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Viewing 61 to 90 of 7720
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1083
Michael P. Lammert, Bruce Bugbee PhD, Yi Hou, Andrea Mack, Matteo Muratori, Jacob Holden, Adam Duran, Eric Swaney
NREL completed a geospatial & temporal analysis of telematics data to estimate the fraction of platoonable miles traveled by class 8 tractor trailers. The telematics data set consist of over 57,000 unique vehicles traveling over 210 million miles combined during a two week period in which the vehicles consumed 75% of their fuel in top gear. The data is at a one hour resolution resulting in 22% of miles being driven at an unknown speed. Multiple analysis methods to estimate platoonable miles are discussed. Results indicate that 60-75% of total miles driven at known speeds are at speeds amenable to platooning. Taking into account availability of a nearby partner vehicle going the same direction regional results ranged from 33% platoonable to 71% platoonable.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1093
Bingtao Ren, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wang, Guojun Wang, Shun Yang, Zhenyi Liu, Sumin Zhang, Bing Zhu
Knowledge of the tire slip ratio can greatly improve vehicle longitudinal stability and its dynamic performance. Most conventional slip ratio observers were mainly designed based on input of non-driven wheel speed and estimated vehicle speed. However, they are not applicable for electric vehicles (EVs) with four in-wheel motors. Also conventional methods on speed estimation via integration of accelerometer signals can often lead to large offset by long-time integral calculation. Further, model uncertainties, including steady state error and unmodeled dynamics, are considered as additive disturbances, and may affect the stability of the system with estimated state error. This paper proposes a novel slip ratio observer based on input-to-state stability (ISS) method for electric vehicles with four-wheel independent driving motors.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1010
Peihong Shen, Zhiguo Zhao, Xiaowen Zhan, Jingwei Li, Qiuyi Guo
The energy-saving effect of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is closely related to its energy control strategy as well as the driving cycles. For the plug-in hybrid electric commercial vehicle (PHECV), its driving cycle is relatively fixed. As is the reason, the analysis and prediction of velocity can be fulfilled by historical data and machine learning methods. In this study, the improved velocity prediction method based on Markov chain and back propagation (BP) neural network is initially formulated. The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) is selected to test the velocity prediction method. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the predicted velocity is 0.0361m/s, 0.1511m/s and 0.4409m/s, respectively, when the prediction time is 1s, 3s and 5s, which illustrates the accuracy and validity of the proposed velocity prediction method.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1166
Yulong Lei, Zengyin Liu, Yao Fu
Starting control has become a troublesome issue in the developing field of the control system in heavy-duty trucks, due to the complexity of vehicle driving and the variability of driver's intention. The too fast clutch engaging may result in serious impact, influence on the comfort and fatigue life, and even the engine flameout, while the too slow clutch engaging may lead to long time of friction, the increased temperature, and accelerated wear of friction pair, as well as influence on the power performance and fatigue life. Therefore, the key technique of starting control is the clutch engaging control, for which the fuzzy PID based optimization of starting control for AMT Clutch is proposed, with the pneumatic AMT clutch of heavy-duty trucks as the research object.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1136
Ian Smith, James Chiu, Gordon Bartley, Eugene Jimenez, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Sharp
Recently conducted work has been funded by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions for heavy-duty on-road engines. In addition to NOX emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG), CO2 and methane emissions regulations from heavy-duty engines are also becoming more stringent. To achieve low cold-start NOX and methane emissions, the exhaust aftertreatment must be brought up to temperature quickly while keeping proper air-fuel ratio control; however, a balance between catalyst light-off and fuel penalty must be addressed to meet future CO2 emissions regulations. This paper details the work executed to improve catalyst light-off for a natural gas engine with a close-coupled and an underfloor three-way-catalyst while meeting an FTP NOX emission target of 0.02 g/bhp-hr and minimizing any fuel penalty.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1149
Ahmet Mazacioglu, Michael Gross, Justin Kern, Volker Sick
