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Viewing 181 to 210 of 110083
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1933
Alberto Boretti
Abstract The paper captures the recent events in relation with the Volkswagen (VW) Emissions Scandal and addresses the impact of this event on the future of power train development. The paper analyses the impact on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based technology. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), VW and the United States prosecutor, sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) towards everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) technology, and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1988
G Ramanjaneyulu, R Rajendran
Polyoxymethylene (POM) is a widely used engineering thermoplastic material, which exhibits good fatigue resistance, creep resistance and high impact strength. It has low friction coefficient due to the flexibility of the linear molecular chains. It has good wear-resistant properties because of its high crystallinity and high bond energy. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is particularly important for solid lubrication or as an additive for lubricating oils and greases. Graphite is used in industrial applications for their self-lubricating and dry lubricating properties. POM/Graphite and POM/MoS2 composites were prepared with varying proportions using twin screw extruder. The samples were prepared by injection moulding machine. Impact test and wear tests were conducted on the samples. The impact strength of the samples was measured by impact testing machine. The impact results show that significant improvement in the impact strength for graphite and MoS2 fillers.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1957
Anant Parashar, Thangaraja Jeyaseelan
Oxygenated fuels like biodiesel and ethanol possess prominent characteristics as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. However, these fuels are corrosive in nature and hygroscopic. This might results in material incompatibility with the fuel supply system of an automobile. The filter consists of a filter membrane that that traps the contaminants from the fuel and prevents them from entering into the combustion chamber. The operational hours of the filter membrane depend on the quality of fuel employed. The conventional filter is designed for fossil diesel operation and hence the filter life might degrade earlier in the case of oxygenated fuels like biodiesel or ethanol. The proposed work focuses on the impact of oxygenated fuels, viz. karanja and ethanol blended karanja biodiesel on the filter membrane and its flow characteristics. Two tests, pressure difference and contaminant retention test are carried out in accordance with Japanese standard D1617:1998.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1958
Jyothivel Giridharan, Gokul Kumar
Bio-fuels potentially represent a more environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels as they produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions when burned. Ethanol is one such bio-fuel alternative to the conventional fossil fuels. Towards the initiative of sustainable transportation using alternative fuels, it is attempted to develop an ethanol powered engine for commercial vehicles and this paper attempts to explain the 1D thermodynamic simulation carried out for predicting the engine performance and combustion characteristics, as a part of the engine development program. Engine simulation is becoming an increasingly important engineering tool for reducing the development cost and time and also helps in carrying out various DOE iterations which are rather difficult to be conducted experimentally in any internal combustion engine development program. AVL Boost software is used for modeling and simulation.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1955
Peda Chowdaiah Korlapati
In commercial vehicles, the greatest challenge is to improve the fuel economy and reduce emissions. The Aerodynamic drag control is one of the best ways to do the same. In Tractor-trailer assembly, the gap between the cabin and trailer and also rear end of the trailer are the critical areas which will affect the coefficient of drag drastically. Also the low pressure at the rear end of the trailer is one of the reasons for rear collision of trucks with other vehicles. The main objective of this work is to incorporate the inflatable boat tail at the rear-end of the trailer to reduce the drag coefficient and also to act as energy absorber in case of rear impact. The generic model of commercial vehicle with various boat tails is designed in CREO software and both steady and unsteady analysis are carried out by using ANSYS Fluent under various conditions from 0 to 6 degree wind directions.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1954
Premkumarr Santhanamm, K. Sreejith, Avinash Anandan
A local and global environmental concern regarding automotive emissions has led to optimize the design and development of Power train systems for IC engines. Blow-by and Engine oil consumption is an important source of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions in modern IC engines. Great efforts have been made by automotive manufacturers to minimize the impact of oil consumption and blow-by on in-cylinder engine emissions. This paper describes a case study of how simulation played a supportive role in improving piston ringpak assembly. The engine taken up for study is a six cylinder, turbocharged, water cooled diesel engine with a peak firing pressure of 140 bar and developing a power output of 227 KW at 1500 rpm. This paper reveals the influence of stepped land, top groove angle, ring face profile, twist features with regard to tweaking of Blow-by & LOC. Relevant design inputs of engine parameters were provided by the customer to firm up the boundary conditions.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1952
Utkarsh Sharma, Simson T. Wilson, Santosh Lalasure, K. Rajakumar
