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Viewing 151 to 180 of 110627
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2323
Lei Li, Kai Sun, Jianyu Duan
Butanol is a promising alcohol fuel. Previous studies in flames and diesel engines showed different trends in sooting tendencies of the butanol isomers (n-butanol, iso-butanol, sec-butanol and tert-butanol). However, the impact of butanol isomers on the particulate emissions of GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engines has not been reported. This work examined the combustion performance and particle number emissions of a GDI engine fueled with gasoline/butanol blends at steady state modes. Each isomer was tested at the blend ratio 10% to 50% by volume. Spark timings for all the fuels were set to obtain the maximum break torque, i.e. the MBT spark timings. Results showed that the particle number concentration could be reduced significantly with the increasing butanol content for all the isomers.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2371
Hiroki Kambe, Naoto Mizobuchi, Eriko Matsumura
Diesel Particulate filter (DPF) is installed as after treatment device of exhaust gas in diesel engine, and it collects Particulate Matter (PM). However, as the operation time of engine increases, the PM is accumulated in the DPF, resulting in deterioration of PM collection efficiency and increase in pressure loss. Therefore, Post injection has been attracted attention as the DPF regeneration method for burning and removing PM in the DPF. But, Post injection causes oil dilution when fuel is injected at the middle to late stage of expansion stroke. Oil dilution are concern to decrease the stroke lubricity of piston movement and the thermal efficiency. In order to estimate deposition amount of fuel spray that influences oil film, we should elucidate spray impingement behavior on wall surface of oil film, to research more from the behavior of in-cylinder spray during post injection.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2354
Dave Horstman, John Sparrow
Due to recent legislation on CO2 emissions, Heavy Duty OEM’s and their suppliers have had an increased interest in improving vehicle fuel economy. Many aspects are being investigated including vehicle aerodynamics, tire rolling resistance, waste heat recovery, engine fuel efficiency, and many others. Crankcase lubricants offer a cost-effective mechanism to reduce engine friction and increase engine fuel efficiency. The potential gains realized by optimized fuel-efficient lubricants are relatively small, on the order of 1-3%. Therefore, in order to develop these lubricants, formulators must have a robust, repeatable, and realistic test method for differentiation. To address this need, Intertek has been involved with developing fuel economy tests for many years, starting with what became the Sequence VI test for passenger car lubricants in the early 1990’s. Most recently, Intertek has helped develop different FE programs to support the MD and HD diesel industry.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2404
Douglas Ball, David Lewis, David Moser, Sanket Nipunage
Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions were measured on a 4 cylinder 2.4L Malibu PZEV vehicle with 10 and 30ppm sulfur fuel while varying the PGM (Platinum Group Metals) of the close-coupled and under floor converters. Base CARB PH-III certification fuel was used. Three consecutive FTP’s were used to measure the impact of fuel sulfur and catalyst PGM loading combinations. In general, reducing fuel sulfur and increasing catalyst PGM loadings decreased FTP emissions. It is estimated that a fuel sulfur change from 30 to 10 ppm may save $100 in catalyst system PGM.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2397
Zhan Gao, Lei Zhu, Xinyao Zou, Chunpeng liu, Zhen Huang
Biodiesel is a potential alternative fuel which can meet the growing need for sustainable energy. Soot formation from biodiesel combustion is affected by many factors, such as combustion conditions and fuel components. To investigate partial premixing impact on particle formation in typical biodiesel surrogate flames, an experimental study was performed to compare the soot morphology and nanostructure evolution in laminar co-flow methyl decanoate non-premixed flame (NPF) and partially premixed flame (PPF). The thermophoretic sampling technique was used to capture particles along flame centerlines. Soot morphology information and volume fraction were obtained from TEM analysis, and nanostructure features were evaluated by HR-TEM. Rapid thermocouple insertion technique was applied to obtain the temperature profiles. With primary equivalence ratio of 19, gas temperature of PPF was slightly higher along flame centerline compared with NPF.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2466
Graham Arnold
This paper intends to explore improved vehicle efficiency through a control system optimizes the use of regenerative braking in a plug-in, series, hybrid electric vehicle. Currently, vehicles are equipped with a plethora of sensing technology to supply information to the vehicle’s advanced driver assistance system (ADAS). These systems can be leveraged to also help improve vehicle efficiency by providing real time information that can help improve control strategies to maximize the usage of regenerative braking to reduce wasted energy in conventional friction braking. Advanced sensing can allow the vehicle to react before the human driver responds, allowing for the vehicle to begin deceleration through regenerative braking preemptively. This papers aims to simulate the basic functionality of such a control system to explore the potential efficiency gains available. The proposed system is simulated using a longitudinal full-vehicle model developed in MATLAB and Simulink.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2435