Natural gas (NG) is attractive for heavy-duty (HD) engines for reasons of cost stability, carbon emissions, and fuel security. NG cannot be reliably compression-ignited, but conventional gasoline-engine ignition systems are not optimized for NG and are challenged to ignite mixtures that are lean or diluted with exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR). NG ignition is particularly challenging in large-bore engines, where completing combustion in the available time is more difficult. Using two high-speed infrared (IR) cameras imaging through borescopes mounted in one cylinder of an HD NG engine, the effect of ignition systems on the early flame-kernel development and cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) was investigated for mixture conditions ranging from stoichiometric and undiluted to lean and diluted.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0602
Rupesh Bakatwar, Aashish Bhargava, K U Syed Taj Yaser
Drink & drive has caused increased rate of commercial vehicle accidents in the world due to slow response of judgment and reasoning. According to research study 70 % accidents are happened due to drunk & drive, it will cause loss of human life and economic damage. Research has proven this, that drunk drivers exhibit aggressive driving behavior and applying more force when breaking. While public health awareness and legal restrictions can assist in educating and discouraging people from drunk & drive, a more full proof method is not available in the market for commercial vehicles. Currently low cost, fail-safe on board alcohol detection and vehicle safety system is need of hour. This Paper deals with design & development of low cost active on board breath alcohol detection system and validation.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0115
Raphael Carneiro, Marco Tulio Ribeiro Ricci, DIMAS AGUIAR, Jose Alberto Oliveira
Currently in countries such as Brazil, the need of fuel consumption reduction and the consequent emission of air pollutants reduction are part of product development and vehicle homologation, implicating in weight reduction. In commercial vehicles, a great portion of the weight is related to its structure, in this case, chassis frames which are predominantly made of steel. This essay presents a material substitution of a chassis frame component from steel to aluminum resulting in weight reduction of around 40% with an increase in cost of also 40%. Chassis frames of 5Ton and a 3.5Ton trucks are the starting point of this study. Weight reduction potential were found during software simulation stages, especially on the following components: transmission crossmember, intermediate crossmember and single frame crossmember.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0424
Pedro Orbaiz, Nicolás van Dijk, Santiago Cosentino, Nicolas Oxenford, Mauro Carignano, Norberto Marcelo Nigro
This paper presents a technical, financial and environmental analysis of four different hybrid buses operated under Buenos Aires driving conditions. A conventional diesel bus is used as a reference and three electric hybrids equipped with different energy storage technologies; Li-Ion, NiMH batteries and double layer capacitors (ultra-capacitors); are evaluated, along with a hydraulic hybrid platform which uses high pressure accumulators as its energy buffer. The operating conditions of the buses are set using real driving GPS data collected from various bus routes within the city. The different vehicle platforms are modelled on Autonomie SA and validate by comparing the obtained fuel consumption results to those reported by local transport authorities and values found in the literature. The embedded energy and CO2 emissions of each platform are estimated using GREET and the total cost of ownership of each vehicle is calculated and compared to that of the conventional bus.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0518
Jason Hallman, Jessica Buck, Suk Jae Ham
A substantial number of side impact fatalities involve a truck or sport-utility vehicle (SUV) as the striking vehicle. While the body style of the SUV fleet has transitioned from primarily body-on-frame to unibody (UB) construction, few studies have examined if this results in different vehicle stiffness. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to characterize front stiffness response of contemporary SUVs and trucks. Vehicle front impact test data were obtained from data published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA]. For all tests, force data were obtained from barrier load cells and stroke data were derived from accelerometers. Data from 53 truck and SUV tests were aggregated by class to obtain mean ± SD stiffness corridors: (1) compact UB SUV, (2) small UB SUV, (3) mid-size UB SUV, (4) frame SUV, and (5) frame truck. Across unibody SUV classes, stiffness varied from 1.3 – 1.5 kN/mm.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0321
Ram Vijayagopal, Aymeric Rousseau, Alexandre Vallet