Abstract Today’s automotive industry in the process of better fuel efficiency and aiming less carbon foot print is trying to incorporate energy saving and hybrid technologies in their products. One of the trends which has been followed by Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) is the usage of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system. This has been an effective option to target fuel saving as compared to hydraulically assisted power steering system. EPS has been already tested successfully, not only on system level but also on vehicle level for endurance and performance by OEMs as per their norms and standards. Over the decade, NVH (noise, vibration & harshness) have become one of the touch points for customer perception about vehicle quality. This leads us to a commonly perceived problem in EPS or manual type steering system i.e. rattle noise.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1953
Tushar Narendra Puri lng, Lalitkumar Ramujagir Soni lng, Sourabh Deshpande
Abstract The infliction of rigorous emission norms across the world has made the automobile industry to focus and dwell upon researches to reduce the emissions from internal combustion engines, namely diesel engines. Variation in fuel injection timing has better influence on reduction of engine exhaust emissions. This papers deals with the variation of fuel injection timing along with fuel injection pressure numerically on a 4 stroke, single cylinder, and direct injection diesel engine running at full load condition using CONVERGE CFD tool. As the piston and bowl geometry considered in this work is symmetric, only 60 degree sector of the piston cylinder assembly is considered for numerical simulation over complete 360 degree model.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1951
K Nantha Gopal, B. Ashok, Rishabh Bahuguna, Tanmay Prasad
Abstract Thermal management is one of the most challenging and innovative aspects of the automotive industry. The efficiency of the vehicle cooling framework unequivocally relies upon the air stream through the radiator core. Significant advances in thermal management are being embraced in the field of radiator material and coolant. The radiator shouldn't be exclusively credited for the reliable cooling of the engine. There are other auto parts that play an essential role in keeping engine temperature at a manageable level. The fan-shroud assembly is an important component of the cooling system. While the fan is responsible for drawing in air, the fan shroud's job is to ensure uniform air distribution to the radiator core. By assisting airflow in the engine compartment the fan shroud helps in dismissing excess heat from the engine. This assembly also prevents the recirculation of heated air through the cooling fan.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1950
J Suresh Kumar, Sakthivel B, Srinivasan B, Ramalingam Sivanantham
The automotive industry in world is facing the problem of reduction of emissions coming out of the engine. Also, the stringent emission norms imposed by the regulating body for transition from BS IV to BS VI urges the auto makers to concentrate on new technologies to reduce the emissions. One of the major emissions coming out of the diesel engine is oxides of nitrogen (NOx) which is detrimental to human health. This NOx emission is formed when the combustion temperature of engine exceeds the threshold limit. There are several methods available to reduce these NOx emissions formed in-cylinder. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is one such system, which reduces the NOx emission formed inside the engine by supplying a portion of the exhaust gases. By re-circulating exhaust gases, the air admitted to the engine is diluted. Further, due to the high latent heat of vaporization of water, water vapor tends to absorb more amount of heat that is generated during combustion.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1966
Praveen Kumar, Nareen Kinthala, Sri Viknesh Mohan, Harshad Bornare
Rapid prototyping is a revolutionizing technology extensively used in automotive, aerospace, medical, jewelry industries etc. Rapid Prototyping is an additive / subtractive layer manufacturing process, used to quickly fabricate a scale model from CAD data in just a matter of hours. In Automotive trims, rapid prototyping technology is a boon. It is used: -To simulate the "tooled up/production part" in terms of assembly, defined function and fit & finish. -To evaluate & capture early feedback from top management review in term of aesthetic, design, etc. -For early prediction and plan of action towards improvement for craftsmanship. -To reduce design iterations, product lifecycle time and cost. In this paper, we will discuss on technical aspects of how prototype models have been effectively put to use in order to validate Packaging, Assembly & Accessibility, Mechanism, Proof of concept, Functionality and Craftsmanship.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1965
Selvam G., Surya Prakash V., Prince Arockia Doss S., Mohammed Zaheer A., Baskaran V
Lean approaches are being implemented in various manufacturing facilities across the globe. The application of lean approaches are extended to Body proto build shop to maximize the efficiency of the shop with lesser floor space and optimized equipment. Weld fixture, Weld equipment and assembly tools are the major tools required essentially for proto BIW assembly. This paper explains how the Weld equipment planning was carried out with lean approaches and implemented effectively in proto body assembly shop. The implemented lean concepts are compared with Italy and Japanese proto body build makers to validate the frugal planning of the facility for the said intent. The implemented facility is capable of producing more than a model at a time. Weld parameter selection for weld gun, gun movement to the fixture with minimized change over time, portable weld gun gantry are the lean approaches implemented.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1964
