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Technical Paper

Correlation and Verification of a Tractor Cab Model Using Statistical Energy Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0142
Abstract A model of a tractor cab was built using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) best practices. In this paper, it is shown how this model was correlated using p/Q transfer functions measured in the lab with a volume velocity source. After correlation, the model was excited using acoustic loads measured during tractor operation. It was found that the data predicted by the model is in good agreement with the data measured inside the cabin during this test. It was concluded that SEA can be used as an engineering tool to predict the behavior under many different conditions and can be used to guide the development process.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Pneumatic Braking Force Control for the Emergency Braking System of Tractor-Semitrailer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0824
Abstract As bottom layer actuator for the AEB system, the active brake system and the brake force control of tractor-semitrailer have been the hot topics recently. In this paper, a set of active pneumatic brake system was designed based on the traditional brake system of tractor-semitrailer, which can realize the active brake of the vehicle under necessary conditions. Then, a precise mathematical model of the active pneumatic brake system was built by referring the flow characteristics of the solenoid valve, and some tests were implemented to verify the accuracy and validity of the active brake system model. Based on the model, an active pneumatic brake pressure control strategy combining the feedforward and feedback controlling modes was designed. By generating the PWM control signal, it can precisely control the desired wheel cylinder brake pressure of the active brake system. Finally, the brake pressure control strategy was validated both by simulation tests and bench tests.
Technical Paper

Influences on Energy Savings of Heavy Trucks Using Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-1181
Abstract An integrated adaptive cruise control (ACC) and cooperative ACC (CACC) was implemented and tested on three heavy-duty tractor-trailer trucks on a closed test track. The first truck was always in ACC mode, and the followers were in CACC mode using wireless vehicle-vehicle communication to augment their radar sensor data to enable safe and accurate vehicle following at short gaps. The fuel consumption for each truck in the CACC string was measured using the SAE J1321 procedure while travelling at 65 mph and loaded to a gross weight of 65,000 lb, demonstrating the effects of: inter-vehicle gaps (ranging from 3.0 s or 87 m to 0.14 s or 4 m, covering a much wider range than previously reported tests), cut-in and cut-out maneuvers by other vehicles, speed variations, the use of mismatched vehicles (standard trailers mixed with aerodynamic trailers with boat tails and side skirts), and the presence of a passenger vehicle ahead of the platoon.
Technical Paper

The Durability Test Setup of Test Rig for the Rear Axle of a LCV and Its Validation in Adams/View

2018-04-03
2018-01-1229
Abstract This paper deals with the durability life for the new development of the rear axle of a light commercial vehicle (LCV) which has been in the market. The test fixture has been constructed for the MTS bench tests. Simultaneously the ADAMS/View model of the rear axle has been created. The force-displacement graphs obtained from the bench tests and from the ADAMS/View simulation have been compared to each other. The fatigue tests have been performed at 2.5 g bump condition and it has been possible to simulate the low and high loads. The aim of this study has been to validate the test fixture and the test conditions.
Technical Paper

Working Load Measurement and Analysis of Bolted Joint under Off-road Vehicle Operation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1234
Abstract In this study, we propose a method of measuring and analyzing the load on bolted joints used in a machine under off-road vehicle operation. Working load measurement under actual machine operation and the results of its analysis are shown as load frequency diagrams. An example of the measurement analysis of a load (three types of load: axial force, bending moment, and torsional torque) added to a bolted joint shank during actual machine operation is shown. In this paper, we describe how to apply the results of load analysis to the load condition at the design and experimental development stages.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy PID Based Optimization of Starting Control for AMT Clutch of Heavy-duty Trucks

2018-04-03
2018-01-1166
Abstract Starting control has become a troublesome issue in the developing field of the control system for heavy-duty trucks, due to the complexity of vehicle driving and the variability of driver's intention. The too fast clutch engagement may result in serious impact, influence on the comfort and fatigue life, and even the engine flameout, while the too slow clutch engagement may lead to long time of friction, the increased temperature, and accelerated wear of friction pair, as well as influence on the power performance and fatigue life[1]. Therefore, the key technique of starting control is clutch engagement control, for which the fuzzy PID based optimization of starting control for AMT clutch is proposed, with the pneumatic AMT clutch of heavy-duty trucks as the research object.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Technical Level of Modern Agricultural Tractors Represented in the Russian Market

2018-04-03
2018-01-0657
Abstract The paper considers a new technique for assessing the technical level of agricultural tractors competing in one power range. The existing methods of evaluation of technical level, both in Russia and abroad, are associated with expert approach that is limited by the qualitative nature of conclusions, which does not allow to predict quantitative change in performance. In this regard, if there are up to 35 models in the Russian market with equal power capabilities, the problem of making a choice arises. A general indicator of technical level is the ratio of the replacement capacity of the arable unit based on a tractor model under consideration to the replacement capacity of the arable unit based on a reference tractor, which are determined by computer simulation in reference conditions.
Technical Paper

Commercial Vehicle Two Cylinder Powertrain Mount Selection Based on Robust Optimization Using MSC/ADAMS and Mode Frontier