Electrified powertrains are gaining acceptance on the light duty vehicles, but their impact of medium and heavy duty vehicles are not well understood. There are several prototyping efforts funded by US DOE in demonstrating the benefits in certain vehicle segments, but a larger study including several types of trucks is needed to understand the impact of specific powertrain technologies. This study proposes the use of a fleet of 13 different vehicles from various class, vocation combinations. This will cover over 50% of the type of medium and heavy duty vehicles on US roads. The vehicles that enjoy the market share in each category is taken as the baseline. Their fuel consumption and performance is simulated in Autonomie. Equivalent vehicles with electrified powertrains are designed with the underlying principle of not compromising on cargo or performance. Several performance characteristics were identified for benchmarking based on the feedback from the industry.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0368
Fernando Zenklusen, Marcio Coenca, Alexander Puck
As a consequence of the continuous evolution of engines, where their performance is improving day by day and the use of alternative fuels is being adopted by many engine manufacturers, thermal working conditions of the exhaust valves is getting critical within the last years. The adjustments needed are diverse. In order to better resist the higher temperature levels of the exhaust gases the current development ranges from improvement on the cooling concept for the overall system over new materials for valves set components up to the upgrade of the exhaust manifold material. Change on the design of several valvetrain components due to the increased thermal loads is a logical consequence of this technical evolution process. Hollow exhaust valves filled with Sodium (Na) are a known technology that is widely used in passenger car engines to improve its thermal behavior and avoid the need of changing to expensive materials (Ni-base alloys).
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1211
Manoj Kumar Rajendran, Pandurangan Muthu kumar, Manikandan Rajaraman, Srinivasa Chandra V
The suspension system in a vehicle isolates the frame and body from road shocks and vibrations which would otherwise be transferred to the passengers and goods. Heavier goods vehicles use tandem axles at the rear for load carrying. Both the axles should be inter-connected to eliminate overloading of any one axle when this goes over a bump or a ditch. One of the inter-connecting mechanism used is leaf spring with tie rod, bell crank & linkages, when the first rear axle moves over a bump, the linkages equalize the loading with the second rear axle. This paper details about the failure analysis methodology to simulate the tie rod field failure using a Six Poster road Simulator and to identify the root cause of the failure and further corrective actions.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0972
Ted Holmberg, Andreas Cronhjort, Ola Stenlaas
A turbocharged diesel engine for heavy-duty on-road vehicle applications employs a compact exhaust manifold to satisfy transient torque and packaging requirements. The small exhaust manifold volume increases the in cycle unsteadiness of the flow to the turbine. The turbine therefore operates over a wider flow range, which is not optimal as radial turbines have narrow peak efficiency zone. This lower efficiency is compensated to some extent by the higher energy content of the unsteady exhaust flow compared to steady flow conditions. This paper experimentally investigates the relationship between exhaust energy utilization and available energy at the turbine inlet at different degrees of unsteady flow. A special exhaust manifold has been constructed which enables the internal volume of the manifold to be increased in steps. The larger volume reduces the exhaust pulse amplitude and brings the operating condition for the turbine closer to steady-flow.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0467
JAIRO CHIMENTO, Dinesh Kumar, Anil Kumar
This paper presents an experimental setup and an equivalent FEM simulation methodology to accurately predict the response of Engine Control Module (ECM) assembly mounted on a commercial vehicle subjected to road vibrations. Comprehensive vibration study is carried out. It involved Modal characteristics determination followed by random vibration characterization of the ECM assembly. A hammer impact experiment is first performed in lab to estimate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of ECM assembly. Mounting conditions in test specimen are kept similar to the actual mounting settings on vehicle. Natural frequencies and mode shapes predicted from free vibration experiment are compared with finite element (FE) based modal analysis. The importance of capturing the assembly stiffness more accurately by incorporating pre-stress effects like bolt-pretension and gravity, is emphasized.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1440
Ryo Oga, Nobuaki Takubo, Kenshiro Kato, Takaaki Terashima, Yuji Kida, Kimiya Akita, Yuuichiro Ambe, Akinori Ishii
