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Viewing 211 to 240 of 109758
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0656
Minh Khoi Le, Takashi Furui, Atsushi Nishiyama, Yuji Ikeda
The development of a premixed flame under realistic SI engine condition, with a particular focus on the relationship between in-cylinder flow field and flame propagation, was investigated for various engine flow conditions using optical diagnostics. Time-resolved simultaneous imaging of flow field and flame tomography was performed by developing and applying a high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) based technique in an optical SI engine. Optical filtering and adjustments were made to the HS-PIV setup to obtain the optimum signal-to-noise ratio for each operating conditions. The effect of both global and local flow field on flame propagation as well as combustion characteristics were studied by analysis of flow-field PIV results and derived flame properties. Early results suggest interesting interactions between turbulence and flame development, especially in terms of flame growth speed, propagation path and flow turbulence.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1504
Peter Tkacik, Zachary Carpenter, Aaron Gholston, Benjamin James Cobb, Sam Kennedy, Ethan Blankenship, Mesbah Uddin, Surya Phani Krishna Nukala
Wind tunnel aerodynamic testing involving rolling road tire conditions can be expensive and complex to set up. Low cost rolling road testing can be implemented in a 0.3m2 Eiffel wind tunnel by modifying a horizontal belt sander to function as a moving road. This sander is equipped with steel supports to hold a steel plate against the bottom of the wind tunnel to stabilize the entire test section. These supports are bolted directly into the cast iron sander frame to ensure minimal vibrational losses or errors during testing. The wind tunnel design at the beginning of the project was encased in a wooden box which was removed to allow easier access to the test section for installation of the rolling road assembly. The tunnel was also modified to allow observers to view the testing process from various angles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0398
Robert A. Smith, Allison Ward, Daniel Brintnall
Utilization of TGA Flynn-Wall and Arrhenius Analysis for Rapid Prediction of Automotive PVC Cable Performance Robert Alan Smith, Allison Ward, and Daniel D. Brintnall Delphi Electrical/Electronic Architecture 4551 Research Parkway Warren, Ohio 44483 Poly(vinylchloride), PVC, insulated cable was first used in automobiles in the 1940’s when the average vehicle contained 40 meters of wiring. Presently, the Bentley Bentayga has a wiring harness that weighs 110 lbs! Indeed, the electrical systems of automobiles have become much more complicated than just provision of lighting, signaling, and heat with the evolution of climate control, infotainment and data delivery systems. Due to low cost and light weight, PVC insulated cable is still the most widely used cable in automobiles and is found predominantly in non-engine compartment applications limited by an upper use temperature of 80◦ C.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0657
Lewis Gene Clark, Sanghoon Kook, Qing Nian Chan, Evatt R. Hawkes
Abstract One major drawback of spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines is increased particulate matter (PM) emissions at high load, due to increased wall wetting and a reduction in available mixture preparation time when compared to port-fuel injection (PFI). It is therefore necessary to understand the mechanics behind injection strategies which are capable of reducing these emissions while also maintaining the performance and efficiency of the engine. Splitting the fuel delivery into two or more injections is a proven way of working towards this goal, however, many different injection permutations are possible and as such there is no clear consensus on what constitutes an ideal strategy for any given objective. In this study, the effect of the timing of the first and second injections for an evenly split dual injection strategy are investigated in an optical SIDI engine running at 1200 RPM with an unthrottled intake.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0650
Xinyu Li, Xinyu Ge, Ying Wang
Abstract The automotive industry is dramatically changing. Many automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) proposed new prototype models or concept vehicles to promote a green vehicle image. Non-traditional players bring many latest technologies in the Information Technology (IT) industry to the automotive industry. Typical vehicle’s characteristics became wider compared to those of vehicles a decade ago, and they include not only a driving range, mileage per gallon and acceleration rating, but also many features adopted in the IT industry, such as usability, connectivity, vehicle software upgrade capability and backward compatibility. Consumers expect the latest technology features in vehicles as they enjoy in using digital applications in laptops and mobile phones. These features create a huge challenge for a design of a new vehicle, especially for a human-machine-interface (HMI) system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0652
