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Technical Paper

Research on the Radiated Immunity Test Methods of ADAS Functions in Intelligent Vehicles

2018-08-07
2018-01-1636
According to the ISO 11451-2 [1], the immunity performance of passenger cars and commercial vehicle shall be validated to electrical disturbances from off-vehicle radiation sources. Typical vehicle electrical or electronic systems such as double flash, monitor, or audio and entertainments systems have been validated through a standardized immunity test process. As the development of ADAS (Automated Driver Assistance System) functions in the vehicle technology, the reliability and accuracy of these functions in the complex electromagnetic fields must be validated. Radar and Camera or Lidar sensor based functions of AEB (Automated Emerge Brake), ACC (Automated Cruise Control) or LDW (Lane Departure Warning) might be invalid, especially when these sensors were illuminated by electrical disturbances in the real word. This work presents a novel test methodology of whole-vehicle immunity to off-board electrical disturbances, considering the main ADAS functions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Pilot and Post Injection on Engine Performance and Emissions

2018-07-09
2018-28-0015
Diesel engines are facing stringent norms and future survival with its lower availability is one of the biggest concerns for OEMs of heavy duty commercial vehicles. This is leading to uplifting of new, latent and innovative techniques to achieve these norms with best possible BSFC to reduce overall diesel consumption. The prime objective of this study is to identify and explore the latent strength of pre and post injection on engine performance, emissions and oil dilution due to soot. The post injection strategy has the potential to reduce soot with almost same NOx and fuel consumption depending on the delay of post injection and its quantity. It aids to increase the engine out temperatures for assistance of after-treatment devices, thus meeting higher temperature requirements for NOx and PM conversion for stringent norms of BSVI.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Engine Cooling Unit Packaging for Commercial Vehicle

2018-07-09
2018-28-0013
An engine cooling system is required to maintain stable operating temperature for the engine and prevent it from overheating. Thermal distortion of engine parts can take place if proper cooling is not maintained and engine may loss efficiency. One of the major problem in this domain is to incorporate separate cooling systems for the different variants of engines (different power rating). A single optimized cooling unit is desired to manage the entire range of engine rated power. The factors that affect the cooling system are front end grill opening area, air recirculation, location of snorkel inlet, radiator core size, which need to be tuned to get appropriate results. The above parameters are tuned to obtain appropriate results using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. In the next stage, on road cooling trials are performed and real time data is collected.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Propeller Shaft Vibrations in Truck Segment through Physical and Virtual Simulations

2018-07-09
2018-28-0058
This paper presents theoretical calculation, analysis and simulation (validation and verification) of driveshaft torsion vibration. The vibration measurement validation verification has been carried out on vehicle (4x2) having four cylinder engine 85kw@2800 rpm and six speed manual transmission for getting correlation between values of theoretical calculations and CAE results. This analysis has been done in order to achieve vehicle good performance in terms of driving comfort as well as smooth functionality with zero vibration frequency at high speed. The propeller shaft series selection and refinement has been done using theoretical iteration with operating angle of prop shaft which exits in between the universal joint planes. A frequency of vibration analysis has evaluated at different propeller shaft layout and duty cycle. The vibration performance predictions for vehicles with these design is rigorously done.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Eigenfrequencies and Eigenmodes of Seatbelt Retractors in the Vehicle Environment, Supporting an Acoustically Optimal Retractor Integration by CAE

2018-06-13
2018-01-1543
From an acoustical point of view, the integration of seatbelt retractors in a vehicle is a real challenge that has to be met early in the vehicle development process. The buzz and rattle noise of seat belt retractors is a weak yet disturbing interior noise. Street irregularities excite the wheels and this excitation is transferred via the car body to the mounting location of the retractor. Ultimately, the inertia sensor of the locking mechanism is also excited. This excitation can be amplified by structural resonances and generate a characteristic impact noise. The objective of this paper is to describe a simulation method for an early development phase that predicts the noise-relevant low frequency local modes and consequently the contact of the retractor with the mounting panel of the car body via the finite element method.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Modeling of a Trimmed Truck Cabin in Low Frequency Range to Tackle the Challenge of Weight Reduction

