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2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0419
Yuliang Yang, Yu Yang, Ying Sun, Jian Zeng, Yunquan Zhang
Abstract In addition to ride comfort, handling stability and other conventional vehicle performances, we should also focus on other aspects of performance to a center axle trailer combination, such as the maximum stable side-inclination, the anti-rolling stability, the lateral stability and so on. Based on the finite element method, a rigid-flexible coupling model for the truck combination was built and analyzed in the multi-body environment (ADAMS), in which the key components of the chassis and cab suspension were treated as flexible bodies. A series of simulations were carried out to evaluate the lateral stability of the center axle trailer in accordance with the relevant regulations of the vehicle. The influence of design variables on the lateral stability was studied by an experiment. Furthermore, in order to improve the lateral stability of the trailer combination, the optimal design was obtained by the co-simulation of the ADAMS/Car, iSIGHT and Matlab.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0381
L. Karthik, R. Dinesh Kumar, E. Prasanna Kumar, V. Srinivasa Chandra
Abstract This abstract work describes a method of data acquisition and validation procedure followed for a metal bumper used in commercial vehicle application. Covariance is considered as major phenomenon for repeatable measurements in proving ground data acquisition and it is to be maintained less than 0.05. In this project covariance of data acquisition is analyzed before physical simulation of acquired data. In addition to that, multiple testing conditions like uni-axial and bi-axial testing were carried out to attain the failure. PG data is used for bi-axial vibration test and conventional constant spectrum signal (CSD signal) is used for uni-axial vibration test. Target duration for uni-axial test (Z direction) was arrived using pseudo damage calculation. Strain gauges were installed in failure locations to compare PG data and rig data as well as to calculate strain life. Failures were simulated in bi-axial vibration test.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0404
Anatoliy Dubrovskiy, Sergei Aliukov, Sergei Dubrovskiy, Alexander Alyukov
Abstract Currently, a group of scientists consisting of six doctors of technical sciences, professors of South Ural State University (Chelyabinsk, Russia) has completed a cycle of scientific research for creation of adaptive suspensions of vehicles. We have developed design solutions of the suspensions. These solutions allow us to adjust the performance of the suspensions directly during movement of a vehicle, depending on road conditions - either in automatic mode or in manual mode. We have developed, researched, designed, manufactured, and tested experimentally the following main components of the adaptive suspensions of vehicles: 1) blocked adaptive dampers and 2) elastic elements with nonlinear characteristic and with improved performance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0346
Radwan Hazime, Thomas Seifert, Jeremy Kessens, Frank Ju
Abstract A complete thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) life prediction methodology is developed for predicting the TMF life of cast iron cylinder heads for efficient heavy duty internal combustion engines. The methodology uses transient temperature fields as thermal loads for the non-linear structural finite-element analysis (FEA). To obtain reliable stress and strain histories in the FEA for cast iron materials, a time and temperature dependent plasticity model which accounts for viscous effects, non-linear kinematic hardening and tension-compression asymmetry is required. For this purpose a unified elasto-viscoplastic Chaboche model coupled with damage is developed and implemented as a user material model (USERMAT) in the general purpose FEA program ANSYS. In addition, the mechanism-based DTMF model for TMF life prediction developed in Part I of the paper is extended to three-dimensional stress states under transient non-proportional loading conditions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0349
Thomas Seifert, Philipp von Hartrott, Kristopher Boss, Paul Wynthein
Abstract Cast iron materials are used as materials for cylinder heads for heavy duty internal combustion engines. These components must withstand severe cyclic mechanical and thermal loads throughout their service life. While high-cycle fatigue (HCF) is dominant for the material in the water jacket region, the combination of thermal transients with mechanical load cycles results in thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of the material in the fire deck region, even including superimposed TMF and HCF loads. Increasing the efficiency of the engines directly leads to increasing combustion pressure and temperature and, thus, lower safety margins for the currently used cast iron materials or alternatively the need for superior cast iron materials. In this paper (Part I), the TMF properties of the lamellar graphite cast iron GJL250 and the vermicular graphite cast iron GJV450 are characterized in uniaxial tests and a mechanism-based model for TMF life prediction is developed for both materials.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0342
Benjamin Möller, Alessio Tomasella, Rainer Wagener, Tobias Melz