Jose Claret, Thomas Lauer, Nikola Bobicic, Andreas Posselt, Joerg Schlerfer
Abstract This study presents a methodology to predict particle number (PN) generation on a naturally aspirated 4-cylinder gasoline engine with port fuel injection (PFI) from wall wetting, employing numerical CFD simulation and fuel film analysis. Various engine parameters concerning spray pattern, injection timing, intake valve timing, as well as engine load/speed were varied and their impact on wall film and PN was evaluated. The engine, which was driven at wide open throttle (WOT), was equipped with soot particle sampling technology and optical access to the combustion chamber of cylinder 1 in order to visualise non-premixed combustion. High-speed imaging revealed a notable presence of diffusion flames, which were typically initiated between the valve seats and cylinder head. Their size was found to match qualitatively with particulate number measurements. A validated CFD model was employed to simulate spray propagation, film transport and droplet impingement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0654
Haiqiao Wei, Dengquan Feng, Mingzhang pan, JiaYing PAN
Abstract Combustion characteristics of neat 2-methylfuran (MF), 10% and 20% volumetric fraction 2-methylfuran gasoline blends were experimentally investigated in a single cylinder spark ignition engine, and the results were benchmarked against that of the research on octane number 97 neat gasoline. The investigation focused on the performance of cyclic variation of MF and its blends, and the effects of spark ignition timing, compression ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were studied. Experiments were conducted at the engine speed of 1500 rpm, and loads between 7 and 11 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) with using stoichiometric air-fuel ratio mixture. Index of the coefficient of variation of IMEP (COVIMEP) was used to evaluate the combustion stability of the tested fuels. The results show that neat MF and MF gasoline blended fuels have superior combustion stability compared with gasoline.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1212
Hong Jia Hong, Jesus Ruiz Sevillano, Clemens Kain, Guenter Hofer, Karl Felber, Wai Keung Chan
Abstract The automotive industry is moving from fossil carburant to electric drive trains due to the stringent CO2 reduction policies. In this context, the electric energy storage becomes one of the key parameters of successful rolling out electrified vehicles. Typical battery management systems comprises of battery cells measurement and monitoring, balancing function, temperature monitoring, together with the State of Charge and State of Health estimations based on the given measurements. Together with the functions above, a robust internal IC communication protocol is one of the key parameters to guarantee battery performance as well as safety. This paper focuses on the automotive battery communication system. On one side, the importance of the communication system and its impact in the EDT (electric drive train) is discussed including safety aspects. Later on, the different communication methods up to date are analyzed to further understand their limitations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1186
Chunmei Wang, Shinichi Hirano
Abstract This study investigates a system and a method to enhance fuel cell vehicle robustness during vehicle start/stop cycle by mitigating cathode half-cell potential spikes. Multiple dynamic hydrogen reference electrodes were installed in the fuel cell under test to observe changes of anode and cathode half-cell potentials during simulated system startup and shutdown conditions. Multiple reference electrodes were used to measure localized anode and cathode half-cell potentials in an active area. A 1.4-1.8 V half-cell potential spike at the cathode in the startup condition was observed due to a hydrogen/air boundary formed within the anode flow field. Various system solutions have been studied to contain the cathode half-cell potential spikes, such as purging with inert gas, or inserting a shunt resistor as a shorting component between the anode and the cathode. In this study, a method of connecting an electrical load prior to flowing hydrogen fuel to the cell was tested.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1593
Sunil kumar Pathak, Yograj Singh, Vineet Sood, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract A drive cycle is a time series of vehicle speed pattern developed to simulate real world driving conditions. These driving cycles are used for estimating vehicle on-road energy consumption, vehicle emissions, and traffic impact. Vehicle operating on fossil fuels are a significant source of air pollution, and these are being replaced by a small electrical vehicle in congested road traffic conditions, such as densely populated residential areas, near hospitals and market places, etc. The electrical vehicle run quieter and does not produce emissions like combustion engines. So far, there is no existing drive cycle officially developed for electric three wheelers which can represent real world driving pattern in India. In this study, 15 electrical auto rickshaws were driven by different drivers in various routes of a Tier II city of India and vehicle speed and time pattern were recorded using onboard Global Positioning System (GPS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1594
