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Viewing 91 to 120 of 7720
2018-03-09
Journal Article
2018-01-9179
Alan P. Stanard, Carl Fulper, Sandeep Kishan, Michael Sabisch
The effects of exhaust emissions on public welfare have prompted the US Environmental Protection Agency to take various actions toward understanding, modeling, and reducing vehicle air pollution. This study was conducted to better understand the operations and exhaust emissions of heavy-duty diesel-powered tractor-trailer trucks operating in drayage service, which involves the moving of shipping containers to or from port terminals. The study involved combining data regarding drayage operational and exhaust emissions from multiple sources. The first source was emissions and activity data collected by portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) installed on a sample of in-use drayage trucks. PEMS systems measured information such as gaseous- and particulate-matter emission rates, vehicle speed, engine operation data and vehicle location data.
2018-01-12
Journal Article
2018-01-9275
Hamed Kheshtinejad, Mirko Baratta, Danilo Laurenzano, Claudio Maino, Daniela Anna Misul
CNG is at present retaining a growing interest as a factual alternative to traditional fuels for SI engines, thanks to its high potentials in reducing the engine-out emissions. Increasing thrust into the exploitation of NG in the transport field is in fact produced by the even more stringent emission regulations that are being introduced into the worldwide scenario. The present paper aims at deeply investigating into the potentials of a heavy-duty engine running on CNG and equipped with two different injection systems, an advanced single point (SP) one and a prototype multi-point (MP) one. The considered 7.8-liter engine was designed and produced to implement a SP strategy and hence modified to run with a dedicated MP system. A thorough comparison of the engine equipped with the two injection systems has been carried out at steady state as well as at transient operations.
2017-11-27
Technical Paper
2017-01-7011
Sandip Phapale, Pavan Sindgikar, Narayan Jadhav
Abstract Indian automotive market has grown extremely competitive in the recent past. In order to meet the ever growing expectations of the customers, automobile manufacturers are compelled to offer their products under superior quality with supreme comfort. Customers wish of high levels of tactile comfort in the cabin compartment and effortless operation of peripherals will result in negligible fatigue and a pleasant drive, needs to be duly fulfilled. One has to focus more on Gear shift lever and Steering wheel, which are being the most sensitive tactile points in an automobile. The gear shift lever knob is frequently used and significantly influences the perception of the shift comfort for a driver during actual vehicle application.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0125
Marcos Rogério Sanches Barbetti, Lucas Ramos Carvalho, Marcio Calçada
Abstract In this paper an alternative engineering solution to control vehicle steering wheel vibration is presented. The strategy is focused on the implementation of an effective tuned vibration absorber which also complies with time frame and costs requisites. The vibration levels in this case study are enhanced due resonances in the chassis frame and steering column. The tuned mass damper is basically a suspended mass attached on a vulcanized rubber body, aiming for the customer benefits; this solution can be classified as low cost as well low complexity for implementation. In this case study, a mid-size truck was used as a physical hardware and the data were collected through accelerometers on the steering wheel and other critical components. As a control factor, different tunings on different parts were applied to optimize the auxiliary system performance and robustness.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0109
Haraldo Rehder, Gustavo P. Rehder
Abstract Environmental damage and climate change, air pollution, energy efficiency, fuel consumption and emissions are subjects for studies and legislations worldwide. Brazil must therefore be prepared to follow global trends in energy optimization tests and developments, including Euro 6 equivalent emission legislation. Considering the worldwide tendency for Real Driving Condition Test for heavy vehicles, the authors, using the developed Towing Trailer Prototype provided with an electromagnetic brake, performed fuel consumption on-road tests. For measuring fuel consumption on-road or on testing tracks, the developed system allows initially measurements with an independent auxiliary tank for short distances and measurement with an auxiliary tank connected with the truck tank for long distances. The tests were performed on road in real conditions initially by maximum speeds of 75 km/h.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0129
Alexandre R. Pinho, Demetrio Vettorazzo Neto, George Ballardie, Rafael Coelho Martinez
Abstract This paper will focus whining noise on rear axles applied in mid-size trucks. Vehicle integration changes during development affect directly the gear noise perception, in which it may be intensified. Also, gear material and heat treatment choices for the rear axle need to be done carefully, taking into consideration the integration changes and also the driver usage. A lessons learned collection over the diverse aspects of a rear axle whining noise will be the basis of this paper.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0126
Milton Monteverde Belli, Ricardo Daldegan