Jian Ji
In this paper, a comparative study on fuel economy and component efficiency for a continuously variable transmission (CVT) and a 9-speed automatic transmission (AT) based parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is proposed. The features of CVT and AT are analyzed and optimal ratio control strategies for both the CVT and 9-speed AT are designed from the view point of vehicle fuel economy. Simulators are developed using the co-simulation of AVL Cruise and MATLAB/Simulink. The influences of difference shifting manners on the operation efficiencies of engine and motor in various driving modes are evaluated for the same energy management control strategy. Besides, the vehicle fuel economy is calculated and studied.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2399
Jianyu Duan, Kai Sun, Lei Li
Particulate matter emissions have become a concern for the development of direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine. Besides, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been demonstrated as a beneficial technology contributing to the improvement of fuel economy and nitrous oxide emissions, which is also attracting more attention to particulate emissions. The primary focus of this work is investigation of the effect of operating parameter variations on DISI engine particulate emissions with EGR. A 1.8 liter, turbocharged engine with cooled EGR was used for this experiment. The engine was operated at a steady cruise condition with various operating parameters including start of injection (SOI), excess air ratio and spark timing under EGR conditions to characterize the particle number (PN) emissions. This work indicates there is a high sensitivity of PN emissions to variations of these parameters with EGR.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2192
Shenghui Zhong, Zhijun Peng, Yu Li, Hailin Li
A 3D DNS (Three-dimensional direct numerical simulation) study with detailed chemical kinetic mechanism of methane has been performed to investigate the characteristic of turbulent premixed oxy-fuel combustion relevant to traditional spark ignition (SI) engine conditions. H2O and CO2 are adopted as the dilution agents in oxy-fuel combustion. In order to keep a consistent temperature profile compared with those of air-fired cases, 73% and 66% of H2O and CO2 in oxidizer by volume ratio are used. At first, laminar premixed flames are conducted to study the effect of the dilution molar fraction on the process of flame propagation. It is found that decreasing the dilution molar fraction will increase the flame propagation speed in both H2O and CO2 dilution cases, and there exists a temperature limitation because of chemical equilibrium.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2212
Jun Peng, Mingyang Ma, Wang Weizhi, Fu-qiang Bai, Qing Du
High-pressure common rail(HPCR)fuel injection system is the most widely used fuel system for diesel engines due to the fact that it can provide constant injection pressure and precise injection strategy. However, when multiple injection strategy is used, the pressure wave caused by the opening and closing of the needle valve will affect the subsequent injection and can not be neglected. In this paper, the influence of pressure wave on the second injection pressure, injection rate and fuel-injection quantity is carried out on a common rail fuel injection test rig under two-stage injection conditions. The results show that the pressure wave varies in terms of various rail pressure, environmental back pressure and injection intervals, resulting in a 10% fluctuation. As a consequence, the injection quantity will be changed. In detail, increasing injection intervals leads to an enhancement of injection pressure, injection pressure fluctuations and the decrease of injection quantity.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2456
Yun Li, Jing Shang, Shiwu Zhu, Alina Ma, Robin Lyle, Zijian Li, Nannan Wang, Hua Rong
This paper presents an Integrated Power Module (IPM) and an Integrated Power Unit (IPU) which are based on the IGBT double sided cooling technology. The IPU can be used as the motor control inverter in the electric vehicle. And the IPM used in the IPU is packaged with latest 650V/600A trench field-stop IGBT device and double sided bonding and cooling technology. With the double sided bonding, planar bonding is realized which eliminates the traditional wire bonds. Powers cycling capability and long time reliability of the module have been greatly improved. Integrating with the double sided cooling, a large thermal exchanging area of the dies is achieved. Compared with the traditional single sided cooling module, thermal resistance has been reduced by 23% according to the test. Equipped with the active gate driver technology which utilizing the di/dt control and decoupling of turn-on and turn-off processes, power losses of the IPM have been greatly reduced and optimized.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2448
Jesse Schneider, Richard Carlson, Mohamad Abdul-Hak, Morris Kesler, Jonathan Sirota, Daniel Mikat, Mark Klerer, Sebastian Mathar, Yusuke Minagawa, Hiroyuki Abeta, Eloi Taha, Rich Boyer, Robert Sutton, Kensuke Kamichi
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is to be commercialized in the very near future. There are however many technology challenges. The SAE J2954 Taskforce published a guideline or Technical Information Report in 2016 to help in the harmonization in the first phase of this technology. SAE J2954 is a performance-based approach for WPT by specifying ground and assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-Height) to validate interoperability. However, there were two types of technologies used for the topologies of these coils in SAE J2954. The main goal of this SAE J2954 testing campaign was to prove interoperability and the guideline contained within. The main challenge is that this type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems. Automakers, suppliers and government employees worked together to create this test plan and resuts.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2214
