustments in different directions. Typical mechanisms used for seating adjustment include seatback recliners, lifters (height adjusters), longitudinal adjusters, lumber support, rear seat folding mechanism etc. These mechanisms can be power operated or manual based on vehicle/market requirements. For manual mechanisms, the occupant adjusts the position of seat by operating the mechanism with his/her hand. Often comfort to the occupant during operation is limited to the operating effort of the mechanism. However, as will be shown through this study, operating effort is only one of the parameters which provide overall comfort feeling.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 109758