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2017-04-11
Technical Paper
2017-01-9176
Jitesh Shukla, A Grinspan, Jeyanthi subramanian
Lifting axles are auxiliary axles that provide increased load carrying capacity in heavy commercial vehicles. Lift axles give better fuel efficiency as well as reduced operational costs by means of increasing the load carrying capacity. These axles are raised when the vehicle is in unloaded condition, thus increasing the traction on remaining wheels and reducing the tire wear which in turn reduces the maintenance cost of the vehicle. Lifting height and force required to lift the whole mechanism are two main considerable factors to design the lifting axle mechanism. Current lifting mechanism in India has single tire with continuous axle. To maintain the draft angle of propeller shaft, continuous axle is unable to lift more after certain height and because of single tire, mechanism has less load carrying capacity up to 6T (Tons) and more tire wear found at turning time.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9177
N. Obuli Karthikeyan, R. Dinesh Kumar, V. Srinivasa Chandra, Vela Murali
In the modern automotive sector, durability and reliability are the typically pronounced words. Customers are expecting a highly reliable product at low cost. Any product that fails within its useful life tends to lower the customer satisfaction as well as the reputation of the manufacturer. To eradicate this, all automotive components undergo stringent validation protocol in proving ground or lab testing. This project aims at creating an accelerated lab test methodology for steering gearbox bracket by simulating field failure. Potential failure causes were analyzed and road load data acquisition(RLDA) carried out at customer site as well as Proving Ground(PG) to understand the severity of fatigue damage. To simulate the field failure, lab test facility was developed by reproducing similar boundary conditions as in vehicle. Based on cumulative damage analysis, customized lab test sequence was developed and field failure was simulated in the existing design samples.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9175
Yitao Zhu, Makarand Datar, Kalyan Addepalli, Natalie Remisoski
Nowadays, the vehicle design is highly ruled by the increasing customer demands and expectations. In addition to ride comfort and vehicle handling, the Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior of the powertrain is also a critical factor that has a big impact on the customer experience. To evaluate the powertrain NVH characteristics, the NVH error states should be studied. A typical NVH event could be decoupled into 3 parts: source, path, and receiver. Take-off shudder, which evaluates the NVH severity level during vehicle take-off, is one of the most important NVH error states. The main sources of Front Wheel Drive (FWD) take-off shudder are the plunging Constant Velocity Joints (CVJ) on the left and right half shafts. This is because a plunging CVJ generates a third order plunging force with half shaft Revolution Per Minute (RPM), which is along the slip of the plunging CVJ.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9178
Arash E. Risseh, Hans-Peter Nee, Olof Erlandsson, Klas Brinkfeldt, Arnaud Contet, Fabian Frobenius lng, Gerd Gaiser, Ali Saramat, Thomas Skare, Simon Nee, Jan Dellrud
The European Union's 2020 target aims to be producing 20 % of its energy from renewable sources by 2020, to achieve a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 20 % improvement in energy efficiency compared to 1990 levels. To reach these goals, the energy consumption has to decrease which results in reduction of the emissions. The transport sector is the second largest energy consumer in the EU, responsible for 25 % of the emissions of greenhouse gases caused by the low efficiency (<40 %) of combustion engines. Much work has been done to improve that efficiency but there is still a large amount of fuel energy converts to heat and escapes to the ambient atmosphere through the exhaust system. Taking advantage of thermoelectricity, the heat can be recovered, improving the fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0638
Neerav Abani, Nishit Nagar, Rodrigo Zermeno, Michael chiang, Isaac Thomas
Heavy-duty vehicles, currently the second largest source of fuel consumption and carbon emissions are projected to be fastest growing mode in transportation sector in future. There is a clear need to increase fuel efficiency and lower emissions for these engines. The Achates Power Opposed-Piston Engine has the potential to address this growing need. In this paper, results will be presented for a 9.8L three-cylinder OP Engine that shows the potential of achieving 51%+ brake thermal efficiency (BTE), while simultaneously satisfying 4.0 g/kWhr engine out NOx and 0.01 g/kWhr engine-out soot. The OP Engine architecture can meet this performance without the use of additional technologies such as thermal barrier coatings, waste heat recovery or additional turbo-compounding.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0708