Kwee-Yan Teh, Penghui Ge, Yusheng Wang, David Hung
The large-scale rotating flow structure in an engine cylinder exhibits features that can be described in generic terms of tumble and swirl. The structural details, nevertheless, vary from cycle to cycle due to fluctuating initial and boundary conditions of the flow. Typical analysis of the flow field cyclic variability — by simple root-mean-square, or additional spatial or temporal filtering, or proper orthogonal decomposition — is based on pointwise deviation of the instantaneous velocity from the ensemble mean. However, that analysis approach is not amenable to the evaluation of spatial variation of the flow structure, in position and orientation, within the flow field. To this end, other studies in the past focused instead on quantifying the variation of the vortex center for the dominant tumble or swirl pattern within the flow field.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2215
Mingming Ma
Lubricating oil system models of aero-engine whole process are established by applying ANN based on a large number of flight test data. Model results are in good agreement with flight test results, which shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented modeling method. The results of model are applied to the test condition monitoring of the aero-engine lubricating oil system, thus the real-time tendency monitoring of lubricating oil parameters is realized and application. In addition, a method to determine the main influence parameters of aero-engine lubricating oil parameters is developed by using the presented modeling method.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2401
Elana Chapman, Pat Geng, Yaowei Zhao, Susan Zhang, JunJun Ma, Jason Gong
The impact of gasoline compositions to vehicle particular emission response have been widely investigated and documented with recently proposed so called Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN data has demonstrated correlations of the indices to vehicle response. In previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented. With increasing air pollution concern and ever stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenge. Emission control requires systematic approach on both fuel and vehicle. This paper will focus on China market gasoline on fuel’s sooting tendency. Additional China vehicle response with ranges of PEI fuels are presented. In addition to PEI index, other fuel properties in gums, final boiling, aromatics, and fuel detergency are also reviewed
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2316
Yuhan Huang, Guang Hong, John Zhou
Ethanol direct injection (EDI) has great potential in facilitating the downsizing technologies in spark ignition engines due to its strong anti-knock ability. The fuel temperature may vary widely from non-evaporating to flash-boiling sprays in real engine conditions. In this study, a CFD spray model was developed in the ANSYS Fluent environment, which was capable to simulate the EDI spray and evaporation characteristics under non-evaporating, transition and flash-boiling conditions. The turbulence was modelled by the realizable k-ε model. The Rinzic heterogeneous nucleation model was applied to simulate the primary breakup droplet size at the nozzle exit. The secondary breakup process was modelled by the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model. The evaporation process was modelled by the Convection/Diffusion Controlled Model. The droplet distortion and drag, collision and droplet-wall interaction were also included.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2430
Yingmin Wang, Tao Cui, Fujun Zhang, Sufei Wang, Hongli Gao
Considering the randomness and instability of the oil pressure in the lubrication system, a new approach for fault detection and diagnosis of diesel engine lubrication system based on support vector machine optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO-SVM) model and centroid location algorithm has been proposed. Firstly, PSO algorithm is chosen to determine the optimum parameters of SVM, to avoid the blindness of choosing parameters. It can improve the prediction accuracy of the model. The results show that the classify accuracy of PSO-SVM is improved compared with SVM in which parameters are set according to experience. Radial basis function (RBF) is selected as the kernel function. Optimal parameters σ=47.34, trade-off factor C =10.98, test accuracy was 99.86%. Then, the support vector machine classification interface is fitted to a curve, and the boundary conditions of fault diagnosis are obtained.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2310
Xiaoyan Jia, Dongwei Wu, Dan Xu, Wei Shang, Wei Zang
The control valve is the most important implementation part of the high pressure common rail system, and its flow characteristics have a great influence on the performance of the injector. In this paper,based on the structure and the working principle of electromagnetic injector in high pressure common rail system, the simulation model of the injector is established by AMESim software. The key parameters of the control valve, including the volume of the control chamber, the diameter of the Oil inlet hole, the hole diameter of the oil outlet and the hole diameter of the oil diffusion hole, are studied by using the model.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2207
Nobunori okui
