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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Slow Speed Off-Tracking of Steerable Axle Tractor Trailer Combinations

2019-01-19
2019-26-0069
Steerable multi axle trailers are deployed for transportation due to their cost effectiveness and improved manoeuvrability then non-steered trailers. High speed manoeuvres of steerable axle trailer are considered dangerous for stability due to complex dynamic behaviour and researched for decades. Off-Tracking is an important parameter which influences the dynamic behaviour of steerable axle trailer at both low and high speed. Off-tracking is defined as maximum radial offset between path of the tractor’s front axle centre and trailer’s rearmost axle centre during a specific manoeuvre. Off-tracking, being a slow speed phenomenon becomes major concern for safe and accident free movement even at slow speeds. A linear 3-DOF yaw plane model of steerable axle tractor trailer combination is developed using Lagrangian approach, which requires steering angles of truck’s front axle and all trailer axles to simulate the system.
Technical Paper

Reducing Brake Steer Which Causes Vehicle Drift During Braking

2019-01-19
2019-26-0072
Brake steer is an undesirable phenomenon where a vehicle deviates to one side of the road during braking. Vehicle deviation i.e. drift causes driver discomfort, where a driver has to constantly apply Steering Wheel corrections while braking in order to safely maintain the desired path. In a particular segment of commercial vehicle, an issue of unacceptable right-side vehicle drift during braking was observed which was making the drive of the vehicle unsafe for the driver. Aim of this paper is to analyse the probable causes of such a vehicle drift, to objectively measure actual brake steer and corresponding vehicle drift during braking using a unique methodology. In this paper, the root cause of the brake steer is discussed and an improvement on the vehicle is proposed by changing kinematic points of suspension and steering linkage to reduce the brake steer to the limit that vehicle drift is almost eliminated and vehicle becomes completely safe for the driver to drive.
Technical Paper

Modifications in Mini-Bus Design for Drag Reduction

2019-01-19
2019-26-0071
The purpose of this study was to develop the aerodynamic study of a minibus vehicle. With the objective of reducing Power consumption, as Mini-Bus is designed as H2-O2 fuel cell and electric Bus and consequently no emissions are created to the environment. The proposed initial of the project was to identify the aerodynamic coefficient of the existing vehicle from the 3D CAD model. After preliminary analysis of the model and based on studies conducted are effected changes in order to achieve better results in the design of new generations of the vehicle. The simulation of the air flow over the vehicle was performed in three steps: design on Catia, discretization of the computational domain using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) meshing and ANSYS (FLUENT) solve to CFD. We used the turbulence models of two equations k-ε Standard and k-ε Realizable having a better approximation of the actual result.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Oil Flow inside Tractor Transmission for Splash Type Lubrication

2019-01-19
2019-26-0082
Automotive transmissions convert power from the engine into the optimum drive force and engine speed, and to transmit this drive force to the driveshaft. Structural components of the transmission get damaged or degraded due to wear and heat. Effective lubrication prevents this metal to metal contact. In addition, the lubricants also act as a thermal medium to effectively dissipate the heat produced due to frictional resistances. In many cases, it is not possible to adequately study oil flow even in physical tests due to the adherence of oil to the internal walls of the housing, excessive foaming of the oil and the obscuring of the flow by parts. Simulations provides an insight to the designer about the lubrication pattern, around the gear and housings otherwise challenging to analyze during actual test. This paper, provides a rapid and accurate methodology for tractor transmission to visualize the splashing pattern & oil reach to the bearing.
Technical Paper

Method Development to Virtually Validate Farm Tractor Skid for Front End Loader Application

2019-01-19
2019-26-0080
In farm tractors, front end loaders are becoming popular attachments for primarily material handling such as loading, moving and unloading of woodchips, sand, gravels etc. It is also used for some severe load application such as tree uprooting and ripping operation which requires validation of loader frame and tractor as well. To validate the design, a standard pull-push test is carried out on tractor with loader in a laboratory. In this test, front loader bucket is pushed against a rigidly clamped fixture with full engine throttle and maximum hydraulic cylinder pressure of loader. To avoid surprise failures during the test, a virtual simulation method needs to be developed and validated. In this paper, a method has been proposed by authors for the above objective. A multi-body dynamics model of tractor with loader is created in MSC ADAMS and actual event is simulated using test loads & boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Electrical Operated Fan for Cooling System on Agricultural Tractors