Guirong Zhuo, Kun Xiong, Subin Zhang
Abstract Micro electric vehicle has gained increasingly popularity among the public due to its compact size and reasonable price in China in recent years. Since design factors that influence the power of electric vehicle drive-motor like maximum speed, acceleration time and so on are not fixed but varies in certain scopes. Therefore, to optimize the process of matching drive-motor’s power, qualitatively and quantitatively studies should be done to determine the optimal parameter combination and improve the design efficiency. In this paper, three basic operating conditions including driving at top speed, ascending and acceleration are considered in the matching process. And the Sobol’ method of global sensitivity analysis (GSA) is applied to evaluate the importance of design factors to the drive-motor’s power in each working mode.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0680
Yanyu Wang, Jiongxun Zhang, Xin Wang, Paul Dice, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Jeffrey Naber, Michael Czekala, Qiuping Qu, Garlan Huberts
The influence of spark plug orientation on early flame kernel development is investigated in an optically accessible gasoline direct injection homogeneous charged spark ignition engine. This investigation provides visual understanding and statistical characterization of how spark plug orientation impacts the early flame kernel and thus combustion phasing and engine performance. The projected images of flame kernel were captured through natural flame chemiluminescence with a high-speed camera at 10,000 frames per second, and the ignition secondary discharge voltage and current were measured with a 10 MHz DAQ system. The combustion metrics were determined using measurement from a piezo-electric in-cylinder pressure transducer and real-time engine combustion analyzer. Three spark plug orientations with two different electrode designs were studied. The captured images of the flame were processed to yield 2D and 1D probability distributions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0429
Michael Holland, Jonathan Gibb, Kacper Bierzanowski, Stuart Rowell, Bo Gao, Chen Lv, Dongpu Cao
Abstract This paper outlines the procedure used to assess the performance of a Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) in a virtual test environment using the newly developed Euro NCAP Lane Support Systems (LSS) Test Protocol, version 1.0, November 2015 [1]. A tool has also been developed to automate the testing and analysis of this test. The Euro NCAP LSS Test defines ten test paths for left lane departures and ten for right lane departures that must be followed by the vehicle before the LKAS activates. Each path must be followed to within a specific tolerance. The vehicle control inputs required to follow the test path are calculated. These tests are then run concurrently in the virtual environment by combining two different software packages. Important vehicle variables are recorded and processed, and a pass/fail status is assigned to each test based on these values automatically.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0772
ShyamSundar Pasunurthi, Ravichandra Jupudi, Sameera Wijeyakulasuriya, Sreenivasa Rao Gubba, Hong Im, Mohammed Jaasim Mubarak Ali, Roy Primus, Adam Klingbeil, Charles Finney
The standard capability of engine experimental studies is that ensemble averaged quantities like in-cylinder pressure and emissions are reported and the cycle to cycle variation (CCV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) is captured from many consecutive combustion cycles for each test condition. However, obtaining 3D spatial distribution of all the relevant quantities from such experiments is a challenging task. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of engine flow and combustion can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. A dual fuel engine is considered in the current study, with port injected natural gas (NG) and direct injected diesel pilot for ignition. Multiple 3D CFD simulations are performed in series like in the experiments to investigate the potential of high fidelity RANS simulations coupled with detailed chemistry, to accurately predict the CCV. Measured valve lift profiles are used to specify the valve movements in the simulations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0774
Ehsan Faghani, Pooyan Kheirkhah, Christopher W.J. Mabson, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Patrick Kirchen, Steve Rogak