Record data in electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles is very useful for traffic accident reconstruction. Event data recorder (EDR) is a function of airbag ECUs for data recording at crash events. EDRs typically keep data of speed, output of accelerator pedal, engine RPM and brake lamp switch about 5 s before crash event. Acceleration throttle and brake lamp switch are very useful to understand driver maneuver in pre-crash scene. However, it is important to check accuracy of speed data in EDR. The speed data in EDR is unlikely reflect its true speed during skid braking, because the speed data in EDR is captured from the rotational speed of drive train. It is important to check accuracy of speed data in EDR for accident reconstruction. On the other hand, pre-crash safety system (PCS) becomes widespread. PCS automatically brakes in risky scene, and record data in ECUs. The data of PCS is promising for accident reconstruction.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0177
Hesameddin Fatehi, Eric Wingren, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico, Anders Karlsson, Oivind Andersson, Xue-Song Bai
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are employed to describe the effect of flow parameters on the formation of soot and NOx in a heavy duty engine under low load and high load. The complexity of diesel combustion, specially when soot, NOx and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution. In this work, Multiple Representative Interactive Flamelets (MRIF) method is employed to describe the chemical reactions, ignition, flame propagation and emissions in the engine. A phenomenological model for soot formation, including soot nucleation, coagulation and oxidation with O2 and OH, is incorporated into the flamelet combustion model. Different strategies for modelling NOx are chosen to take into account the longer time scale for NOx formation. The numerical results are compared with experimental data to show the validity of the model for the cases under study.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1109
Zifan Liu, Abdullah-al Mamun, Simona Onori
This paper investigates the fuel saving potential of a series hybrid military truck using a combined battery pack design and powertrain supervisory control optimization strategy. The design optimization refers to the sizing of the Lithium-ion battery pack in the hybridized configuration. On the other hand, the powertrain supervisory control optimization finds the most efficient way to split power demands between the battery pack and the engine. Most of the previous literatures implement them separately. Combining the sizing and optimal control problem in a single optimization routine might produce better fuel economy in a more efficient manner. This study proposes a novel unified framework to couple Genetic Algorithm (GA) with Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) to determine the battery pack sizing and the power split control sequence simultaneously.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0408
Stavros Skarlis, Theodoros Molos, Michael Skarlis, Apostolos Karvountzis-Kontakiotis, Olivier Bernatchez, Christian Pronovost
Vehicle electrification gains increasing interest as a promising solution for both zero emissions in urban environment and minimization of energy consumption. Simultaneously, many European cities focus on cleaner public transport and already started employing zero emission urban buses. Nevertheless, global spread of battery electric buses is currently questionable. During a bus route, vehicle gross weight may significantly vary due to the number of passengers, whereas vehicle energy needs could double when air-conditioning is utilized. Therefore, the electric powertrain design should be analyzed and optimized to achieve a sufficient traveling range. The aim of this work is to give insights into performance aspects of battery electric powertrain systems for urban buses. Instead of exhaustive testing, cost-effective model based vehicle analysis is proposed for quantifying and understanding electric powertrain subsystems performance.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0980
Daniel Christopher Bitsis, Jason Miwa
As fuel economy becomes increasingly important in all markets, complete engine system optimization is required to meet future standards. In many applications, it is difficult to realize the optimum coolant or lubricant pump without first evaluating different sets of engine hardware and iterating on the flow and pressure requirements. For this study, a Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine was run in a dynamometer test cell with the production coolant and lubricant pumps. Two test stands were developed to allow the engine coolant and lubricant pumps to be fully mapped during engine operation and allowed for pumps to be operated independent of engine speed. The pumps were removed from the engine and powered by electric motors with inline torque meters. Each fluid circuit was instrumented with volume flow meters and pressure measurements at multiple locations.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0245
Marcus Olof Lundgren, Alexios Matamis, Zhenkan Wang, Mattias Richter, Pablo Garcia Valladolid, Oivind Andersson, Arne Andersson