Next-generation vehicles which include Electric Vehicles, Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles are researched and expected to reduce CO2 emission in the future. In order to reduce the emissions of the heavy-duty diesel plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV), it is necessary to provide the high exhaust-gas temperature and to keep the aftertreatment system effective. The engine starting condition of PHEV is cold, and the engine start and stop is repeated. And, the engine load of the PHEV is assisted by the electric motor. Therefore, the aftertreatment system of PHEV is not able to get the enough high exhaust-gas temperature. And, the warm-up of the exhaust-gas aftertreatment system for PHEV is spent the long time. So, it is worried about a bad effect on the emission characteristics of PHEV. In this study, we focused on the electrical heating catalyst system (EHC), which is one of the next generation electrical technologies. This test PHEV was equipped with EHC.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2202
Shiyou Yang
This work presents an application of two sub-models relative to chemical-kinetics-based turbulent pre-mixed combustion modeling approach on the simulation of burn rate and emissions of spark ignition engines. In present paper, the justification of turbulent pre-mixed combustion modeling directly based on chemical kinetics plus a turbulence model is given briefly. Two sub-models relative to this kind of pre-mixed combustion modeling approach are described generally, including a practical PRF (primary reference fuel) chemical kinetics mechanism which can correctly capture the laminar flame speed under a wide range of Ford SI (spark ignition) engines/operating conditions, and an advanced spark plug ignition model which has been developed by Ford recently.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2325
Midhat Talibi, Paul Hellier, Nicos Ladommatos
The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels presents an alternative to the current production of renewable fuels for IC engines from food crops. However, realising the potential for reductions in net CO2 emissions through the utilisation of, for example, waste biomass for sustainable fuel production requires that energy and resource inputs into such processes be minimised. This work therefore investigates the combustion and emission characteristics of five intermediate platform molecules potentially derived from lignocellulosic biomass: gamma-valerolactone (GVL), methyl valerate, furfuryl alcohol, furfural and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF). The study was conducted on a naturally aspirated, water cooled, single cylinder spark-ignition engine. Each of the platform molecules were blended with reference fossil gasoline at 20 % wt/wt.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2328
Yuanxu Li, Karthik Nithyanandan, Han Wu, Chia-Fon Lee, Zhi Ning
Bio-butanol has been widely investigated as a promising alternative fuel. However, the main issues preventing the industrial-scale production of butanol is its relatively low production efficiency and high cost of production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, has attracted a lot of interest as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. If ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the separation costs would be eliminated which save an enormous amount of time and money in the production chain of bio-butanol.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2445
Santosh Deshmane, Onkar P. Gurav, Vipul Sahu
Today's automotive industry is facing cut throat competition, especially in passenger vehicle business. Manufacturers around the globe are developing innovative and new products keeping focus on end customer; thus customer's opinion and perception about the product has become a factor of prime importance. Customer touch points such as gear shift lever, clutch, brakes, steering etc. are thus gaining more and more importance. Car companies are trying to induce more and more luxuries in these touch points so that they impress customer and create a positive opinion about the product. On the other hand manufacturers are also trying to manage profits. Companies thus need to find the best fit solution for improvising customer touch points with optimized costs. The performance of these touch points is driven by subsystems of mechanical components like mechanical linkage.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2187
Vikram Dang, Ishwinder Sethi
This work presents a design and optimization methodology of intake manifold which can be applied in early stage of engine design. The main aim of analysis is to design and tune 2.5 L naturally aspirated CNG engine for maximizing volumetric efficiency in low rpm range of 1600 – 2400, which ultimately leads to higher torque. The approach consists of design calculations using Helmholtz resonance model, 1D thermodynamic performance analysis of full engine and 3D CFD simulation of intake manifold. Base design of intake manifold is a box type without runners, which is converted into individual runner type design having individual pipes connected to each cylinder and a plenum volume for uninterrupted supply of charge. Firstly, Runner dimensions are designed and optimized using thermodynamic simulations and after that, 3D CFD analysis of flow inside intake manifold is done. Validation of simulation model is done by comparing the results with experiments.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2199
Maria Cristina Cameretti, Vincenzo De Bellis, Luca Romagnuolo, Agostino Iorio, Luigi Maresca