2018-04-03
2018-01-1286
Abstract Ride comfort, drivability and driving stability are important factors defining vehicle performance and customer satisfaction. The IC powertrain is the source for the vibration that adversely affects the vehicle performance. The IC powertrain is composed of reciprocating and rotating components which result in unbalanced forces, moments during operation and produce vibrations at the vehicle supporting members. The vibration reduction is possible by minimizing unbalanced forces and/or by providing anti-vibration mounts at the powertrain-vehicle interface. The power train is suspended on the vehicle frame via several flexible mounts, whose function is to isolate powertrain vibrations from the frame. Total six different modes of powertrain vibration namely - roll, yaw, pitch, vertical, lateral and longitudinal need to be isolated. Powertrain mount stiffness and location is critical in this regard.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Diesel Engine Vibration Using Cylinder Deactivation for Exhaust Temperature Management and Recipe for Implementation in Commercial Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1284
Abstract Commercial vehicles require continual improvements in order to meet fuel emission standards, improve diesel aftertreatment system performance and optimize vehicle fuel economy. Aftertreatment systems, used to remove engine NOx, are temperature dependent. Variable valve actuation in the form of cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been shown to manage exhaust temperatures to the aftertreatment system during low load operation (i.e., under 3-4 bar BMEP). During cylinder deactivation mode, a diesel engine can have higher vibration levels when compared to normal six cylinder operation. The viability of CDA needs to be implemented in a way to manage noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) within acceptable ranges for today’s commercial vehicles and drivelines. A heavy duty diesel engine (inline 6 cylinder) was instrumented to collect vibration data in a dynamometer test cell.
Technical Paper

A Novel Three-Planetary-Gear Power-Split Hybrid Powertrain for Tracked Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1003
Abstract Tracked vehicles are widely used for agriculture, construction and many other areas. Due to high emissions, hybrid electric driveline has been applied to tracked vehicles. The hybrid powertrain design for the tracked vehicle has been researched for years. Different from wheeled vehicles, the tracked vehicle not only requires high mobility while straight driving, but also pursues strong steering performance. The paper takes the hybrid track-type dozers (TTDs) as an example and proposes an optimal design of a novel power-split powertrain for TTDs. The commercial hybrid TTD usually adopts the series hybrid powertrain, and sometimes with an extra steering mechanism, which has led to low efficiency and made the structure more complicated. The proposed three-planetary-gear power-split hybrid powertrain can overcome the problems above by utilizing the characteristics of planetary gear sets.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Impact on Diesel Electric Powertrain Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0965
Abstract When electrifying the powertrain, there arises an opportunity to revise the traditional turbocharging trade-off between fuel-economy and transient performance. With the help of electrification, it might be possible to make the trade-off in favor of fuel economy, since transient response can be improved by the electric machine. The paper investigates this trade-off by looking at three turbocharger selections. A conventionally dimensioned turbocharger, an efficiency optimized turbocharger with maintained flow capacity, and an efficiency optimized turbocharger with increased flow capacity. The concepts are evaluated on the following cases: stationary operation, engine tip-in performance, vehicle acceleration performance, and on road fuel economy performance. The investigation is based on a validated mean value engine model of a six cylinder inline CI engine, and on a validated driveline and vehicle model of a heavy-duty truck.
Technical Paper

Detailed Aerodynamic Characterization and Optimization of a Pickup Truck Using Adaptive Sampling based DOE

2018-04-03
2018-01-0743
Abstract A detailed Design of Experiments (DOE) study is presented to understand the aerodynamic effects of exterior design features and shape parameters of a pick-up truck using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The goal of the study is to characterize several key design parameters and the interactions between them as related to overall drag of the vehicle. Using this data, the exterior shape is optimized to minimize drag within specified design constraints. An adaptive sampling methodology is also presented that progressively reduces errors in the design response surfaces generated. This combined with a Latin Hypercube based initial design space characterization yields computational efficiency. A trend-predictive meta-model is presented that can be used for early design development. Results from the meta-model are also correlated with experimental data from the wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

A Braking Force Distribution Strategy in Integrated Braking System Based on Wear Control and Hitch Force Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0827
Abstract A braking force distribution strategy in integrated braking system composed of the main braking system and the auxiliary braking system based on braking pad wear control and hitch force control under non-emergency braking condition is proposed based on the Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) to reduce the difference in braking pad wear between different axles and to decrease hitch force between tractors and trailers. The proposed strategy distributes the braking force based on the desired braking intensity, the degree of the braking pad wear and the limits of certain braking regulations to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed.
Technical Paper

Robust Path Tracking Control for Autonomous Heavy Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1082
Abstract With high maneuverability and heavy-duty load capacity, articulated steer vehicles (ASV) are widely used in construction, forestry and mining sectors. However, the steering process of ASV is much different from wheeled steer vehicles and tractor-trailer vehicles. Unsuitable steering control in path following could easily give rise to the “snaking” behaviour, which greatly reduces the safety and stability of ASV. In order to achieve precise control for ASV, a novel path tracking control method is proposed by virtual terrain field (VTF) method. A virtual U-shaped terrain field is assumed to exist along the reference path. The virtual terrain altitude depends on the lateral error, heading error, preview distance and road curvature. If the vehicle deviates from the reference line, it will be pulled back to the lowest position under the influence of additional lateral tire forces which are caused by the virtual banked road.
Technical Paper