Rajaganesh Ramamoorthy, T. Venkatesan, R. Rajendran
Machining of materials has received significant consideration due to the increasing use of machining processes in various industrial applications. In machining, the heat generated in the cutting zone during machining is critical in deciding the work piece quality. Lubricants are widely used to reduce the heat generation. Their usage poses threat to environment and health hazards. Hence, there is a need to identify eco-friendly and user-friendly alternatives to conventional cutting fluids. Modern tribology has facilitated the use of solid lubricants such as graphite, calcium fluoride, molybdenum disulphide, and boric acid as an alternative to cutting fluids in machining. Solid lubricant assisted machining is an environmental friendly clean technology for improving the surface quality of the machined work piece.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1963
Pavan Bharadwaja Bhaskar, S Srihari
In recent times control of emissions has been the major issue resulting strict emission norms. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) reduction is a major concern over the years and diesel engine has big hand when compared to gasoline. Several promising techniques have been developed, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is one of the effective ways to trim down the NOx emissions by keeping thermal efficiency identical to diesel engine. However, this concept lags in controlling CO and HC emissions. Methanol fuel blends are chosen as it significantly improves the combustion quality. Oxygen content in methanol drags attention as it can compensate HC and CO emissions caused by HCCI mode of combustion. In this work conventional diesel engine is converted into HCCI engine by mounting diesel vaporizer at inlet manifold to attain homogenous mixture. An experimental investigations have been carried out to analyse performance and emission characteristics using different methanol blends.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1962
Pervaz Ahmed Mouda, H Siddhi Jailani
Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) is a suitable process used for machining very hard-to-cut materials. In EDM, the replica of electrode is obtained on the work piece by localized melting and vaporization of work piece material, but the electrode also tends to wear out to certain extent. In order to reduce the tool wear rate, the cryogenic treatment can be applied to the tool material. Cryogenic treatment is an ultra low temperature treatment technique which alters the properties of materials. In this paper, the effect of cryogenic treatment on a process parameter of EDM was studied. The Cryogenic treatment was applied to the copper electrode. Microstructure analysis was carried out using optical microscope. EDM experiment was conducted using untreated and cryogenic treated copper electrode and HSS tool steel as work piece material. Electrical resistivity was also measured.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1961
Shishir Sirohi, Saurabh Yadav, B. Ashok, V Ramesh Babu, C Kavitha, K Nantha Gopal
The main objective of the study is to design and analyze casing and supports of a transmission system for an electric vehicle. The system comprises of motors as the power source, constant mesh gear box coupled with limited slip differential as the power transmitting source. The space occupied by the transmission system is a foremost constraint in designing the system. The wear and tear in the system are caused by the gear meshing process and transmission error which lead to failure of the transmission system. This internal excitation also produces a dynamic mesh force, which is transmitted to the casing and mounts through shafts and bearings. In order to overcome such issues in a transmission system, a gear box casing, differential mounts and motor mounts have been designed by the use of CAD-modelling software “SOLIDWORKS”. The designs were imported to FEA software “ANSYS” for carrying out static structural analysis.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1960
Satish Chandra Mudavath, Ganesh Dharmar, Mohanraj Balakrishnan
Abstract In automotive industry, design of vehicle to end customer with proper ergonomics and balancing the design is always a challenge, for which an accurate prediction of postures are needed. Several studies have used Digital Human Models (DHM) to examine specific movements related to ingress and egress by translating complex tasks, like vehicle egress through DHMs. This requires an in-depth analysis of users to ensure such models reflect the range of abilities inherent to the population. Designers are increasingly using digital mock-ups of the built environment using DHMs as a means to reduce costs and speed-up the “time-to-market” of products. DHMs can help to improve the ergonomics of a product but must be representative of actual users.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1959
Abhishek Taluja, Simson T. Wilson, Santosh Lalasure, K. Rajakumar
The Ride Comfort has always been an important attribute of a vehicle that gets trade-off with handling characteristics of a vehicle. However, to cater the growing customer requirements for better ride comfort in a vehicle without compromising on other attributes, evaluating and achieving optimal ride comfort has become a significant process in the vehicle development. In the current engineering capability and virtual engineering simulations, creating an accurate and real time model to predict ride comfort of a vehicle is a challenging task. The qualitative evaluation of ride attributes has always been the proven conventional method to finalize the requirements of a vehicle. However, quantitative evaluation of vehicle ride characteristics benefits in terms of target setting during vehicle development process and in robust validation of the final intended product against its specifications.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1975
ANIL P M, K Nantha Gopal, B. Ashok