Engine manufacturers are continually committed to find proper technical solutions to meet the more and more stringent CO2 emission targets fixed worldwide. Many strategies have been already developed, or are currently under study, to attain the above objectives. A tendency is however emerging towards more innovative combustion concepts, able to efficiently burn lean or highly diluted mixtures. To this aim, the enhancement of turbulence intensity inside the combustion chamber has a great importance, contributing to improve the burning rate, increase the thermal efficiency, and also reduce the cyclic variability. It is well-known that turbulence production inside the combustion chamber is mainly achieved during the intake stroke. Moreover, it is strongly affected by the intake duct geometry and orientation with respect to a plane perpendicular to the cylinder axis.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2273
Xiaokun Nie, Wanhua Su
A numerical simulation was performed to investigate the pilot ignited natural gas combustion process in a direct injection natural gas engine. Various mixture distribution characteristics were compared in terms of the evolution of mixture equivalent ratio distributions and mixture concentration stratifications around top dead center (TDC). Based on above, the pilot injections were specially designed to investigate ignition core formation and its effects on natural gas combustion process. The result shows that pilot ignition sites have great impacts on pilot fuel ignition process and natural gas combustion process. The pilot ignition site on the region with rich NG/Air mixture is disadvantageous to the pilot fuel ignition due to a lack of oxygen, which is not beneficial to ignition core formation.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2286
A S Ramadhas, Punit Kumar Singh, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Ambient temperature conditions, engine design, fuel, lubricant and fuel injection strategies influence the cold start performance of gasoline engines. Despite the cold start period is only a very small portion in the legislative emission driving cycle, but it accounts for a major portion of the overall driving cycle emissions. The start ability tests were carried out in the weather controlled transient dynamometer - engine test cell at different ambient conditions for investigating the cold start behavior of a modern generation multi-point fuel injection system spark ignition engine. The combustion data were analyzed for the first 200 cycles and the engine performance and emissions were analyzed for 300 s from key-on. It is observed that cumulative fuel consumption of the engine during the first 60 s of cold starting at 10 °C was 60% higher than at 25 °C and resulted in 8% increase in the value of peak speed of the engine.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2312
Raouf Mobasheri, Rahman Akbari
The scope of this work is to investigate the simultaneous effects of injection pressure and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on mixture formation and engine performance in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine. For this, the computational results have been firstly compared to the measured data and a good agreement has been achieved in order to predict the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate and the amount of NOx and soot emissions. Then, various injection pressures have been studied to explore its benefits to achieve the low exhaust emission at different EGR rates. The results show, while no EGR has been applied, decreasing the nozzle diameter causes the reduction of Indicate Specific Fuel Consumption (ISFC) with an increase in Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP). In addition, this strategy results to better air-fuel mixing, a faster combustion process, a considerable reduction of soot emissions but at the same time to a significant increase of NOx emission.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2372
Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Shun Oooka, Lin Jiang, Jun Goto, Hideyuki Ogawa, Gen Shibata
To monitor and evaluate the emission-related components/systems and to determine the presence of malfunction or deterioration that can affect emissions, on-board diagnostics (OBD) is required by current regulations. With respect to the diesel particulate filter (DPF), a pressure drop across the DPF is monitored by the OBD since the pressure drop is approximately linear in particulate matter (PM) load and useful for evaluation. However, it is known that a sudden decrease in the DPF pressure drop is taken place under cold start conditions and the OBD misses the diagnosis. Although this seems to be caused by the water condensed in the exhaust pipe, no detailed mechanism has been obtained so far. The present study established an experimental system that can reproduce a rapid increase of the exhaust gas flow under cold start conditions and to control the amount of water supplied into the DPF. The sudden decrease in the DPF pressure drop was taken place by the water in this system as well.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2450
Chao Xu, Fuyuan Yang, Jinyu Zhang
Power-split is highlighted as the most popular concept for full hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). However, the energy management and design of power-split heavy duty truck under Chinese driving conditions still need to be investigated. In this paper, the parametric design and an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) for the power-split heavy duty truck are presented. Besides, the influence of a penalty factor also discussed. Meanwhile, two different methods to search the engine operation point has been proposed. And the simulation shows both fuel consumption can satisfy the second phase fuel consumption standard and the third phase fuel consumption standard which will be implemented in 2020, in the C-WTVC (Chinese-World Transient Vehicle Cycle). Based on ECMS a design for generator motor and traction motor in power-split heavy duty truck has been processed. The fuel consumption has been indicted to decrease, with the motor power increasing.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 110627