2018-06-13
2018-01-1549
In the challenge of reducing the weight of the vehicle structures, a particular focus has to be done on the interior noise. Indeed, the weight reduction of the structure often implies an increase of the noise in the cabin. To maintain a constant acoustic performance, acoustic packages often have to be added, the challenge being that the weight of the acoustic materials added remains lower than the weight saved in the structure. In today’s engineering world, numerical simulation is the primary tool to assess the vibro-acoustic behavior of the vehicle during the design phase. To tackle the challenge of weight reduction, it is necessary to simulate accurately the vibro-acoustic response of the structure including the acoustic treatments. This paper presents the validation of a simulation method for the vibro-acoustic response of a truck cabin, taking into account the effect of acoustic treatments, in the frequency range [0-200 Hz].
Technical Paper

Efficient Trim Modelling Simulation Method for Vehicle Design Phase

2018-06-13
2018-01-1568
During the design phase of a vehicle, it is important to have a simulation tool, which allows to make multiple runs and check the sensitivity of the acoustic response to several trim configurations with a quick turnover time. The Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is widely used to investigate such problems for airborne excitation. For structure-borne excitation, classical methods based on a simplistic modeling of the trim using 1D oscillators and non-structural mass are not accurate enough to capture the actual behavior of the trim. On the other hand, a detailed Finite Element-Poroelastic Element Method (FE-PEM) modeling strategy of the trim may be time consuming. Besides the large number of degrees of freedom required to accurately model dissipative materials (e.g. poroelastic), a FE-based approach also needs a preprocessing phase where each layer of the trims must be carefully meshed.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Based Active Vibration Control of Hierarchical Honeycomb Plates Integrated with Piezoelectric Actuator

2018-06-13
2018-01-1558
Hierarchical honeycomb (HH) structures with level of hierarchy more in the honeycomb construction (by replacing the vertices of a regular hexagonal lattice with smaller hexagons) are widely used in engineering applications mainly due to their superior mechanical behavior and lightweight high strength characteristic. At the same time, the role of hierarchy and control gain on the dynamic behavior of HH structures with surface-bonded actuator remains largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the active vibration control behavior of the HH structure with surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators. The HH plate like structures was constructed with two identical face sheets and placed HH core in-between. By using ANSYS parametric design language (APDL), the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm was incorporated into the finite element model for performing the closed-loop control simulations.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of Acoustic Treatments for Powertrain Noise Radiation

2018-06-13
2018-01-1486
The reduction of the emitted noise from vehicles is a primary issue for automotive OEM’s due to the constant evolution of the noise regulations. As the noise generated by the powertrain remains one of the major noise sources at low/mid vehicle velocities, focus is set on efficient methods to control this source. Acoustic treatments and covers, made of multi-layered trimmed panels, are frequently selected to control the radiated sound and its directivity. In this context, numerical acoustic simulation is an attractive approach as efficient methodologies are available to study the acoustic radiation of powertrain units in working conditions (up to 6500 RPM nd frequencies up to 4 kHz). Moreover, handling acoustically-treated covers in such simulations has a low impact on the computational cost.
Technical Paper

Aeroacoustics of Heavy Duty Truck Side Mirrors - An Experimental Study

2018-06-13
2018-01-1516
Side mirrors are a known source of aerodynamically generated noise in vehicles. In this work we focus on mirrors for heavy duty trucks, they are large, often not designed with main focus on aero-acoustics and are located in a cumbersome position on the up-right A-pillar of European trucks. First the test method itself is discussed. To allow fast and cost effective design loops a bespoke vehicle, where the powertrain is separated from the cab, is developed. This vehicle can be run on a standard test track. While running the tests the wind speed is monitored, any variations are then compensated for in the post processing allowing averaging over longer time periods. For the mirror tests the door of the vehicle was especially trimmed to reduce other transmission paths into the cab than the side window. Additionally other possible aeroacoustic sources were reduced as much as practically possible.
Technical Paper

