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Technical Paper

Study on Predicting Bus Lateral Transfer Ratio Using a Modified Grey Model

2018-04-15
2018-01-5008
Currently, buses are equipped with anti-rollover systems to prevent vehicle rollovers that cause numerous traffic deaths each year. In order to improve the functioning of the existing anti-rollover systems, this study proposes a new method to predict the lateral transfer ratio (LTR) of a bus to achieve early detection of bus rollover risks. This early rollover detection method is a combination of the LTR, the grey model, and a buffer operator, which can predict the LTR trend, for providing a certain timing advance to the anti-rollover control system. First, an estimation equation is proposed to better estimate the LTR, and validated using Simulink and TruckSim. Then, a basic grey model is utilized with the estimated LTR to predict the future LTR.
Technical Paper

Class 8 Truck Investigation Comparing Wind Tunnel Test to Simulated Open Road Performance Using CFD

2018-04-15
2018-01-5010
Development of new, competitive vehicles in the context of stricter regulations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase fuel economy is driving OEM of commercial vehicles to further explore options for reducing aerodynamic drag in a real-world setting. To facilitate this in regards to the aerodynamics of a vehicle, virtual design methods such as CFD are often used to compliment experiments to help reduce physical testing time and costs. Once validated against experiments, CFD models can then act as predictive models to help speed development. In this paper, a wind tunnel experiment of a Class 8 truck is compared to a CFD simulation which replicates said experiment, validating the CFD model as a predictive tool in this instance. CFD is then used to evaluate the drag and flow around the vehicle in an open road scenario, and the results between the open road and wind tunnel scenarios are compared.
Technical Paper

A Study on Improvement of Sitting Posture Stability for Heavy Truck Drivers

2018-04-03
2018-01-1319
The driver’s seat in heavy trucks is designed for an upright driving posture with narrow back and cushion angles; thus, the seatback offers very little support. This makes the sitting posture prone to shifting during long trips, leading to loss of comfort and increase in fatigue. Sitting posture stability allows initial posture to be maintained during long drives, and the lack of stability causes fatigue and body pain during the drive. This study confirmed that enhancement of sitting posture stability of the driver’s seat in heavy trucks requires appropriate support from the cushion. The study also analyzed the support characteristics of each part of the cushion, and presented development guidelines of new cushion. Although subjective assessments of sitting posture stability have been performed, this study presented a method for quantitative and efficient assessment of sitting posture stability using the PAM-COMFORT simulation tool and virtual testing.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Test Facility for Suspension Dampers of Commercial Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1383
In the present scenario, delivering the right product at the right time is very crucial in automotive sector to grab the competitive advantage. In the development stage, validation process devours most of the product development time. This paper focuses on reducing the validation time for damper (shock absorber) variants which is a vital component in commercial vehicle suspension system. New test facility is designed for both performance test and endurance testing of six samples simultaneously. In addition, it provides force trend monitoring during the validation which increases the efficiency of test with an enhanced control system. This new facility is also designed to provide side loading capability for individual dampers in addition to the conventional axial loading. The key parameter during validation is control of damper seal temperature within the range of 70-90°C. A cooling circuit is designed to provide an efficient temperature control by re-circulating cold water.
Technical Paper

Vibration Isolation Analysis and Optimization of Commercial Vehicle Cab Suspension System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1405
This paper starts with study on the transfer characteristics, and the vibration isolation of the cab suspension. Vibration models of cab suspension and complete vehicle were built through multi-body dynamics software ADAMS. Finite element and multi-body dynamics were collaborated into the analysis of the transfer characteristics, the response and the isolation feature of cab suspension based on the complete vehicle. To improve the vibration performance of the cab suspension, improvements and optimization design were proposed with genetic algorithm method. The analysis results show that there only limited effectiveness on coil spring. So the improvement plans were proposed to replace the coil spring with an air spring and setting transverse damper. According to the plans, the original cab suspension was modified. The piecewise function method was used in fitting the characteristic of the air spring.
Technical Paper

Commercial Vehicle Two Cylinder Powertrain Mount Selection Based on Robust Optimization Using MSC/ADAMS and Mode Frontier

2018-04-03
2018-01-1286
Ride comfort, drivability and driving stability are important factors defining vehicle performance and customer satisfaction. The IC powertrain is the source for the vibration that adversely affects the vehicle performance. The IC powertrain is composed of reciprocating and rotating components which result in unbalanced forces, moments during operation and produce vibrations at the vehicle supporting members. The vibration reduction is possible by minimizing unbalanced forces and/or by providing anti-vibration mounts at the powertrain-vehicle interface. The power train is suspended on the vehicle frame via several flexible mounts, whose function is to isolate powertrain vibrations from the frame. Total six different modes of powertrain vibration namely - roll, yaw, pitch, vertical, lateral and longitudinal need to be isolated. Powertrain mount stiffness and location is critical in this regard.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Diesel Engine Vibration Using Cylinder Deactivation for Exhaust Temperature Management and Recipe for Implementation in Commercial Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1284
Commercial vehicles require continual improvements in order to meet fuel emission standards, improve diesel aftertreatment system performance and optimize vehicle fuel economy. Aftertreatment systems, used to remove engine NOx, are temperature dependent. Variable valve actuation in the form of cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been shown to manage exhaust temperatures to the aftertreatment system during low load operation (i.e., under 3-4 bar BMEP). During cylinder deactivation mode, a diesel engine can have higher vibration levels when compared to normal six cylinder operation. The viability of CDA needs to be implemented in a way to manage noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) within acceptable ranges for today’s commercial vehicles and drivelines. A heavy duty diesel engine (inline 6 cylinder) was instrumented to collect vibration data in a dynamometer test cell.
Technical Paper