2019-01-19
2019-26-0079
Internal combustion engines involve various parasitic losses on vehicle level like that of Cooling Fans, Hydraulic pumps, Air compressors and Alternators. Because of which the available output power for applications is limited. The replacement of an existing mechanical Fan, which is driven by the engine crankshaft, by an electrically operated Fan reduces the engine frictional losses (Fan drag) resulting in a power gain. Fuel saved because of nil fan drag is available as a useful power for application. Mechanical fans operate on a fixed drive ratio with engine speeds and is directly proportional. Electrical fans can operate on constant speeds and is independent of engine speeds. There is a benefit of higher air-flow on max torque speeds which is not possible with a mechanical driven fan. There is no compromise in engine cooling performance, since the fan can now be placed suitably in the best airflow zone by CFD analysis.
Technical Paper

Instrumentation Techniques Used for Design Optimization of Front Axle Support Bracket in Agricultural Tractor

2019-01-19
2019-26-0083
Agriculture tractor industry is highly competitive in the current market scenario with global majors competing in various markets. A tractor having an optimum design is of prime importance to keep the cost low while providing higher value to the customers. Technology advances in instrumentation methodology and data acquisition helps not only in providing the right inputs for design of a component / system but also very much useful for design / system optimization. Front Axle Support of an agricultural tractor is one of the structural member which is connected to the Powertrain which is called skid of the tractor to which the Front Axle is mounting through Pillow block (Plummer block) arrangement to facilitate axle oscillation about the tractor longitudinal center line. Front ballast weight are mounted on a bracket which is mounted to the front axle support to maintain the required front reaction in various agricultural operations.
Technical Paper

Slinger Design in Live 4WD Axle for Tractor

2019-01-19
2019-26-0084
Proper lubrication is essential for any gear box & axle to get optimized performance. For getting desired life of gear train, we have to maintain minimum oil level inside the gear box or axle. Whereas in case of rotating parts such as bearings and shafts, we have to provide sealing such as o rings & oil seals to stop oil coming out from the housing. But, if sealing is not proper seepage & leakage start and reduce the oil level inside the gear box. Oil deficiency leads to scuffing failure in gears and later occurrence of gear & bearing seizure ultimately fails the system. To sustain proper lubrication, we must seal the interfaces appropriately. There are different types of sealing available. Sealing is also depended on application and its location. To protect seal from external environment, we adopt a unique arrangement called slinger which enhances the life of seal.
Technical Paper

Loss of Control Car Accidents on Indian Roads - Benefit Estimation of ESC

2019-01-19
2019-26-0009
Globally, road safety is evaluated by the number of crashes and their consequences in terms of deaths, serious injuries and economic loss to nations. Logically, therefore, to improve safety, the factual causes of crashes should be known. In other words, road safety can only be initiated with the knowledge of the causative factors as well as that of consequences of serious and fatal road crashes. An investigation conducted by Bosch Accident Research looked at the accident database of the Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI). It aimed to find out the root cause for loss of control accidents of passenger cars and how state-of-the art technologies like ESP® can help to avoid accidents taking place. As a matter of fact ESP® became standard equipment in many vehicles and its crash avoidance potential is already accepted worldwide. Therefore the question arise - how The analysis was done based on 2 500 reconstructed crashes collected in five different regions all around India.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Recognize Vehicle Loading Condition – An Indirect Method Using Telematics and Machine Learning

2019-01-19
2019-26-0019
Connected vehicles technology is experiencing a boom across the globe. Vehicle manufacturers started to have telematics devices which leverage mobile connectivity to pool the data. Though the primary purpose of the telematics devices is location tracking, the additional vehicle information gathered through the devices can bring in much more insights about the vehicles. Cloud computing is enabling standard connected vehicle offerings, and on the other hand machine learning and data analytics enables rich customer experience at a very limited cost. From a fleet owner perspective, the revenue and the maintenance costs are directly related to the loading conditions of the vehicle. This could help in efficient planning on vehicle sharing, drive mode selection and proactive maintenance. A common approach to vehicle load condition detection is by using costly sensors. This paper explores a possibility of detecting vehicle load conditions without making use of any additional sensors.
Technical Paper

Cold-start WHTC Transient Results on Multi-cylinder Opposed-Piston Engine Demonstrating Low CO2 Emissions while Meeting BS-VI Emission Targets and Enabling Aftertreatment Downsizing