SmEdA Vibro-Acoustic Modeling of a Trimmed Truck Cab in the Mid-Frequency Range

2018-06-13
2018-01-1506
The City Lightweight and Innovative Cab (CLIC) project was a scientific collaboration gathering public and private organizations. The aim was to propose an innovative lighten truck cab, where a high strength steel was used. As long as it could affect directly the acoustic environment of the cab, it was necessary to be able to simulate the vibroacoustic behavior of the truck cab in the mid frequency range. The dissipative treatments used for noise and vibration control such as viscoelastic patches and acoustic absorbing materials must then be taken into account in the problem. A process based on the SmEdA (Statistical modal Energy distribution Analysis) method was developed and is presented in this paper. SmEdA allows us substructuring the global problem, to study the interaction between the floor and the interior cavity.
Technical Paper

Seat Belt Retractor Noise Test Correlation to 2DOF Shaker Test and Real Vehicle Comfort

2018-06-13
2018-01-1507
Seatbelt retractors as important part of modern safety systems are mounted in any automotive vehicle. Their internal locking mechanism is based on mechanically sensing elements. When the vehicle is run over rough road tracks, the retractor oscillates by spatial mode shapes and its interior components are subjected to vibrations in all 6 degrees of freedoms (DOF). Functional backlash of sensing elements cause impacts with neighbouring parts and leads to weak, but persistent rattle sound, being often rated acoustically annoying in the vehicle. Current acoustic retractor bench tests use exclusively uni-directional excitations. Therefore, a silent 2 DOF test bench is developed to investigate the effect of multi-dimensional excitation on retractor acoustics, combining two slip-tables, each driven independently by a shaker. Tests on this prototype test bench show, that cross coupling between the two perpendicular directions is less than 1%, allowing to control both directions independently.
Technical Paper

Pass by Noise Reduction on an Intermediate Commercial Vehicle

2018-06-13
2018-01-1535
A major activity of any new vehicle development program, is to meet legal requirements of local markets. Pass by noise (PBN) test is one of the standardized tests and is used to certify new vehicles/variants for their Noise emissions. Certification for noise emissions of commercial vehicles is achieved by measuring external sound levels according to procedures defined by standards such as IS: 3028 for Indian market. Before a physical proto-vehicle is assembled, various systems and subsystems are readily made available by suppliers off the shelf. During final design validation of the vehicle by mule-vehicle testing, PBN target compliance need be assured for all these systems in order to meet overall PBN target. The PBN on an Intermediate commercial vehicle (ICV) migrated to the latest Exhaust emission standard, was the subject of this study. This vehicle emitted PBN greater than accepted threshold.
Technical Paper

Robustness and Reliability Enhancement on Retractor Noise Testing, from Development Considerations to Round Robin

2018-06-13
2018-01-1533
Sensing and acting elements to guarantee the locking functions of seat belt retractors can emit noise when the retractor is subjected to externally applied vibrations. For these elements to function correctly, stiffness, inertia and friction needs to be in tune, leading to a complex motion resistance behavior, which makes it delicate to test for vibration induced noise. Requirements for a noise test are simplicity, robustness, repeatability, and independence of laboratory and test equipment. This paper reports on joint development activities for an alternative test procedure, involving three test laboratories with different equipment. In vehicle observation on parcel shelf mounted retractors, commercially available test equipment, and recent results from multi-axial component tests [1], set the frame for this work. Robustness and reliability of test results is being analyzed by means of sensitivity studies on several test parameters.
Technical Paper

Pass-By Noise Reduction of Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV)

2018-06-13
2018-01-1539
The increasing in popularity of Light Commercial Vehicles (LCV) segment is an emerging trend in the commercial vehicle industry. LCVs are very efficient and cost-effective for transportation of materials and good on short distances or loads of lesser weights. Sensing the market potential, many auto companies have developed LCVs recently. Since LCV segment is price sensitive, low cost single cylinder water cooled diesel engine being used as prime mover. High noise & vibration is inherent feature of diesel engine & it is predominant in single cylinder diesel engine. In order to retain low cost of product, less attention is given on overall noise of vehicle. Also, it is challenging to meet the regulatory limits of Pass-by Noise (PBN) for this category of vehicle. This paper is a development work done for pass-by noise reduction of a diesel powered single cylinder LCV vehicle. A prototype vehicle needs to meet the legislative pass-by noise requirement when tested as per IS0 362 / IS 3028.
Technical Paper