Carlos Jorques Moreno, Ola Stenlaas, Per Tunestal
Factors influencing the pilot-injection combustion, the effect of pilot-injection on main-injection combustion, performance and emissions were investigated by heat release analysis in a heavy duty diesel engine fueled with standard diesel fuel. Combinations of pilot injection parameters i.e. pilot start of injection, pilot mass, pilot-main injection separation and rail pressure were studied for the different operating conditions and combustion phases. The factors influencing the pilot combustion and its impact on the main injection were investigated. It was concluded that the effect of pilot-injection combustion on main injection depends on during which phase of pilot combustion main injection starts.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0846
Raul Payri, Gabriela Bracho, Pedro Marti-Aldaravi, Alberto Viera
In the present work a constant-pressure flow facility able to reach 15 MPa ambient pressure and 1000K ambient temperature has been employed to carry out experimental studies of the combustion process at Diesel-like conditions. The objective is to characterize the influence of boundary conditions on OH* and broadband chemiluminiscence intensity generated by the fuel combustion for passenger car and heavy duty diesel injectors. Three nozzle types were investigated: a spray B nozzle (diameter of 90um) and two heavy duty application nozzles (diameter of 194 um and 228 um respectively). The results showed that nozzle size have a substantial impact on the ignition event, affecting the premixed phase of the combustion and the ignition location. Concerning OH, for the small nozzle geometry (Spray B) the ECN standard methodology was applied; meanwhile, for bigger nozzles a different processing method is proposed based on intensity threshold criteria.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0725
Kun Wang, Haiying Li, Yufeng Li, jinlong liu, Junting Fan
In diesel engines, valve avoiding pit (VAP) is often designed on the top of the piston in order to avoid the interference between the valves and the piston during the engine operation. With the continued application of the downsized or high power density diesel engines, the depth of VAP has to be further deepened due to increased valve lift for more air flow into and out of the cylinder and decreased piston top clearance for less HC/CO and soot emissions. The more and more deepening of VAP changes the combustion chamber geometry, the top clearance height and the injector relative position to the piston crown. In this paper, a 3-D in-cylinder combustion model was used for a heavy duty diesel engine to investigate the effects of the depth of VAP on combustion process and emissions. Five depths of VAP were designed in this study. In order to eliminate the influence of compression ratio, the piston clearance height was adjusted for each VAP depth to keep the same compression ratio.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0200
Hongwei Zhang, Liangjin Gui, Zijie Fan
Nowadays, road test simulation on test rig is widely used in the car industry to shorten the development circles. However, there is still room for improvement of the time cost of current road simulation test. This paper described a new method of shortening the time of road test simulation on multi-axial test rig. In this paper, road load data of a 4x2 heavy truck axle have been collected from a proving ground road test, which include the forces and torques of wheels, strains on axles, three directions of accelerations on wheels and displacements between the frame and axle. The total channels reached 35 for each axle. Then the fatigue editing technique is applied to cut the small load to reduce the simulation test time initially. The edited road load data is reproduced on multi-axial test rig successfully.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1345
Ramachandra bhat, Nitin Sharma, Clifford Rivard, Kevin Thomson
During development of new vehicles, CAE driven optimizations are helpful in achieving the optimal designs. In body-on-frame vehicles, reducing weight of the frame without any down gage involves inducing cutouts or lightening holes with no effect on fatigue life. The cutouts are stress risers that by design are detrimental to fatigue life and ability to identify their locations that maintain the durability performance becomes more critical. This paper describes one of the methods used to reduce the weight of the vehicle without any down gage and still maintaining the durability performance for truck frame. In this method, load paths are being analyzed for each component and then the stress envelops are generated in fatigue code using complete proving ground loading events. A subsequent step includes tuning those cutouts to meet the durability strength and stiffness requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0261
Randolph Jones, Robert Marinier III, Frank Koss, Robert Bechtel, John A. Sauter