Background and Technology Approach for Development and Testing of Auto-Tire Inflation System for Reducing Tire Wear in Commercial Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1341
The reduction of tire wear in vehicle is one of the major challenges for engineers. Under-inflated tire can cause reduction in tire life along with decrease in driving stability of vehicle. Efforts have been taken to develop a low-cost auto-tire inflation system integrated in vehicle for reduction in tire wear as well as to avoid periodic checks of tire pressure. This paper deals with the technology and design approach required in the development of auto-tire inflation system for commercial vehicle. This system should have the fundamental role of not only monitoring the tire pressure but also inflating the tire to the recommended level of pressure whenever the pressure is reduced below the recommended level. Different approaches have been worked out for integration of system on vehicle with least modification in existing design.
Technical Paper

FEM Simulation Methodology for Accurately Capturing the Experimental Vibration Response of ECM Assembly on a Commercial Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0467
This paper presents an experimental setup and an equivalent FEM simulation methodology to accurately predict the response of Engine Control Module (ECM) assembly mounted on a commercial vehicle subjected to road vibrations. Comprehensive vibration study is carried out. It involved Modal characteristics determination followed by random vibration characterization of the ECM assembly. A hammer impact experiment is first performed in lab to estimate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of ECM assembly. Mounting conditions in test specimen are kept similar to the actual mounting settings on vehicle. Natural frequencies and mode shapes predicted from free vibration experiment are compared with finite element (FE) based modal analysis. The importance of capturing the assembly stiffness more accurately by incorporating pre-stress effects like bolt-pretension and gravity, is emphasized.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Technical Level of Modern Agricultural Tractors Represented in the Russian Market

2018-04-03
2018-01-0657
The paper considers a new technique for assessing the technical level of agricultural tractors competing in one power range. The existing methods of evaluation of technical level, both in Russia and abroad, are associated with expert approach that is limited by the qualitative nature of conclusions, which does not allow to predict quantitative change in performance. In this regard, if there are up to 35 models in the Russian market with equal power capabilities, the problem of making a choice arises. A general indicator of technical level is the ratio of the replacement capacity of the arable unit based on a tractor model under consideration to the replacement capacity of the arable unit based on a reference tractor, which are determined by computer simulation in reference conditions.
Technical Paper

Durability Studies on Gas Engine Oil along with Performance and Emission Characteristics of Heavy Duty Turbocharged Natural Gas Powered Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0638
Natural gas has been considered and implemented as alternative fuel to gasoline and diesel powered vehicles worldwide. Although natural gas belongs to petroleum fuel family, it has considerable recourses worldwide to ensure long energy security and comparatively lower carbon to hydrogen ratio that make it more environment friendly. This paper presents the effect of long duration endurance test on gas engine oil along with performance and emission characteristics of 5.8 L turbocharged heavy duty natural gas engine. The six cylinder engine was chosen due to its importance for urban bus transportation. The engine was subjected to long duration endurance test of 800 hrs with closed loop monitoring and controlled conditions as per 6 mode engine load cycle. During the complete endurance test of 800 hours, performance and emission characteristics of the engine were analyzed after completion of every 100 hours as per Full Throttle Performance Test and European Transient Cycle (ETC).
Technical Paper

Infrared Borescopic Analysis of Ignition and Combustion Variability in a Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0632
Optical imaging diagnostics of combustion are most often performed in the visible spectral band, in part because camera technology is most mature in this region, but operating in the infrared (IR) provides a number of benefits. These benefits include access to emission lines of relevant chemical species (e.g. water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) and obviation of image intensifiers (avoiding reduced spatial resolution and increased cost). High-speed IR in-cylinder imaging and image processing were used to investigate the relationships between infrared images, quantitative image-derived metrics (e.g. location of the flame centroid), and measurements made with in-cylinder pressure transducers (e.g. coefficient of variation of mean effective pressure). A 9.7-liter, inline-six, natural-gas-fueled engine was modified to enable exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) and provide borescopic optical access to one cylinder for two high-speed infrared cameras.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Gasoline-Alcohol Engines for Heavy Duty Trucks: Lower Emissions, Flexible-Fuel Alternative to Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0888
Long-haul and other heavy-duty trucks, presently almost entirely powered by diesel fuel, face challenges meeting worldwide needs for greatly reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Dual-fuel gasoline-alcohol engines could potentially provide a means to cost-effectively meet this need at large scale in the relatively near term. They could also provide reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These spark ignition (SI) flexible fuel engines can provide operation over a wide fuel range from mainly gasoline use to 100% alcohol use. The alcohol can be ethanol or methanol. Use of stoichiometric operation and a three-way catalytic converter can reduce NOx by around 90% relative to emissions from diesel engines with state of the art exhaust treatment.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Compression Ignition Operation of a Heavy-Duty Engine at High Load