Driveline Noise Source Identification and Reduction in Commercial Vehicles

2018-06-13
2018-01-1474
Driveline (DL) is one of the major sources of noise and vibration which excites the vehicle structures across a wide band of frequencies in commercial vehicles (CV). Current work focuses on the driveline noise source identification and its reduction in a heavy commercial vehicle. An abnormal noise is perceived in a CV in high gears at high speeds. This annoying DL noise is subjectively perceived in geared and neutral coast down conditions. Objective NVH assessment including near source noise and vibration of the driveline components was performed to quantify the noise. Initial test results revealed that the DL excitations are aggravated in auxiliary gear box as broadband rattle noise. The design configuration of the DL components and related subsystems such as propeller shafts and gearbox etc. was studied to the find root cause of the excitations. The driveline configuration including the auxiliary gearbox tooth geometry is also scrutinized and modified.
Technical Paper

Simulations Based Approach for Powertrain Noise Reduction in Tractors

2018-06-13
2018-01-1478
Noise emanating from tractors is a potential health risk for operators, especially during prolonged working hours. As regulations governing noise radiation are made stringent, a first time right simulations based approach is needed to refine various noise sources of tractors. In present case study, powertrain noise optimization of an open station tractor has been carried out. Various noise sources of engine like; structure, intake, exhaust, timing gears and blower fan have been studied. NVH testing has been conducted for noise source ranking and establishing correlation with baseline simulations. Optimization has been performed on engine and it’s aggregates for achieving overall noise reduction of 3 dB(A) at tractor operator ear level, using; multibody dynamics, CFD simulations, linear acoustics and Rayleigh integral approach.
Technical Paper

Micro-Diesel Combustion of Entrained Air in High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

2018-05-21
2018-01-5019
Modern high pressure diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) is designed to operate with high quality fuel that is free of external contaminants. Undissolved bubbles of air that are normally managed by the low pressure fuel delivery circuit, may be present for a variety of reasons. Any bubbles that persist will violently implode following entry to the high pressure system. The effects of bubble collapse under conditions close to atmospheric pressure are well documented as cavitation collapse. The objective of the present paper is to study the implosion of air/vapor bubbles in diesel fuel when exposed to much higher pressures under controlled conditions resembling those in modern FIE. The results demonstrate that the adiabatic temperature rise is sufficient to initiate combustion, causing visible light emission, damage to nearby materials and formation of black carbonaceous precipitates in the fuel. Similar black precipitates have been previously reported in the field.
Technical Paper

Optimal Automated Calibration of Model-Based ECU-Functions in Air System of Diesel Engines

2018-05-05
2018-01-5003
The success of model-based ECU-functions relies on precise and efficient modeling of the behavior of combustion engines. Due to the limited computing power, usually a combination of physical models and calibration parameters is preferred for engine modeling in ECU. The parameters can be scalars, 1 or 2-dimensional empirical models, such as look-up table for volumetric efficiency and effective area of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). A novel algorithm is proposed to automatically calibrate the look-up tables characterizing stationary functional relationships in ECU-function of the air system of a diesel engine with minimum calibration cost. The algorithm runs in the framework of online design of experiment (DoE), in which Gaussian process model (GPM) is adopted to approximate the relationships of interest.
Technical Paper

Class 8 Truck Investigation Comparing Wind Tunnel Test to Simulated Open Road Performance Using CFD

2018-04-15
2018-01-5010
Development of new, competitive vehicles in the context of stricter regulations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase fuel economy is driving OEM of commercial vehicles to further explore options for reducing aerodynamic drag in a real-world setting. To facilitate this in regards to the aerodynamics of a vehicle, virtual design methods such as CFD are often used to compliment experiments to help reduce physical testing time and costs. Once validated against experiments, CFD models can then act as predictive models to help speed development. In this paper, a wind tunnel experiment of a Class 8 truck is compared to a CFD simulation which replicates said experiment, validating the CFD model as a predictive tool in this instance. CFD is then used to evaluate the drag and flow around the vehicle in an open road scenario, and the results between the open road and wind tunnel scenarios are compared.
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