When evaluating new vehicle designs, modeling and simulation offer techniques to predict parameters such as maximum speed, fuel efficiency, turning radius, and the like. However, the measure of greatest interest is the likelihood of mission success. One approach to assessing the likelihood of mission success in simulation is to build behavior models, operating at the human decision-making level, that can execute realistic missions in simulation. This approach makes it possible to not only measure changes in mission success rates, but also to analyze the causes of mission failures. Layering behavior modeling and simulation on underlying models of equipment and components enables measurement of more conventional parameters such as time, fuel efficiency under realistic conditions, distance traveled, equipment used, and survivability.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1000
Jong Lee, Yu Zhang, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, John Storey, William Partridge, Michael Lance
With higher volatility and longer ignition delay characteristics than typical diesel fuel, low cetane naphtha fuel has been shown to promote partially premixed combustion and produce lower soot for improved fuel economy. In this study, emission performance of low cetane, low octane naphtha (CN 35, RON 60) as a drop-in fuel was examined on a MY13 Cummins ISX15 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using the production hardware and development calibrations, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions of naphtha and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels were examined during the EPA’s heavy-duty emission testing cycles. Without any modification to the calibrations, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and ramped modal cycle (RMC) test cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0753
Marcus Olof Lundgren, Zhenkan Wang, Alexios Matamis, Oivind Andersson, Mattias Richter, Martin Tuner, Marcus Alden, Andersson Arne
Gasoline partially premixed combustion (PPC) has shown potential in terms of high efficiency with low NOx and soot emissions. Despite its benefits, emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (uHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) are the main shortcomings of the concept. These are caused by overlean zones near the injector tip. However, previous diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) research have demonstrated post injections to be an effective strategy to mitigate these emissions. The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of post injections on CO and uHC emissions in a non-swirling geometry. A blend of primary reference fuels, PRF87, having properties similar to US pump gasoline was used at PPC conditions in a heavy duty optical engine. The start of the main injection was maintained constant. Dwell and mass repartition between the main and post injections were varied to evaluate their effect. All points were run at 7 bar IMEPg.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0894
Nishant Singh
Improving fuel economy has been a key focus across automotive and truck industry for several years if not decades. In heavy duty commercial vehicles, the benefits from small gains in fuel economy lead to significant savings for fleets as well as owners and operators. Additionally, the regulations require vehicles to meet certain GHG levels which closely translate to vehicle fuel economy. For current state of the art FE technologies, incremental gains are so small that they are hard to measure on an actual vehicle. Engineers are challenged with high level of variability to make informed decisions. In such cases, highly controlled tests on Engine and Powertrain dynos are used, however, there is an associated variability even with these tests due factors such as part to part differences, fuel blends and quality, dyno control capabilities and so on.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1208
Kristin R. Cooney
This paper will discuss how Ford Motor Company meets the testing criteria of UN38.3, an international regulation which includes a series of tests that, when successfully met, ensure that lithium ion batteries can be safely transported. The battery safety regulations that we were familiar with, such as FMVSS and ECE, include post-crash criteria that is clearly defined. UN38.3 is unique in that the severity of the tests drove changes to battery design and function; the tests in this regulation are among the more stringent validation tests that we perform. Another unique aspect of UN38.3 is that the regulatory language can lead to different interpretations on how to run the tests and apply pass/fail criteria; there is enough ambiguity that the tests could be run very differently yet all meet the actual wording of the regulation. We created internal documents detailing exactly how to run the tests to improve consistency among our test engineers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1538
Jiaye Gan, Longxian Li, Gecheng Zha, Craig Czlapinski