Studies have shown that low temperature combustion (LTC), has the ability to decrease both soot and NOx emissions while maintaining high efficiency. LTC relies on long ignition delay, which is feasible through the use of high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in combination with high octane fuels. High efficiency is possible due to the rapid heat release at autoignition of the premixed or partially premixed fuel and air charge. This rapid combustion limits the load range of LTC, thereby diffusion like combustion is needed at higher loads. Earlier studies have shown that gasoline has the ability to reduce smoke emissions even at high load. This study aims to optically investigate the possible mechanisms behind the reduction of soot in comparison to diesel diffusion combustion, at high load operation (22 bar IMEP$_g$) in a heavy-duty truck engine. Primary reference fuels (PRF) were used as pump fuel surrogates.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0362
Imad A. Khalek, Huzeifa Badshah, Vinay Premnath, Rasto Brezny
Solid particle number emissions above and below 23 nm were investigated for a state-of-the-art stoichiometric heavy-duty natural gas engine with a three-way-catalyst and a diesel heavy-duty diesel engine with DFP. Furthermore, real time ash particle number emissions were measured using SwRI real time ash measurement instrument (RT-ASH). Both engines met the potential future CARB ultra low NOX emissions of 0.02 g/hp-hr, a 90% reduction from current emissions level in the USA. The engines were tested in an engine test cell under cold- and hot-start transient engine operation including FTP, WHTC and RMC. While both engines met comfortably the PM mass emissions, solid particle number emissions and ash emissions were significant for the natural gas engine. The emissions of solid particles from the natural gas was a factor of 5 to 10 higher than that of a diesel engine with DPF.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0657
Andrei Izmailov, Alexandr Lavrov, Zakhid Godzhaev, Vladimir Shevtsov, Valeriya Zubina
Existing methods of assessing the technical level, both in Russia and abroad, are associated with an expert approach that is limited by the qualitative nature of the conclusions, which does not allow predicting a quantitative change in performance. In this regard, if there are up to 35 models on the Russian market with equal power capabilities, the problem of specifying the choice arises. The article considers a new technique for assessing the technical level of agricultural tractors competing in one power range. A general indicator of the technical level is the ratio of the replacement capacity of the arable unit based on the tractor model under consideration to the replacement capacity of the arable unit based on the reference tractor, which are determined by computer simulation in reference conditions.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1319
Hyang Mi Kim
Sitting posture is one of the most important indexes for heavy truck driving comfort. It is closely related to the driver’s muscles, joint angles and joint torques. Driver’s fatigue during long hour driving comes from various causes, such factors include seat dimensions, features, adjustability and cushion’s material properties. likewise, posture changes in the performance of the seat system can contribute to changes in the long term feel of the seat and fatigue. Stability of sitting posture is characteristic to maintain initial sitting posture while driving long hour. And if the posture is likely to be changed, such as moving forward of hip-point and curvature of the lumbar, it can be called that stability of sitting posture is lack.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0632
Michael Gross, Ahmet Mazacioglu, Justin Kern, Volker Sick
Optical imaging diagnostics of combustion are most often performed in the visible and near-ultraviolet spectral regions, in part because camera technology is most mature in these bands, but operating in the infrared (IR) provides a number of benefits. These benefits include access to emission lines of relevant chemical species (e.g. water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) and obviation of intensifiers (thus avoiding reduced spatial resolution and increased cost). High-speed IR in-cylinder imaging and extensive post-processing were used to investigate the relationships between infrared images, quantitative image-derived metrics (e.g. location of the flame centroid), and measurements made with in-cylinder pressure transducers (e.g. coefficient of variation of mean effective pressure). A Weichai 9.7-liter, inline-six, natural-gas-fueled engine was modified to enable exhaust-gas recirculation and to provide borescopic optical access to one cylinder for two Xenics cameras.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1147
Jiri Vavra, Zbynek Syrovatka, Oldrich Vitek, Jan Macek, Michal Takats