Abstract The cyclic material behavior is investigated, by strain-controlled testing, of 8 mm thick sheet metal specimens and butt joints, manufactured by manual gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The materials used in this investigation are the high-strength structural steels S960QL, S960M and S1100QL. Trilinear strain-life curves and cyclic stress-strain curves have been derived for the base material and the as-welded state of each steel grade. Due to the cyclic softening in combination with a high load level at the initial load cycle, the cyclic stress-strain curve cannot be applied directly for a fatigue assessment of welded structures. Therefore, the transient effects have been analyzed in order to describe the time-variant material behavior in a more detailed manner. This should be the basis for the enhancement of the fatigue life estimation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0521
Richard Merrett, John Murray, Doug Kolak
Abstract The development of experimental ORC systems is an extremely complex, time consuming and costly task. Running a range of experiments on a number of different component configurations may be prohibitively expensive and subject to equipment issues and failures. Yet ORC systems offer significant potential for automotive manufacturers to improve vehicle efficiency, reduce fuel consumption and vehicle emissions; the technology is particularly relevant for those involved in the design and/or manufacture of heavy duty trucks. This paper is focused on the validation of a computational ORC system simulation tool against a number of SAE published test results based on the European Stationary Cycle. Such studies on industry standard systems are essential in order to help promote confidence in a virtual prototype approach.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0436
Tianjun Zhu, Bin Li
Abstract A new extended planar model for multi-axle articulated vehicle with nonlinear tire model is presented. This nonlinear multi-axle articulated vehicle model is specifically intended for improving the model performance in operating regimes where tire lateral force is near the point of saturation, and it has the potential to extend the specific axles model to any representative configuration of articulated vehicle model. At the same time, the extended nonlinear vehicle model can reduce the model's sensitivity to the tire cornering coefficients. Firstly, a nonlinear tire model is used in conjunction with the 6-axle planar articulated vehicle model to extend the ranges of the original linear model into the nonlinear regimes of operation. Secondly, the performance analysis of proposed nonlinear vehicle model is verified through the double lane change maneuver on different road adhesion coefficients using TruckSim software.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0437
Bin Li, Subhash Rakheja
Abstract In this paper, a gain-scheduling optimal control approach is proposed to enhance yaw stability of articulated commercial vehicles through active braking of the proper wheel(s). For this purpose, an optimal feedback control is used to design a family of yaw moment controllers considering a broad range of vehicle velocities. The yaw moment controller is designed such that the instantaneous tractor yaw rate and articulation angle responses are forced to track the target values at each specific vehicle velocity. A gain scheduling mechanism is subsequently constructed via interpolations among the controllers. Furthermore, yaw moments derived from the proposed controller are realized by braking torque distribution among the appropriate wheels. The effectiveness of the proposed yaw stability control scheme is evaluated through software-in-the-loop (SIL) co-simulations involving Matlab/Simulink and TruckSim under lane change maneuvers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0431
Xianyao Ping, Gangfeng Tan, Benlong Liu, Shengguang Xiong, Yuyang Cao
Abstract The heavy-duty vehicles have large transportation capacity. Gross mass and center of gravity position of the heavy-duty vehicles vary with the cargo mass and the driving condition, which affect driving safety and handling stability. Gross mass and center of gravity position of the vehicles are usually measured on fixed test platform, and the vehicles are stationary or pass the platform slowly in the measurement process. Most dynamic weighing system could not measure the center of gravity position of the vehicles. On-board mass and center of gravity of motor vehicles measurement system mainly based on the tire pressure information could measure gross mass and center of gravity position accurately in the driving process. The measurement errors of the sensors are effectively decreased by filtering collected sensor data. The relationship between the tire pressure and the tire load is built when the vehicle is stationary.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0428
Tianqi Lv, Yan Wang, Xingxing Feng, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract Steering returnability is an important index for evaluating vehicle handling performance. A systematic method is presented in this paper to reduce the high yaw rate residue and the steering response time for a light duty truck in the steering return test. The vehicle multibody model is established in ADAMS, which takes into consideration of the frictional loss torque and hydraulically assisted steering property in the steering mechanism, since the friction, which exists in steering column, spherical joint, steering universal joint, and steering gear, plays an important role in vehicle returnability performance. The accuracy of the vehicle model is validated by road test and the key parameters are determined by executing the sensitivity analysis, which shows the effect of each design parameter upon returnability performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0624