The present study aims at investigating the friction and wear characteristics by blending zinc diakyldithio phosphates(ZDDP)with pongamia oil methyl ester as lubricant under various loading conditions and temperatures. Coefficient of friction and wear scar depth were determined using pongamia biodieselblended with 0.3%, 0.6% and 1 % ZDDP by concentration through high frequency reciprocating wear testing machine for 2 hrs duration. The reciprocating wear tests were performed on an engine liner-piston ring contact for various loads of 40N, 60N and 80 N for 2 hrs duration at temperatures of 100C, 125C 150C with 10 Hz oscillation frequency as per ASTM G181, 11. The addition of ZDDP with pongamia bio-lubricant showed marginal reduction in friction coefficient and wear scar depth under all loads and temperatures. Coefficient of friction was found to be higher in the initial stages due to running-in for all testing conditions.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1976
Suresh Kumar N
The utility of tractors in India has grown and is growing. Other than in agricultural area, it finds use in non-agricultural and construction/ earthmoving applications like loaders, dozers, power source, etc. The tractors that are subjected to heavy duty cycles are mostly with conventional dry type clutches. These types of dry clutch when operated in heavy application generate large amount of heat within shorter period of time on the surface of friction discs. This increase in disc surface temperature weakens the friction material property & bonding element leading to deterioration and decreasing the life of clutch. This curtails the clutch life extensively and is a big challenge to farmers and tractor users. The frequent clutch failures not only increases the operating cost, but also the servicing of clutches in the tractor fitted with heavy attachments leads to a higher downtime and service cost.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1973
Sakthivel B, Sridhar R, Srinivasan B, J Suresh Kumar
Solenoids are type of inductive actuators extensively used in mobility industries as flow control valves. Now a day, the conventional mechanical actuators are replaced by solenoids, since the solenoids have high precision control and faster response within a controlled magnetic field. Solenoids are classified into two types based on the mode of operation. Solenoid is operated either in ON/OFF mode for switching applications or in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) for high frequency applications. A solenoid consists of two critical parts, one is the reciprocating plunger and another is the static valve case. During higher number of repeated operations, the solenoid plunger hits the valve case and induces wear on the seating surface. The solenoids are also exposed to the corrosive environment in some applications.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1972
ANIL P M, Cd Naiju
Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) is a rapid prototyping technique used to fabricate and repair metallic prototypes. It can be used in the production of complex geometries and unique parts. In functional automotive applications wear characteristics hold key importance. In the present study, an analysis on the influence of various parameters (coating thickness, load and temperature) on the wear characteristics of Direct Metal Deposited (DMD) Inconel 625 coating has been carried out using a Design of Experiments (DOE). ANOVA calculations were performed to find out which of these parameters showed significant influence on the wear properties. It was found that load was the most significant parameter influencing the wear characteristics .Similarly load was found to be most influencing parameter for co efficient of friction. The trend was found to follow when verified at 30 second, 3 minutes, 60 minutes and 120 minutes.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1970
Sreeraj Kodoor
White etching crack (WEC) failure is distinct from classical rolling contact fatigue failure, frequently observed in bearings of electric power driven accessories of automobiles and wind turbine gearbox bearings etc. Release of atomic hydrogen from tribochemical reaction such as the lubricant failure and water contamination due to sever operating condition is believed to be one of accelerating factor of WECs & premature bearing failure. The cause of White etching area (WEA) formation associated WEC appearing 1-20% of L10 bearings life and premature failure is still under investigation. The method of creating WEC in laboratory condition is reported as a tedious and longer process for the root cause analysis. The paper would be a study of formation of WEA due to dynamic loading on Pin on disc tribometer. This paper, number of experiment was carried out using modified Pin on disc having dynamic load facility.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1971
Thirumalai kannan Kandaswamy
This aim of this paper is to investigate the tribochemical property of chemically modified jojoba seed oil with the additive of graphene nanoparticle as a blend in mineral oil for the use of engine oil lubricant. Jojoba oil is synthesized using epoxidation, hydroxylation, and transesterification process. Oil samples are formulated with various blends of chemically modified jojoba oil to the base engine oil with the 0.05 to 0.75 % wt. of carbon based nanoparticle particles. Tribological tests were conducted on a four-ball tribometer under extreme pressure and anti-wear conditions for formulated blend and Pin on disc tribometer for wear and friction measurement. Results show that under extreme load conditions the blends of 30% jojoba oil show lesser wear scar diameter when compared with the other blends. And also the addition of graphene nanoparticles could enhance the lubrication properties of their blends.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1967
Senthil Ram N D, Thulasirajan Ganesan, 1Lt Praveen Chakrapani Rao