2019-01-19
2019-26-0029
Reducing the greenhouse emissions from on-road freight vehicles to meet the climate change mitigation objectives, has become a prime focus of regulatory authorities all over the world. Besides the India, the United States, the European union, Canada, Japan, and China have already established heavy-duty vehicle efficiency regulations addressing CO2 and NOX emissions. In addition, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and South Korea are all in various stages of developing policies to improve the efficiency of their commercial vehicle fleets. For CO2 emissions reduction standards, the U.S. mandates 27% reduction by 2027, EU is calling for 15% reduction by 2025, China - 27% by 2019 over 2012 levels, and India is mandating 10%-15% reduction by 2021 for phase2 of new standard. There has also considerable focus on further reduction in NOX emissions from current levels (0.2 g/hp-hr), to the proposed ultra-low NOx standards (0.02 g/hp-hr) in the U.S. for heavy duty engines by 2024.
Technical Paper

DFSS to Design Engine Cooling System of Small Gasoline Vehicle with Rear Engine.

2019-01-19
2019-26-0037
The aim of this paper is to strategies thermal protection of the rear mounted engine and it’s components of a vehicle having engine and radiator with cooling fan mounted in rear of the car. In automobile design, a rear-engine design layout is mainly found in small, inexpensive cars and light commercial vehicles chosen for three reasons - packaging, traction, and ease of manufacturing. For simple packaging and efficient thermal management, a radiator is located close to the engine. The thermal management of rear mounted engine in a car is very critical as engine compartment does not get enough surrounding air for cooling. Also when radiator is mounted in the rear, the rate of heat transfer for a radiator surface area reduces due to less available source air. Poor hot-air scavenging from engine compartment in case of rear engine also impact coolant heat exchange rate. The above concerns calls for puller type fan with higher fan wattage with more duty cycle operation.
Technical Paper

Improving the Reliability of Piston for Increased Power Density by Changing the Shape of Piston Bowl for a Medium Speed Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2019-01-19
2019-26-0048
Global development trend in diesel engine is to extract more power from the same engine thereby increasing the brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). With increase in the engine BMEP, maintaining reliability of the pistons and piston ring set becomes challenging as mechanical and thermal loading increases simultaneously. Reliability can be maintained by changing the material to higher grade and /or applying different coatings; however this involves significant cost and development time. It is always preferred to keep the same material and improve the reliability of parts. In this work the BMEP of a heavy duty medium speed diesel engine is increased by 10% (from 22.8 bar BMEP to 25 bar BMEP) without change in the piston or piston ring set material. This is achieved by studying the effect of existing piston bowl shape and then changing the shape to improve the reliability of piston and piston ring set. A systematic 6 step methodology is followed.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Retrofit Solution for Converting a Conventional LCV into Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2019-01-19
2019-26-0117
In today’s scenario, the emission norms are getting stringent day by day due to increased level of pollution. The world is shifting towards low carbon footprint which made it necessary to adopt efficient technologies with less emissions. Hybridisation of vehicles have resulted into improved efficiency with lower emissions which can fulfil the near future emission norms. Retrofitting of hybrid components into a conventional IC engine vehicle is so far the best way to achieve better performance both economically and technologically. This research is primarily focused on the design and development of a novel retrofit solution of P3x architecture for light commercial vehicle. This retrofit solution is different from other retrofit solutions in terms of powertrain. It contains an innovative add-on powertrain along with the existing powertrain. This additional powertrain consists of a pair of helical gears followed by a chain and sprocket as a coupler for traction motor.
Technical Paper

Optimized Exhaust After-treatment System Solution for Indian Heavy Duty City Bus Application – the Challenges Involved and the Right Approach to Meet Future BS VI Emission Legislations and Real World Driving Cycles Emissions

2019-01-19
2019-26-0139
The vehicular pollution and emission levels are alarmingly increasing in India. The metro and urban cities are worst hit by the gaseous and particulate emissions produced by internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Following the trend from other developed countries, Government of India has decided to migrate from existing BS 4 legislation directly to BS 6 legislation from April 2020 all across India. This migration in emission legislation took almost 10 years to be implemented in European Union (EU) countries. However, for India, the targeted implementation time is just 3 years, making it an uphill challenge for all the vehicle manufacturers. City bus is one such applications, which run mostly within the city and currently are powered by conventional Diesel engines. The vehicle manufacturers should focus on finding an optimized solution for meeting the future emission legislation in true sense.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Water Injection in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for NOx Reduction Potential