High-pressure direct-injection (HPDI) in heavy duty engines allows a natural gas (NG) engine to maintain diesel-like performance while deriving most of its power from NG. A small diesel pilot injection (5-10% of the fuel energy) is used to ignite the direct injected gas jet. The NG burns in a predominantly non-premixed combustion mode which can produce particulate matter (PM). Here we study the effect of injection strategies on emissions from a HPDI engine in two parts. Part-I will investigates the effect of late post injection (LPI) and Part II will study the effect of slightly premixed combustion (SPC) on emission and engine performance. PM reductions and tradeoffs involved with gas late post-injections (LPI) was investigated in a single-cylinder version of a 6-cylinder,15 liter HPDI engine. The post injection contains 10-25% of total fuel mass, and occurs after the main combustion event.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0721
Michele Bardi, Gilles Bruneaux, André Nicolle, Olivier Colin
This paper is a contribution to the understanding of the formation and oxidation of soot in typical Diesel combustion. A common rail ECN spray A injector (single axial-oriented orifice) was tested in a optically accessible test-chamber at engine relevant conditions. High-speed OH* and high-speed 2D extinction imaging were performed simultaneously to link together the flame chemistry and the soot data information. The experiments were carried out for different fuels (EU Diesel, JetA1, n-dodecane) performing parametric variations of the boundary conditions. The proposed analysis methodology enabled the identification of the sooting behavior of each fuel by evaluating the relationship between two of the measured parameters, namely lift-off length and the soot maximum axial extinction value (Max KL). The relationship between these two parameters allowed to distinguish the behavior of the different fuels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0679
Kelvin Xie, Shui Yu, Xiao Yu, Geraint Bryden, Ming Zheng, Mengzhu Liu
Abstract In order to meet the future carbon dioxide legislation, advanced clean combustion engines are tending to employ low temperature diluted combustion strategies along with intensified cylinder charge motion. The diluted mixtures are made by means of excess air admission or exhaust gas recirculation. A slower combustion speed during the early flame kernel development because of the suppressed mixture reactivity will reduce the reliability of the ignition process and the overall combustion stability. In an effort to address this issue, an ignition strategy using a multi-pole spark igniter is tested in this work. The igniter uses three electrically independent spark gaps to allow three spatially distributed spark discharges. The multi-pole spark strategy displayed more advanced combustion phasing and lower phasing variability compared to single spark discharges.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0678
Xiao Yu, Shui Yu, Zhenyi Yang, Qingyuan Tan, Mark Ives, Liguang Li, Mengzhu Liu, Ming Zheng
Abstract Future clean combustion engines tend to increase the cylinder charge to achieve better fuel economy and lower exhaust emissions. The increase of the cylinder charge is often associated with either excessive air admission or exhaust gas recirculation, which leads to unfavorable ignition conditions at the ignition point. Advanced ignition methods and systems have progressed rapidly in recent years in order to suffice the current and future engine development, and a simple increase of energy of the inductive ignition system does not often provide the desired results from a cost-benefit point of view. Proper design of the ignition system circuit is required to achieve certain spark performances.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0683
Michael Fischer, Philipp Kreutziger, Yong Sun, Adam Kotrba
Abstract External Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has been used on diesel engines for decades and has also been used on gasoline engines in the past. It is recently reintroduced on gasoline engines to improve fuel economy at mid and high engine load conditions, where EGR can reduce throttling losses and fuel enrichment. Fuel enrichment causes fuel penalty and high soot particulates, as well as hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, all of which are limited by emissions regulations. Under stoichiometric conditions, gasoline engines can be operated at high EGR rates (> 20%), but more than diesel engines, its intake gas including external EGR needs extreme cooling (down to ~50°C) to gain the maximum fuel economy improvement. However, external EGR and its problems at low temperatures (fouling, corrosion & condensation) are well known.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0673
Alessandro Cimarello, Carlo N. Grimaldi, Francesco Mariani, Michele Battistoni, Massimo Dal Re
Abstract Radio Frequency Corona ignition systems represent an interesting solution among innovative ignition strategies for their ability to stabilize the combustion and to extend the engine operating range. The corona discharge, generated by a strong electric field at a frequency of about 1 MHz, produces the ignition of the air-fuel mixture in multiple spots, characterized by a large volume when compared to a conventional spark, increasing the early flame growth speed. The transient plasma generated by the discharge, by means of thermal, kinetic and transport effects, allows a robust initialization of the combustion even in critical conditions, such as using diluted or lean mixtures. In this work the effects of Corona ignition have been analyzed on a single cylinder optical engine fueled with gasoline, comparing the results with those of a traditional single spark ignition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0677