2018-04-03
2018-01-0898
Engine experiments were carried out on a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine to investigate the effects of Gasoline Compression Ignition on emissions and performance of a heavy-duty engine operating at a high load condition. Comparisons between gasoline fueled operation and diesel fueled operation are presented using a single, near top dead center injection. Although the fuel’s cetane numbers are very different, the combustion characteristics of the two fuels at high load are similar, with the gasoline-fueled case showing less than two crank angle degree longer ignition delay. Gasoline operation showed lower soot production at similar levels of NOx, initiating study of the impact of exhaust gas recirculation which spanned a range of NOx levels covering the range from minimal urea dosing to high urea dosing. A conventional soot-NOx tradeoff was found to exist with gasoline as exists with diesel.
Technical Paper

Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0904
In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated.
Technical Paper

Challenges for Spark Ignition Engines in Heavy Duty Application: a Review

2018-04-03
2018-01-0907
Spark Ignition (SI) engines operating on stoichiometric mixtures can employ a simple three-way catalyst as after-treatment to achieve low tailpipe emissions unlike diesel engines. This makes heavy duty (HD) SI engines an attractive proposition for low capital cost and potentially low noise engines, if the power density and efficiency requirement could be met. Specific torque at low speeds is limited in SI engines due to knock. In HD engines, the higher flame travel distances associated with higher bore diameters exacerbates knock due to increased residence time of the end gas. This report reviews the challenges in developing HD SI engines to meet current diesel power density. It also focuses on methods to mitigate them in order to achieve high thermal efficiency while running on stoichiometric condition. High octane renewable fuels are seen as a key enabler to achieve the performance level required in such applications.
Technical Paper

Robust Path Tracking Control for Autonomous Heavy Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1082
With high maneuverability and heavy-duty load capacity, articulated steer vehicles (ASV) are widely used in construction, forestry and mining sectors. However, the steering process of ASV is much different from wheeled steer vehicles and tractor-trailer vehicles. Unsuitable steering control in path following could easily give rise to the “snaking” behaviour, which greatly reduces the safety and stability of ASV. In order to achieve precise control for ASV, a novel path tracking control method is proposed by virtual terrain field (VTF) method. A virtual U-shaped terrain field is assumed to exist along the reference path. The virtual terrain altitude depends on the lateral error, heading error, preview distance and road curvature. If the vehicle deviates from the reference line, it will be pulled back to the lowest position under the influence of additional lateral tire forces which are caused by the virtual banked road.
Technical Paper

Exploring Telematics Big Data for Truck Platooning Opportunities

2018-04-03
2018-01-1083
NREL completed a temporal and geospatial analysis of telematics data to estimate the fraction of platoonable miles traveled by class 8 tractor trailers currently in operation. This paper discusses the value and limitations of very large but low time-resolution data sets, and the fuel consumption reduction opportunities from large scale adoption of platooning technology for class 8 highway vehicles in the US based on telematics data. The telematics data set consist of about 57,000 unique vehicles traveling over 210 million miles combined during a two-week period. 75% of the total fuel consumption result from vehicles operating in top gear, suggesting heavy highway utilization. The data is at a one-hour resolution, resulting in a significant fraction of data be uncategorizable, yet significant value can still be extracted from the remaining data. Multiple analysis methods to estimate platoonable miles are discussed.
Technical Paper

Achieving Fast Catalyst Light-Off from a Heavy-Duty Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engine Capable of 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1136
Recently conducted work has been funded by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions for heavy-duty on-road engines. In addition to NOX emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG), CO2 and methane emissions regulations from heavy-duty engines are also becoming more stringent. To achieve low cold-start NOX and methane emissions, the exhaust aftertreatment must be brought up to temperature quickly while keeping proper air-fuel ratio control; however, a balance between catalyst light-off and fuel penalty must be addressed to meet future CO2 emissions regulations. This paper details the work executed to improve catalyst light-off for a natural gas engine with a close-coupled and an underfloor three-way-catalyst while meeting an FTP NOX emission target of 0.02 g/bhp-hr and minimizing any fuel penalty.
Technical Paper

Study on Correlation of Commercial Vehicle Axle Response with Road Profile for ISO Road Class Categorization and Durability Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-1114
Durability analysis is essential for vehicle validation and is carried out with the inputs of different road conditions. The selection of roads for durability analysis is critical and should represent the actual working conditions for the selected vehicle. Generally, the road conditions are subject to change with respect to time. To overcome the above, road profile data is an essential parameter which helps to represent and categorize roads in terms of ISO (International Organization for Standardization) road class. The ISO road classes objectively classify the roads with respect to roughness. This classification holds good by categorizing the signals to the respective road classes rather than different test roads. The road profiles are measured using inertial profiler methodology along with vehicle acceleration and displacement responses, also analyzed and categorized with respect to ISO road class.
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