This paper conducts numerical simulation and wind tunnel testing to study the passive jet boat tail(JBT) drag reduction flow control for a heavy duty truck rear view mirror. The JBT passive flow control technique is to introduce a flow jet by opening an inlet in the front of a bluff body, accelerate the jet via a converging duct and eject the jet at an angle toward the center of the base surface. The high speed jet flow entrains the free stream flow to energize the base flow, increase the base pressure, reduces the wake size, and thus reduce the drag. A baseline heavy duty truck rear view mirror is used as reference. The mirror is then redesigned to include the JBT feature without violating any of the variable mirror position geometric constraints and internal control system volume requirement. The wind tunnel testing was conducted at various flow speed and yaw angles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0781
Philip Zoldak, Jeffrey Naber
In recent years, natural gas has been considered a replacement for diesel fuel in large bore engines, due to its low cost, high heating value and widespread availability. Stoichiometric premixed spark-ignition (SI), defined as port-fuel injection (PFI) of natural gas (NG) followed by SI close to top dead center (TDC), has traditionally been used as the main fuel delivery and combustion method for light and medium duty engines. However, premixed SI of NG results in inefficiencies in the intake process and combustion that is knock limited as boost and load are increased. Traditionally, high knock is addressed by spark timing retard. Spark timing retard can lead to misfires and low brake mean effective pressures. Thus premixed SI has limited low load use in heavy duty where compression ignition of diesel fuel remains dominant.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0158
Masaaki Nakamura, Koichi Machida, Kiyohiro Shimokawa
A diesel engine is advantageous in its high thermal efficiency, however it still wastes more than 50% of total input energy to exhaust and cooling losses. A feasibility study of thermoacoustic refrigerator was carried out as one of the means to recuperate waste heat. The thermoacoustic refrigerator prototyped for this study showed a capability to achieve cooling temperature lower than -20 degree C, which indicated that the system has a potential to be used in refrigerator trucks not only for cargo compartment cooling but also for cabin cooling. The experimental system was single loop type with its total length of 3160mm. A mixture of argon and helium was used as the working gas. Cordierite honeycombs of 100mm long with cell density of 1200 cpsi were used as the regenerators in both the heating and cooling parts. The heat exchanger, which was made of anoxic copper with high thermal conductivity, was maintained at room temperature by recirculating cooling water.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0914
Mengchao Zhang
Since diesel engines have higher thermal efficiency, larger power and better fuel economy than gasoline engines, diesel engines are widely used in vehicle, construction machinery and agricultural machinery. However, they emit more hazardous pollutants than gasoline engines, especially particulate emission, which has negative impact on human health and environment quality. In order to meet future increasingly stringent regulations for particulate emission, exhaust gas after-treatment technologies of diesel engines are essential. Particulate emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine which meets the China national V emission regulation were studied, and the engine was equipped with/without diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The fuel used in this article is ultra low sulfur diesel fuel whose sulfur content is less than 10 ppm.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0888
Prashant Kumar, Reji Mathai, Sanjeev KUMAR, Ashish Kachhawa, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, Snigdhamayee Praharaj
The growing transportation sector worldwide has opened up a way forward not only for the scientists & researchers but also for the OEMs to find out the options for fuel efficient automotive vehicles with reduced emissions during their usage. The demand of automotive vehicles has been doubled in last few years and in turn the market for lubricants and transmission fluids are flourishing. Several new formulations of lubricants are getting popularized with major suppliers to achieve the end user expectation in terms of fuel economy benefits, engine life and emissions. The market trend is continuously moving towards the improvement in lubricant formulation to the lower viscosity ranges and in this direction Indian Oil Corporation Limited is into development of multi-grade low viscosity range of engine oils (lubricants) which is said to be providing the benefits in terms of fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1411
Gary A. Davis