Jiaxin Liu, Sicheng Qin, Yankun Jiang, Shumo He
Abstract In this work, a XD132 Road Roller from XCMG in China was employed as a research basis to study the heat exchange performance of the heat dissipation module under varied working conditions. The module in the XD132 consists of a cooling fan and three radiators. At first, the numerical investigation on the elementary units of radiators was performed to obtain Colburn j factor and Fanning friction f factor, which were used for the ε-NTU method to predict the radiator performance. The fan was numerically tested in a wind test tunnel to acquire the performance curve. The performance data from both investigations were transformed into the boundary conditions of the numerical vehicle model in a virtual tunnel. A field experiment was carried out to validate the simulation accuracy, and an entrance coefficient was proposed to discuss the performance regularity under four working conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0611
Viktor Leek, Kristoffer Ekberg, Lars Eriksson
1 ABSTRACT Today’s need for fuel efficient vehicles, together with increasing engine component complexity, makes optimal control a valuable tool in the process of finding the most fuel efficient control strategies. To efficiently calculate the solution to optimal control problems a gradient based optimization technique is desirable, making continuously differentiable models preferable. Many existing control-oriented Diesel engine models do not fully posses this property, often due to signal saturations or discrete conditions. This paper offers a continuously differentiable, mean value engine model, of a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with VGT and EGR, suitable for optimal control purposes. The model is developed from an existing, validated, engine model, but adapted to be continuously differentiable and therefore tailored for usage in an optimal control environment. The changes due to the conversion are quantified and presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0261
Randolph Jones, Robert Marinier III, Frank Koss, Robert Bechtel, John A. Sauter
Abstract When evaluating new vehicle designs, modeling and simulation offer techniques to predict parameters such as maximum speed, fuel efficiency, turning radius, and the like. However, the measure of greatest interest is the likelihood of mission success. One approach to assessing the likelihood of mission success in simulation is to build behavior models, operating at the human decision-making level, that can execute realistic missions in simulation. This approach makes it possible to not only measure changes in mission success rates, but also to analyze the causes of mission failures. Layering behavior modeling and simulation on underlying models of equipment and components enables measurement of more conventional parameters such as time, fuel efficiency under realistic conditions, distance traveled, equipment used, and survivability.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0260
Yuanying Wang, Heath Hofmann, Denise Rizzo, Scott Shurin
Abstract This paper presents a computationally-efficient model of heat convection due to air circulation produced by rotor motion in the air gap of an electric machine. The model calculates heat flux at the boundaries of the rotor and stator as a function of the rotor and stator temperatures and rotor speed. It is shown that, under certain assumptions, this mapping has the homogeneity property. This property, among others, is used to pose a structure for the proposed model. The coefficients of the model are then determined by fitting the model to the results of a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation program. The accuracy of the new model is compared to the CFD results, shown an error of less than 0.3% over the studied operating range.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0269
Doohyun Kim, Jason Martz, Angela Violi
Abstract The ignition delay time for direct injection compression ignition engines is determined by complex physical and chemical phenomena that prepare the injected liquid fuel for gas phase ignition. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of a reacting spray within a constant volume spray chamber are conducted to investigate the relative importance of liquid fuel physical properties and oxidation chemistry on the ignition delay time. The simulations use multi-component surrogates that emulate the physical and chemical properties of petroleum-derived (Jet-A) and natural-gas-derived (S-8) jet fuels. Results from numerical experiments isolating the fuel physical property and chemistry effects show that fuel chemistry is significantly more important to ignition delay than fuel physical properties under the conditions studied.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0237
Jonas Biteus, Tony Lindgren
Abstract Maintenance planning of trucks at Scania have previously been done using static cyclic plans with fixed sets of maintenance tasks, determined by mileage, calendar time, and some data driven physical models. Flexible maintenance have improved the maintenance program with the addition of general data driven expert rules and the ability to move sub-sets of maintenance tasks between maintenance occasions. Meanwhile, successful modelling with machine learning on big data, automatic planning using constraint programming, and route optimization are hinting on the ability to achieve even higher fleet utilization by further improvements of the flexible maintenance. The maintenance program have therefore been partitioned into its smallest parts and formulated as individual constraint rules. The overall goal is to maximize the utilization of a fleet, i.e. maximize the ability to perform transport assignments, with respect to maintenance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0200