2019-01-19
2019-26-0145
Diesel engine pollutants include Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) which are traditionally known for their trade-off characteristics. It has been a challenge to reduce both pollutants at the source simultaneously, except by efforts through low temperature combustion concepts. NOx formation is dependent on the combustion temperature and thus the in-cylinder reduction of NOx formation remains of utmost importance. In this regard, water injection into the intake of a heavy-duty diesel engine to reduce peak combustion temperature and thereby reducing NOx is found to be a promising technology. Current work involves the use of 1-D thermodynamic simulation using AVL BOOST for modeling the engine performance with water injection. Mixing Controlled Combustion (MCC) model was used which can model the emissions. Initially, the model validation without the water injector was carried out with experimental data.
Technical Paper

48 V Diesel Hybrid – Advanced Powertrain Solution for Meeting Future Indian BS 6 Emission and CO2 Legislations

2019-01-19
2019-26-0151
The legislations on emission reduction is getting stringent everywhere in the world. India is following the same trend, with Government of India (GOI) declaring the nationwide implementation of BS 6 legislation by April 2020 and Real Driving Emission (RDE) Cycle relevant legislation by 2023. Additionally GOI is focusing on reduction of CO2 emissions by introduction of stringent fleet CO2 targets through CAFE regulation, making it mandatory for vehicle manufacturers to simultaneously work on gaseous emissions and CO2 emissions. Simultaneous NOx emission reduction and CO2 reduction measures are divergent in nature, but with a 48 V Diesel hybrid, this goal can be achieved. The study presented here involves arriving at the right future hybrid-powertrain layout for a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) in the Indian scenario to meet the future BS 6 and CAFÉ legislations. Diesel engines dominate the current LCV and SUV segments in India and the same trend can be expected to continue in future.
Technical Paper

Wheel Durability and Life Improvement - Valve Hole Position Optimization in Commercial Vehicle Wheel Using Segmental Loading Conditions - FEA Approach

2019-01-19
2019-26-0316
In Automotive, Steel wheels are exponentially replaced by Aluminum wheels because of its feather light, agile performance and better acceleration. One such widely used size is 11.75 x 22.5 wheels for trucks and trailer segment. During the design stage of 11.75 x 22.5 wheel, the valve hole was placed away from the stress concentration zone to reduce the stress on the holes and also the design was validated through all conventional wheel rim testing methodology’s (Like CFT, RFT and Bi-axial) and the wheel passed all the test requirements. During the field trials, failures were observed as noticed on the valve holes, despite of this hole was away from stress concentration region. Understood from the field trials that, the regular testing was not able to simulate the real field conditions for this particular size and changed the boundary condition in our FEA to simulate the actual conditions.
Technical Paper

Operational Deflection Shapes & Resonance Analysis Using Road Simulator

2019-01-19
2019-26-0323
In today’s competitive world to stay in the commercial vehicle business, technological advancement is vital. Understanding the various operation modes of a vehicle considering the vibration becomes essential for developing a vehicle free from failures. ODS analysis is a method which is used to visualize the vibration pattern of a vehicle when influenced by known external operating forces. They provide very useful information for understanding and evaluating the behaviour of the vehicle. This paper discusses about the experiments carried out on School bus. It details the process of data collection at varying frequency input, understanding the modes at various frequencies, identifying the resonant frequency of various components, understanding the comparison between road inputs and resonance frequencies and the transfer of vibration (Transmissibility) from one component to another.
Technical Paper

Virtual Validation of Truck Chassis Using Wheel Force Transducer Data

2019-01-19
2019-26-0332
Lot of CAE based evaluation methods and loadcases are available which are derived from acceleration data, strain data acquired on chassis over proving ground or generic gravity loads based on experience. These methods are having certain advantages like faster concept level evaluation, broader perspective and confidence on concept design. But there are few limitations of using these methods like these loadcases are not able to capture all the failure modes and different combination of wheel loads as per RWUP (real world usage pattern) are unknown. WFT (Wheel force transducer) data will give more realistic loadcases. These forces are acquired on each wheel and in 6 directions (3 translational, 3 rotational). Use of these WFT data can be done in multiple ways. For truck chassis durability simulation, quasi-static analysis approach used.
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