Methane-based fuels compared to the traditional liquid fuels display favorable properties such as a low carbon content and a high knock resistance. State-of-the-art, highly turbocharged gas fueled engines reach “diesel-like” overall efficiency along the full load curve. However, at the low load the spark-ignited gas engine is less efficient than the diesel one due to increased pumping losses caused by throttling. Desired de-throttling can be achieved by the combustion of the extremely lean mixture. Simultaneously, the lean burn concept allows a significant decrease of the NOx formation owing to the low temperature combustion. Yet, poor ignitability and the low flame velocity of extremely lean mixture causes high level of cycle-to-cycle variability and possibly an occasional misfiring. The topic of the paper is a combustion system with a fuel-scavenged pre-chamber, commonly used in large-bore engines, full time operated with extremely lean mixture.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1181
Brian McAuliffe, Michael Lammert, Xiao-Yun Lu, Steven Shladover, Marius-Dorin Surcel, Aravind Kailas
An integrated adaptive cruise control (ACC) and cooperative ACC (CACC) was implemented and tested on three heavy-duty tractor-trailer trucks on a closed test track. The first truck was always in ACC mode and the followers were in CACC mode, using wireless vehicle-vehicle communication to augment their radar sensor data to enable safe and accurate vehicle following at short gaps. The fuel consumption for each truck in the CACC platoon was measured using the SAE J1321 procedure while travelling at 65 mph and loaded to a gross weight of 65,000 lb, demonstrating the effects of: inter-vehicle gaps (ranging from 3.0s or 87m to 0.14s or 4m, covering a much wider range than previously reported tests), cut-in and cut-out maneuvers by other vehicles, speed variations, the use of mis-matched vehicles (standard trailers mixed with aerodynamic trailers with boat tails and side skirts), and the presence of a passenger vehicle ahead of the platoon.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0888
Daniel cohn, Leslie Bromberg
Long-haul heavy-duty engines, presently almost entirely powered by diesel fuel, face challenges in meeting the worldwide need for greatly reducing their nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. These emissions produce smog and create respiratory problems. There is also a need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Dual-fuel gasoline-alcohol engine technology can provide a means to meet this need at an affordable cost. The engine could provide operation a wide fuel range from mainly gasoline use to 100% alcohol use. Use of stoichiometric operation and a three way catalytic converter can reduce NOx by around 90% relative to emissions from diesels with state of the art exhaust treatment. The alcohol fuel provides increased knock resistance, enabling high compression ratio, turbocharged operation that provides comparable efficiency and torque to a diesel engine. The alcohol can be ethanol or methanol and can be neat or a high concentration blend.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0390
MahendraMohan Rajagopal, Velmurugan M A
Recently, emerging technological developments in powertrain were mostly accompanied with electronics for efficient and precise control of powertrain system. Agricultural tractors are of no exception to this context. Most of the higher horsepower tractors above 50 HP are equipped with modern transmission systems such as Power-shuttle, Power-shift etc. having their wet clutch transmission and diesel engine controlled by an Electronic Control Unit. This is possible only with an engine that receives and provides electronic signals. Whereas a tractor with mechanical (non-electronic) engine is of predominant use in the Indian farm lands due to their low cost and immediate availability compared to that of an engine equipped with hi-fi electronics. Hence, there is a demand for low cost drivetrain with improved controls and without engine electronics.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0638
Sauhard Singh, S K Mishra, V K Bathla, Reji Mathai, Shyam Singh, Deepak saxena, SSV Ramakumar, G Senthilkumar, M Sathyanandan, P Mahesh
To address the twin challenge of energy security and environment issues arises due to extensive use of fossil fuels, it is felt necessary worldwide to embark upon alternative fuels to diversify the energy basket with due consideration of environment. Various alternative fuels like natural gas, bio-fuels, methanol, ethanol, DME etc. are under consideration with various degree of research work carried out on these alternatives worldwide and at various stages of implementation with country specific requirement and availability scenario. Natural gas has been considered and implemented as alternative fuel to gasoline and diesel powered vehicles worldwide. Although natural gas belongs to petroleum fuel family, it has considerable recourses worldwide to ensure long energy security and comparatively lower carbon to hydrogen ratio that make it more environment friendly. In line with worldwide trend, India also focused on CNG powered vehicles specifically on metropolitan city transport buses.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 7720