Hongwei Zhang, Liangjin Gui, Zijie Fan
Abstract Road test simulation on test rig is widely used in the automobile industry to shorten the development circles. However, there is still room for further improving the time cost of current road simulation test. This paper described a new method considering both the damage error and the runtime of the test on a multi-axial test rig. First, the fatigue editing technique is applied to cut the small load in road data to reduce the runtime initially. The edited road load data could be reproduced on a multi-axial test rig successfully. Second, the rainflow matrices of strains on different proving ground roads are established and transformed into damage matrices based on the S-N curve and Miner rules using a reduction method. A standard simulation test for vehicle reliability procedure is established according to the proving ground schedule as a target to be accelerated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1412
Christopher H. Goddard, David Price
Abstract Various mechanisms have been used to drive speedometers and other instrument gauges. This paper reviews the mechanisms used; in particular investigates the ability of stepper motors which have become the most common instrument motor in the last decade to freeze at the apparent reading prior to impact. Stepper motors require power to drive the needle to any indicated position, including having to return it to zero. Hence if power to the instrument is lost as a result of a collision, there is no power to move the needle and it should be left at the reading shown at the moment the power was lost. However, not all stepper motor instruments are the same and before accepting the reading, a number of criteria need to be considered to give a level of confidence in the result. As part of recent ITAI (Institute of Traffic Accident Investigators) crash test events in the UK, a number of instrument clusters were installed in vehicles to simulate both frontal and side impacts.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1420
Kirsten White, Raymond Merala
Abstract This study presents a method to characterize the accuracy and precision of video-acceleration-position (VAP) devices, and presents results from testing of one such vehicle camera (“dashcam”) with global positioning system (GPS) used by taxi companies nationwide. Tests were performed in which vehicle kinematic data were recorded in a variety of real world conditions simultaneously by the VAP device, accelerometers, and a proven GPS-based speed sensing and data acquisition system. Data from the VAP device was compared to data collected by the reference instruments to assess timing, precision, and accuracy of reported parameters. Still images from the VAP video recording were compared with three dimensional laser scan data in order to analyze field of view. Several case studies are discussed, and some guidelines and cautions are provided for use of VAP data in accident reconstruction applications.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0777
Gordon McTaggart-Cowan, Jian Huang, Sandeep Munshi
Abstract Natural gas offers the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty on-road transportation. One of the challenges facing natural gas as a fuel is that its composition can vary significantly between different fuel suppliers and geographical regions. In this work, the impact of fuel composition variations on a heavy-duty, direct injection of natural gas engine with diesel pilot ignition is evaluated. This combustion process results in a predominantly non-premixed gaseous fuel combustion event; as a result, end-gas autoignition (knock) is not a concern. Changes in the fuel composition do still impact the combustion, both through the changes in the chemical kinetics of the reactions and due to changes in the density of the fuel. Increasing concentrations of heavier hydrocarbons, such as ethane or propane, in the fuel lead to higher fuel densities and hence greater fuel mass being injected for a given injection duration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1417
Enrique Bonugli, Richard Watson, Mark Freund, Jeffrey Wirth
Abstract This paper reports on seventy additional tests conducted using a mechanical device described by Bonugli et al. [4]. The method utilized quasi-static loading of bumper systems and other vehicle components to measure their force-deflection properties. Corridors on the force-deflection plots, for various vehicle combinations, were determined in order to define the system stiffness of the combined vehicle components. Loading path and peak force measurements can then be used to evaluate the impact severity for low speed collisions in terms of delta-v and acceleration. The additional tests refine the stiffness corridors, previously published, which cover a wide range of vehicle types and impact configurations. The compression phase of a low speed collision can be modeled as a spring that is defined by the force-deflection corridors. This is followed by a linear rebound phase based on published restitution values [1,5].