Global Automotive Industry is mandated with the task of emission reduction and mileage improvements. One of the key areas being looked at from mileage standpoint is light weighting. While Aluminum body is replacing Steel is many vehicular applications, in Starter Motor Aluminum is the key component. Therefore, any attempt at light weighting must consider Aluminum. A Starter motor fits directly on to the engine. Aluminum being the housing material provides structural stability. It also performs the role of heat dissipation being a good thermal conductor and source of electrical ground path. Aluminum constitutes 20 – 25% of Starter motor weight. Any significant weight reduction cannot be achieved unless we look at the components made of Aluminum, namely die cast Housing and End plate. The alternatives considered in this study include engineered plastics, magnesium alloy and composites.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1969
Senthil Ram N D, Thulasirajan Ganesan, 1Lt Praveen Chakrapani Rao
Magnesium alloy current being used for automotive sector and are being significantly used for manufacturing engine block as offering higher power to weight ratio to the vehicle. In this context, the magnesium alloy has been used in the replacement of aluminium alloy for the starter housing which in turn increase the power to weight ratio of the motor. Considering the operation condition of starter motor in the engine of the vehicles, the starter motor are being exposed to the harsh environment, where its system are being tested for Noise, Vibration and Harshness. In this paper, the magnesium alloy housing is used to study the vibration and noise developed in the starter motor and the same is compared with the noise and vibration of the motor when it being used with Aluminium alloy Housing. First, the vibration study is carried out for the housing part alone to capture the resonant frequency of the both housing alloy say, Aluminium and Magnesium.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1986
Dinesh Paulraj, S.S.M Abdul Majeed, R Rajendran
Stir casting method is one of the simplest low cost and high production rate technology for producing metal matrix composites. In this study the TiO2 Nano particles are combined with A356 to form a newer Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) which is to be utilised in the aerospace, marine, military and Automotive Applications. 0.5TiO2A, 1TiO2A, 1.5TiO2A and 2TiO2A wt% of TiO2 were reinforced with A356 under 10 minutes holding time and 400 rpm stirring speed. Mechanical tests such as tensile, impact and hardness test were conducted on the new Metal Matrix Composite material specimens. Using optical microscope and SEM the microstructure, surface morphology and composition of the manufactured specimens were studied. EDS analysis is done to study the atomic elemental composition present in the MMC.The XRD analysis displays the variation in XRD Patterns of the Nano composites containing various % weight of Nano TiO2.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1987
Vigneshwaran K, Palanivendhan Murugadoss, Gokul K. Gokul
The main objective is to Extraction of cellulose nanofibers using Mechanical ball milling Process and Chemical Treatment Methods. The Nanofibers are incorporated with Epoxy Matrix to make composite plates. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Flexural strength, and impact energy are evaluated. Mechanical Extraction method such as Ball Milling is carried out for 2 hours and 5hours. Using SEM image the ball milling powder are visualized to determine the diameter. In Chemical Treatment Methods three Different kinds of Treatment are performed namely sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium Hypochlorite, and Acetic acid. Using Handlay up method these fibers are incorporated into the epoxy matrix to fabricate composite plates. The ball milling process is carried out without any chemical Treatment process. Increases in milling process result in the chance of occurring Nano fibers. In my study Nano sized fiber is not obtained, only the 28 microns fibers are converted into 3-4 microns.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1984
Naveed Hussain
Importance of fibers as reinforcements in metal matrices has long been recognized. It is only because of this realization that many industries like aerospace rely entirely on advanced composite materials for their conflicting demands of high performance and lightweight materials. However most of the work in these areas has been limited or confined to patents created by the defense and automotive sectors. The efforts to commercialize these materials have been restricted due to high cost of the reinforcements and the manufacturing processes used. In this work an attempt has been made to infiltrate the Carbon fibers by imparting Nickel and Salt based coatings to fiber surfaces with commercial purity aluminum and A356 alloy. Infiltration has been performed in ambient atmosphere and also under vacuum. The carbon fibers have been successfully infiltrated with K2ZrF6 salt coatings and were hot pressed to required shapes.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1985
Hemasunder Banka
Conventional materials like steel, brass, aluminum etc will fail without any indication, cracks initiation, propagation, will takes place with a short span. Now-a-days to overcome these problem, conventional materials are replaced by hybrid composite material. Not only have this conventional material failed to meet the requirement of high technology applications, like space applications and marine applications and structural applications in order to meet the above requirements new materials are being searched. Hybrid composites materials found to the best alternative with its unique capacity of designing the materials to give required properties and light weight. Here we are preparing hybrid composite using artificial fibers. Epoxy as resin and glass fiber as fiber for artificial hybrid composite to make a laminate for preparing leaf spring.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 110083