For at least 15 years it has been recognized that pre-crash data captured by event data recorders (EDR) might help illuminate the actions taken by drivers prior to a crash. In left-turning crashes where pre-crash data are available from both vehicles it should be possible to estimate features such as the location and speed of the opposing vehicle at the time of turn initiation and the reaction time of the opposing driver. Difficulties arise however from measurement errors in pre-crash speed data and because the EDR data from the two vehicles are not synchronized; the resulting uncertainties should be accounted for. This paper describes a method for accomplishing this using Markov Chain Monte Carlo computation. First, planar impact methods are used to estimate the speeds at impact of the involved vehicles. Next, the impact speeds and pre-crash EDR data are used to reconstruct the vehicles’ trajectories during the approximately 5 seconds preceding the crash.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1575
Andrei Keller, Sergei Aliukov, Vladislav Anchukov
Trucks are one of the most common modes of transport and they are operated in various road conditions. As a rule, all-wheel drive trucks are equipped with special systems and mechanisms to improve their cross-country capability and overall efficiency. The usage of blocked mechanisms for power distribution is one of the most popular and effective ways to improve the off-road vehicle performance. However, the lock of differential may adversely affect the stability and control of vehicle because of the unobvious redistribution of reactions acting on wheels, which consequently leads to poor performance and safety properties. Problems of rational distribution of power in transmissions of all-wheel drive vehicles, as well as research in the field of improving directional stability and active safety systems are among the priorities in modern automotive industry.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0260
Yuanying Wang, Heath Hofmann, Denise Rizzo, Scott Shurin
The increasing electrification of military vehicles is also increasing the need for accurate models of electric motors and generators for use in powertrain design. In particular, there is a strong need to accurately model the internal temperatures of these machines. Thus, an accurate yet computationally-efficient thermal model is required. In previous work, a technique capable of dramatically reducing the order of a 3-dimensional finite-element (FE) thermal conduction model was developed. The developed model has acceptable accuracy but is orders of magnitude faster than the FE model. This new model was validated by a locked-rotor test with close agreement, but the results are unsatisfactory when the rotor is spinning, since the resulting heat convection behavior is not precisely modeled. This paper will present a computationally-efficient model of heat convection due to air circulation produced by rotor motion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1437
William Bortles, Sean McDonough, Connor Smith, Michael Stogsdill
The data obtained from event data recorders found in airbag control modules, powertrain control modules and rollover sensors in passenger vehicles has been validated and used to reconstruct accidents for years. Recently, a system has been introduced that will allow crash investigators and reconstructionists to access, preserve and analyze data from infotainment and telematics systems found in passenger vehicles. The infotainment and telematics systems in select vehicles retain navigation data in the form of tracklogs that provide a time history of vehicle geolocation that may be useful in reconstructing a crash. This paper presents testing in which the GPS navigation data imaged from the vehicle is compared to independent GPS instrumentation to analyze the accuracy of the retrieved navigation data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0135
Jose Grande, Julio Abraham Carrera, Manuel Dieguez Sr
Exhaust Gas Recirculation system (EGR) is an effective technique for reducing NOx emissions in order to accomplish the more and more stringent emissions standards. This system is widely use in commercial vehicle engines in which thermal loads and durability are a critical issue. In addition, the development deadlines of the new engine generations are being considerably reduced, especially for validation test phase in which costumers usually require robust parts for engine validation in the first stages of the project. Some of the most critical issues in this initial phases of program development are heavy boiling and thermal fatigue. Consequently, it has been necessary to develop a procedure for designing EGR coolers robust enough against heavy boiling and thermal fatigue in a short period of time, even when the engine calibration is not finished and the working conditions of the EGR system are not completely defined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1089
Jose Grande, Julio Abraham Carrera, Manuel Dieguez Sr