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0153
Dipankar Sahoo, Adam Kotrba, Tom Steiner, Greg Swift
Abstract Nearly a third of the fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of a vehicle. An efficient waste heat recovery process will undoubtedly lead to improved fuel efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Currently, there are multiple waste heat recovery technologies that are being investigated in the auto industry. One innovative waste heat recovery approach uses Thermoacoustic Converter (TAC) technology. Thermoacoustics is the field of physics related to the interaction of acoustic waves (sonic power) with heat flows. As in a heat engine, the TAC produces electric power where a temperature differential exists, which can be generated with engine exhaust (hot side) and coolant (cold side). Essentially, the TAC converts exhaust waste heat into electricity in two steps: 1) the exhaust waste heat is converted to acoustic energy (mechanical) and 2) the acoustic energy is converted to electrical energy.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0550
Yuanjiang Pei, Yu Zhang, Praveen Kumar, Michael Traver, David Cleary, Muhsin Ameen, Sibendu Som, Daniel Probst, Tristan Burton, Eric Pomraning, P. K. Senecal
Abstract A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine with a gasoline-like fuel that has an anti-knock index (AKI) of 58. The primary goal was to design an optimized combustion system utilizing the high volatility and low sooting tendency of the fuel for improved fuel efficiency with minimal hardware modifications to the engine. The CFD model predictions were first validated against experimental results generated using the stock engine hardware. A comprehensive design of experiments (DoE) study was performed at different operating conditions on a world-leading supercomputer, MIRA at Argonne National Laboratory, to accelerate the development of an optimized fuel-efficiency focused design while maintaining the engine-out NOx and soot emissions levels of the baseline production engine.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0884
Ken Hashimoto, Kenji Tomizawa, Yoichiro Nakamura, Takashi Hashimoto, Takahiro Tatani, Atsushi Akamatsu, Ryuji Aoki, JASO Diesel Engine Oil Standard Revision Task Force
Abstract This paper reviews the development of the first fuel economy engine test method for heavy duty diesel oil, as well as the new JASO DH-2F category introduced in April 2017 [1][2][3], which adds a fuel economy requirement to the JASO DH-2 requirements in the JASO M355:2015 standard. Recently, better fuel economy is required heavy duty diesel vehicles as well as gasoline vehicles. Therefore, advanced technologies have been applied to improve diesel engines, as well as diesel engine oils and additives, and achieve better fuel economy. However, the Automotive Diesel Engine Oil Standard (JASO M355) applied in Japan as a standard for diesel engine oils does not include any fuel economy requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0890
Yoichiro Nakamura, Masahisa Horikoshi, Yasunori TAKEI, Takahiro Onishi, Yasuhiro Murakami, Chip Hewette
Abstract Heavy duty vehicles take a large role in providing global logistics. It is required to have both high durability and reduced CO2 from the viewpoint of global environment conservation. Therefore lubricating oils for transmission and axle/differential gear box are required to have excellent protection and longer drain intervals. However, it is also necessary that the gear oil maintain suitable friction performance for the synchronizers of the transmission. Even with such good performance, both transmission and axle/differential gear box lubricants must balance cost and performance, in particular in the Asian market. The development of gear oil additives for high reliability gear oil must consider the available base oils in various regions as the additive is a global product. In many cases general long drain gear oils for heavy duty vehicles use the group III or IV base oils, but it is desirable to use the group I/II base oils in terms of cost and availability.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0888