Dongwon Jung, Kosaku Sasaki, Kenji Sugata, Masayoshi Matsuda, Takeshi Yokomori, Norimasa Iida
Abstract Improving the thermal efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engine is strongly required due to its widespread use but considerably less efficiency than that of compression ignition (CI) engine. Although lean SI engine operation can offer substantial improvements of the thermal efficiency relative to that of traditional stoichiometric SI operation, the cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion increases with the level of air dilution, and becomes unacceptable. To improve the stability of lean operation, this study examines the effects of spark discharge pattern and tumble level on cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion at lean limits. The spark discharge pattern was altered by a custom inductive ignition system using ten spark coils and the tumble level was increased by a custom adapter installed in the intake port (tumble adapter).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0699
Sampad Mukhopadhyay, Sunil Srinivas Badavath, Naeim Henein
Abstract The superior fuel economy of direct injection internal combustion engines (diesel and gasoline) is related to use of a high compression ratio to auto-ignite the fuel and the overall lean combustible mixture. Two of the major problems in diesel engine emissions are the NOx and soot emissions, which are caused by the heterogeneity of the charge and the properties of the diesel fuel. Conventional Direct Injection Spark Ignition Gasoline engines don't have these problems because of the fuel properties particularly its volatility. However, its efficiency and specific power output are limited by the knock, knock produced preignition and the sporadic preignition phenomenon. The Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) engine combines the superior features of the two engines by increasing the compression ratio and use of gasoline as a fuel.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0694
Tae Joong Wang, Jong Yoon Lee, Seung Kwon Hwang, Ja Yun Cho, Jeong Keun Park, Woong Gun Lee, Tae Sub Kim, Sang Won Jeong, Tae Kuk Kim
Abstract Doosan Infracore Corporation has developed the combustion system of a brand-new DX12 heavy-duty diesel engine equipped for 38 ~ 50 tonnage excavators and 4.2 ~ 4.5 m3 bucket-size wheel loaders which are mainly targeted to emerging countries. A variety of advanced combustion technologies were incorporated in the design of the DX12 engine to meet Tier3 emission legislation even with a mechanically controlled fuel injection equipment while ensuring around 2 % improvement in fuel consumption as well as over 8 % increase in rated power than its Tier2 predecessor. Mechanical-type diesel engine has a couple of significant advantages especially in terms of cost and maintenance compared to electronic-type counterpart. In addition, mechanical fuel system is better able to tolerate a low fuel quality which is potentially possible in emerging countries.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0684
Vickey B. Kalaskar, Raphael Gukelberger, Bradley Denton, Thomas Briggs
Abstract Dedicated EGR has shown promise for achieving high efficiency with low emissions [1]. For the present study, a 4-cylinder turbocharged GDI engine which was modified to a D-EGR configuration was used to investigate the impact of valve phasing and different injection strategies on the reformate production in the dedicated cylinder. Various levels of positive valve overlap were used in conjunction with different approaches for dedicated cylinder over fueling using PFI and DI fuel systems. Three speed-load combinations were studied, 2000 rpm 4 bar IMEPg, 2000 rpm 12 bar IMEPg, and 4000 rpm 12 bar IMEPg. The primary investigation was conducted to map out the dedicated cylinders' performance at the operating limits of intake and exhaust cam phasing. In this case, the limits were defined as conditions that yielded either no reformate benefit or led to instability in the dedicated cylinder.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0731
John E. Dec, Jeremie Dernotte, Chunsheng Ji
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) has the potential to provide gasoline-fueled engines with efficiencies at or above those of diesel engines and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions. Three key performance goals for LTGC are to obtain high loads, reduce the boost levels required for these loads, and achieve high thermal efficiencies (TEs). This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation into the use of partial fuel stratification, produced using early direct fuel injection (Early-DI PFS), and an increased compression ratio (CR) to achieve significant improvements in these performance characteristics. The experiments were conducted in a 0.981-liter single-cylinder research engine using certification gasoline. Increasing the CR from 14:1 to 16:1 produced a nominal increase in the TE of about one TE percentage unit for both premixed and Early-DI PFS operation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0868