Exploring Telematics Big Data for Truck Platooning Opportunities

2018-04-03
2018-01-1083
Abstract NREL completed a temporal and geospatial analysis of telematics data to estimate the fraction of platoonable miles traveled by class 8 tractor trailers currently in operation. This paper discusses the value and limitations of very large but low time-resolution data sets, and the fuel consumption reduction opportunities from large scale adoption of platooning technology for class 8 highway vehicles in the US based on telematics data. The telematics data set consist of about 57,000 unique vehicles traveling over 210 million miles combined during a two-week period. 75% of the total fuel consumption result from vehicles operating in top gear, suggesting heavy highway utilization. The data is at a one-hour resolution, resulting in a significant fraction of data be uncategorizable, yet significant value can still be extracted from the remaining data. Multiple analysis methods to estimate platoonable miles are discussed.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Tire-Wet Surface Interaction Using Finite Element Analysis and Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics Techniques

2018-04-03
2018-01-1118
Abstract This paper focuses on predicting the rolling resistance and hydroplaning of a wide base truck tire (Size: 445/50R22.5) on dry and wet surfaces. The rolling resistance and hydroplaning are predicted at various inflation pressures, loads, velocities, and water depths. The wide base truck tire was previously modeled and validated using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique in virtual performance software (Pam-Crash). The water is modeled using Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method and Murnaghan equation of state. A water layer is first built on top of an FEA rigid surface to represent a wet surface. The truck tire is then inflated to the desired pressure. A vertical load is then applied to the center of the tire. For rolling resistance tests variable constant longitudinal speeds are applied to the center of the tire. The forces in the vertical and longitudinal directions are computed, and the rolling resistance is calculated.
Technical Paper

FEM Simulation Methodology for Accurately Capturing the Experimental Vibration Response of ECM Assembly on a Commercial Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0467
Abstract This paper presents an experimental setup and an equivalent FEM simulation methodology to accurately predict the response of Engine Control Module (ECM) assembly mounted on a commercial vehicle subjected to road vibrations. Comprehensive vibration study is carried out. It involved Modal characteristics determination followed by random vibration characterization of the ECM assembly. A hammer impact experiment is first performed in lab to estimate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of ECM assembly. Mounting conditions in test specimen are kept similar to the actual mounting settings on vehicle. Natural frequencies and mode shapes predicted from free vibration experiment are compared with finite element (FE) based modal analysis. The importance of capturing the assembly stiffness more accurately by incorporating pre-stress effects like bolt-pretension and gravity, is emphasized.
Technical Paper

Introduction to Traffic Signal Data Loggers and their Application to Accident Reconstruction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0527
Abstract Each year in the United States, approximately 1 million collisions occur at signalized intersections, representing over 15% of all collisions and almost 9% of traffic fatalities. Engineers seeking to understand the roadway, vehicular, and driver factors related to these collisions are often asked to investigate and assess the traffic signal timing, right of way issues, and the signal indications displayed to involved drivers during the period of time leading up to and including the impact events. Until relatively recently, investigators were limited by the absence of any recording devices within the systems used for traffic signal phasing and timing. Accident reconstruction methods have long relied on the generalized signal phasing and timings programmed for that intersection by the responsible jurisdiction, combined with the vehicle dynamics calculated for the collision sequence in conjunction with witness testimony regarding signal indications and phase changes.
Technical Paper

Truck Brake Failure: Differences between Failure Modes for Drum and Disc Brakes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0528
Abstract On-highway heavy trucks are fitted with air disc brakes with increasing frequency. Disc brakes and traditional air drum brakes have different adjustment and heat dissipation characteristics. These differences lead to different failure modes when overheated. This paper describes how adjustment and other in-use factors affect the general braking capability of on-highway trucks fitted with disc and drum brakes. Simulations of a loaded tractor-trailer on a long, down-hill grade are used to predict brake temperature increase over time, and how that temperature increase can result in a runaway condition. The tractor and trailer are modeled with both traditional drum brakes and new disc brakes to illustrate operational differences between the two brake types.
Technical Paper

Steering Shaft Separation with a Collision Involved Heavy Duty Steering Gear

2018-04-03
2018-01-0524
Abstract A crash of a medium duty truck led to a study of the failure mechanism of the truck’s steering system. The truck, after being involved in a multi-vehicle vehicle collision, was found with its steering input shaft disconnected from the steering gear. The question arose whether the steering gear failure was a result of the collision, or causative to the collision. An in-depth investigation was conducted into whether forces on the vehicle due to the collision could cause the steering shaft to separate from the steering gear. Additionally, the performance of the steering gear with the adjuster nut progressively backed off was studied to determine the feedback a driver would receive if the steering gear came progressively apart. From the results of these studies, conclusions with regard to the crash causation were reached.
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