Exhaust Gas Recirculation system (EGR) has been used for years for NOx emissions control in commercial vehicle applications. Emissions limits are tighter with every regulation while durability requirements are increasing, so EGR systems manufacturers must be able to provide high performance and robust designs even with high thermal loads. Commercial vehicle market is characterized by lower production rates than passenger car programs, but same engine has multiple applications with totally different engine calibrations. In some cases it is necessary to design two or more EGR systems for an engine platform, with the consequent impact on cost and development timeline. The optimal design of and EGR system needs to take into consideration several topics related with performance and durability: efficiency and pressure drop, fouling, boiling, thermal fatigue, vibrations, pressure fatigue and corrosion among others.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0150
Ankit Kumar Shukla, Raj Dhami, Aashish Bhargava, Sanjay Tiwari
In current landscape of commercial vehicle industry, fuel economy is one of the major parameter for fleet owner's profitability as well as greenhouse gasses emission. Less fuel efficiency results in more fuel consumption; use of conventional fuel in engines also makes environment polluted. The rapid growth in fuel cost, demands technologies that can improve fuel efficiency of vehicle. Phase change material (PCMs) for Thermal energy storage system (TES) is one of the specific technologies that not only can conserve energy to a large extent but also can reduce emission as well as dependency on convention fuel. There is a great variety of PCMs that can be used for extensive range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications in automobiles. The objective of this paper is to study the behavior & performance of PCM based cooling system for automotive refrigerated containers over period from dispatch to delivery and at different ambient conditions (temperatures).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1412
Christopher H. Goddard, David Price
Various mechanisms have been used to drive speedometers and other instrument gauges. This paper reviews the mechanisms used; in particular investigates the ability of stepper motors which have become the most common instrument motor in the last decade to freeze at the apparent reading prior to impact. Stepper motors require power to drive the needle to any indicated position, including having to return it to zero. Hence if power to the instrument is lost as a result of a collision, there is no power to move the needle and it should be left at the reading shown at the moment the power was lost. However, not all stepper motor instruments are the same and before accepting the reading, a number of criteria need to be considered to give a level of confidence in the result. As part of recent ITAI (Institute of Traffic Accident Investigators) crash test events in the UK, a number of instrument clusters were installed in vehicles to simulate both frontal and side impacts.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0181
Benny Johnson William, Agathaman Selvaraj, Manjeet Singh Rammurthy, Manikandan Rajaraman, V. Srinivasa Chandra
The modern day automobile customers’ expectations are sky-high. The automotive manufacturers need to provide sophisticated, cost-effective comfort to stay in this competitive world. Air conditioning is one of the major features which provides a better comfort but also adds up to the increase in operating fuel cost of vehicle. According to the sources the efficiency of internal combustion engine is 30% and 70% of energy is wasted to atmosphere. The current Air conditioners in automobiles use Vapour compression system (VCS) which utilizes a portion of shaft power of the engine at its input; this in turn reduces the brake power output and increases the specific fuel consumption (SFC) of the engine. With the current depletion rate of fossil fuels, it is necessary to conserve the available resources and use it effectively which also contributes to maintain a good balance in greenhouse effect thus protecting the environment.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0696
Yu Zhang, Steven Sommers, Yuanjiang Pei, Praveen Kumar, Alexander Voice, Michael Traver, David Cleary
This research investigates the combustion characteristics and engine performance of a conventional gasoline (RON 92) and a higher reactivity gasoline (RON 80) under mixing-controlled combustion. The work builds upon previous Aramco published studies on the combustion of straight-run naphtha fuels. With a forecasted shift in global demand toward middle distillate fuels, there is potential in the market for light-end fuels such as gasoline. Combusting light-end fuels as efficiently as diesel fuel in a compression ignition engine may mitigate such a demand shift while providing the flexibility needed to accommodate future transportation scenarios. A six-cylinder, Cummins ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a common-rail fuel system capable of 2500 bar fuel injection pressure and with a geometric compression ratio of 18.9 was used in this study. Engine experiments were conducted at a medium engine speed, 1375 rpm, with a load sweep from 2 to 15 bar BMEP.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 7528