Robert L. McCormick, Gina Fioroni, Lisa Fouts, Earl Christensen, Janet Yanowitz, Evgueni Polikarpov, Karl Albrecht, Daniel J. Gaspar, John Gladden, Anthe George
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the light-duty transportation sector will require both low-net-carbon fuels and significant improvements in vehicle and engine efficiency. More highly efficient engines will employ higher compression ratio, and higher power density turbocharged engines that enable smaller swept displacement volume (downsizing) and operation at lower engine speeds (downspeeding). These technologies can be pursued more aggressively with fuels that have greater knock resistance than fuels on the market today. We describe a study to identify potential biofuels that enable these spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency strategies. A list of potential biomass-derived blendstocks (both single components and mixtures) that can be produced thermochemically, biochemically, or by hybrid processes was developed. An online database of properties and characteristics of these bioblendstocks was created and populated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1722
HUANG YEN JUNG, Jau-Huai Lu
There is a growing concern for the pollutants emitted by diesel vehicles, especially the World Health Organization (WHO) officially classified diesel engine exhaust as a carcinogen. Countries all over the world have formulated stringent standards to regulate the emissions of new diesel engines. However, diesel engines are very durable that 60% of the diesel vehicles are more than ten years old in Taiwan. In order to reduce the exhaust emission of these in use vehicles, installation of diesel particulate filter (DPF) is currently promoted. As the carbon particulates accumulate inside the filter to a certain amount, the DPF needs to be regenerated to prevent clogging of the filter. It was found the regeneration process may cause “second pollution” and generate hot exhaust that might cause disasters when the regeneration is conducted as the vehicle is parking.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0443
Yong Hyun Nam, Gwansik Yoon
The sound induced by a closing door is determined by the various components like door latch, door module, door glass installed within the door area. The key components vibrate due to the force from the closing door, and the combined vibration caused by the components determines the sound from the door. In particular, when the door is closed with the door glass down, the vibration and noise of the door glass are louder than those of any other component; this is called door glass rattle - attributed to the loss of the door glass support point. This study not only evaluates the rattle influence level of a door glass support but also introduces an approach to reduce glass rattle noise by using sealing components. 1. Study on Minimization of Vibration A jig was constructed to evaluate the level of influence of the rattle of a door glass support.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0701
Aaron M. Bertram, Song-Charng Kong
Abstract The objective of this work was to identify methods of reliably predicting optimum operating conditions in an experimental compression ignition engine using multiple injections. Abstract modeling offered an efficient way to predict large volumes data, when compared with simulation, although the initial cost of constructing such models can be large. This work aims to reduce that initial cost by adding knowledge about the favorable network structures and training rules which are discovered. The data were gathered from a high pressure common rail direct injection turbocharged compression ignition engine utilizing a high EGR configuration. The range of design parameters were relatively large; 100 MPa - 240 MPa for fuel pressure, up to 62% EGR using a modified, long-route, low pressure EGR system, while the pilot timing, main timing, and pilot ratio were free within the safe operating window for the engine.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0700
Valentin Soloiu, Aliyah Knowles, Jose Moncada, Emerald Simons, Martin Muinos, Thomas Beyerl
Abstract The Cottonseed biodiesel combustion, sound and vibrations have been evaluated in a medium duty single cylinder DI engine (1.1L/cyl) by comparison with s ULSD#2 reference values. The engine was supercharged and had 20% EGR and all tests were conducted at 1400 rpm and at 4 bar BMEP load. Cylinder pressure was determined using a Kistler piezoelectric transducer. Combustion pressures peaked at 76 bar for both fuels. Ignition delay for CS100 decreased by 0.16 ms when compared to the ULSD#2 baseline. This would lead to a 23% lower peak heat release rate when operating CS100. The pressure rise rate for CS100 was 20% lower than ULSD#2, which related to the reduced ringing intensity for the biodiesel. The sound and vibrations were measured using a B&K condenser type multi-field microphone, and a tri-axial, piezoelectric accelerometer. All noise & vibration signals were analyzed with CPB and FFT Analysis, and Crank Angle Domain Analysis with B&K Pulse Platform software.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 109758