Prashant Kumar, Reji Mathai, Sanjeev KUMAR, Ashish Kachhawa, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, Snigdhamayee Praharaj
Abstract The growing transportation sector worldwide has opened up a way forward not only for the scientists & researchers but also for the OEMs to find out the options for fuel efficient automotive vehicles with reduced emissions during their usage. The demand of automotive vehicles has been doubled in last few years and in turn the market for lubricants and transmission fluids are flourishing. Several new formulations of lubricants are getting popularized with major suppliers to achieve the end user expectations in terms of fuel economy benefits, engine life and emissions. The market trend is continuously moving towards the improvement in lubricant formulation to the lower viscosity ranges and in this direction several companies are into development of multi-grade low viscosity range of engine oils (lubricants) which is said to be providing the benefits in terms of fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1046
Christian Binder, Fahed Abou Nada, Mattias Richter, Andreas Cronhjort, Daniel Norling
Abstract Diesel engine manufacturers strive towards further efficiency improvements. Thus, reducing in-cylinder heat losses is becoming increasingly important. Understanding how location, thermal insulation, and engine operating conditions affect the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls is fundamental for the future reduction of in-cylinder heat losses. This study investigates the effect of a 1mm-thick plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating on a piston. Such a coated piston and a similar steel piston are compared to each other based on experimental data for the heat release, the heat transfer rate to the oil in the piston cooling gallery, the local instantaneous surface temperature, and the local instantaneous surface heat flux. The surface temperature was measured for different crank angle positions using phosphor thermometry.
2017-03-14
Journal Article
2016-01-9080
Yong-Yuan Ku, Jau-Huai Lu, Ko Wei Lin
Due to the rising price of crude oil, biofuel is being considered as a global alternative for fossil fuels to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Diesel blended with bio fuel is currently being widely adopted in many countries. The Taiwanese government has been enforcing the adoption of B2 since 2010. However, there have remained consistent concerns about engine durability related to the use of biofuel, especially regarding after-treatment systems. A selective catalytic reduction system (SCR) has been utilized recently to reduce NOX emission in order to meet the Euro IV and V emission standards. To evaluate the impact of biodiesel on the durability of engines equipped with the SCR system, a long-term testing program was organized for the purposes of this study. The results can be used as a reference for the development of marketing promotion strategies as well as government policies in Taiwan.
2017-03-14
Journal Article
2017-01-9750
Shawn Harrington, Joseph Teitelman, Erica Rummel, Brendan Morse, Peter Chen, Donald Eisentraut, Daniel McDonough
Abstract With the prevalence of satellite imagery in the analysis of collision events growing in the field of accident reconstruction, this research aims to quantify, refine, and compare the accuracies of measurements obtained utilizing conventional instruments to the measurements obtained using Google Earth Pro software. Researchers documented and obtained 1305 unique measurements from 68 locations in 25 states and provinces in the United States, Canada, and Australia using measuring wheels and tape measures. Measurements of relevant features at each location (crosswalks, curved roadways, off-road features, etc.) were documented and subdivided into three groups: On-Road, Off-Road, and Curved Path measurements. These measurements were compared to the measurements obtained of the same features from current and historical satellite imagery within Google Earth Pro.
Viewing 271 to 300 of 7721