Abstract The development costs that new design requires are subject to everyday discussions and saving opportunities are mandatory. Using CAE to predict design changes can avoid excessive costs with prototypes parts, considering the high reliability those current mathematical models can provide. This paper presents the methodology used during the development of a parabolic leaf spring for the rear suspension of a commercial truck, considering mainly the parabolic profiles and stress distribution on the leaves, calculated using CAE software (ANSYS) and experimental tests to measure the actual stress on each leaf, certifying the correlation between computational calculations and real stress on the parts during bench and vehicle evaluations.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0139
Juliano Afonso Tessaro, Allan Raul Silva, Leandro Brasil Araujo, Renan Oliveira Sardim
Abstract Due to the introduction of PROCONVE MAR-I emission regulation, the Brazilian automotive industry developed Diesel engines to comply with this legislation demanding new components to automotive supplier base. However, at the same time this industrial sector was facing a difficult financial situation caused mainly by the crisis that impacted Brazil in last years. In 2015, around 27 local suppliers filed for bankruptcy affecting the whole Automotive Supply Chain. This scenario already represents a problem for current products established in market, but it represents a major challenge for new launches. This paper will discuss how MWM Motores Diesel made sourcing decisions and manage to develop components and suppliers in this harsh scenario, also looking for the supplier base optimization.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0132
Vitor Gutierrez, Winston Attrot
Abstract Commercial vehicles are being developed for long decades in Brazil creating a deep background on manufacturing process. With the current scenario a variety of different vehicles specifications (weight capacity, load distribution, torque, size, etc.) are being required by the market. Joints with bolts and nuts are the engineering solution for the most of the problems found in automotive engineering regarding commercial vehicles. Screw processes were made during the last 150 years. Nowadays current frame modifications on aftermarket are made with arc weld process that affects directly the material properties and the process needs to be performed by critical personal with training and capacity. In addition cost and timing does not fit for the best equation on how to proceed with the modifications. The solution proposed brings more flexibility on frame assemblies that can be extended to other products.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0080
Edinilson Alves Costa, Rogério Nalin
Abstract Although ignored by most people not directly involved with highway and off-road commercial trucks operation the accumulation of dust and mud on cabin side can become a rather annoying issue. Besides adhering to the passengers clothes dirt contamination may also compromise driver visibility constituting a safety concern. For a truck manufacturer it can revert into quality complaints and negatively influence customers’ future buying decisions. In this context, fascia air deflectors are common devices used in truck industry to control the airflow over the cabin panels and ultimately prevent contamination deposition. This paper presents a methodology to avoid dust and mud accumulation on commercial trucks cabin doors based on the predicted airflow field by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a reference flow metric defined through a simple bench test.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0413
César T. N. M. Branco, Jullyane M. S. Figueiredo, Mauro J. G. Veloso, Roberto T. Fujiyama
Abstract Due to the mass production process of the automobile industry, develop a product by reducing its cost has become an important aspect in its elaboration. This goal is to replace the higher cost material for an alternative that offers the same performance at a lower cost. The use of composite materials in the automotive industry has gradually evolved over the years. However, the use of composite materials in the structure of the automobile depends on a number of factors, such as large production scale, fast manufacturing process and economy, suiting the high demand of the automobile industry. Fiberglass composites are widely used in the market because of their good mechanical and physical properties combined with the comparatively low cost of production.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0301
Rafael Bruno, Rafael Dezotti, Paulo Mordente
Abstract Governmental legislation with regards to emissions is an important driver for Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine developments. To reach the targets, in most of cases it is necessary to increase the thermal-mechanical loads, increasing the level of technical demand for the engine components. Besides that, other important aspects drive the engine development, as the cost of ownership, demanding for instance an extended oil draining interval, which leads to harsher environment for the engine components. In order to cope with the modern engine demands, this article presents a piston and piston rings specially designed to meet these targets in a robust way. Starting with the ring pack, CrN based coatings applied by PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) are commonly applied to top ring face to reach durability targets.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0121
C.S. VIEIRA
Abstract This work describes a statistic analysis of the service life of tires applied in off-highway trucks used in open-pit mining. Understanding the process of occurrence of structural failures, correlated to the fatigue mechanism and often observed in mechanic components, is of vital importance for the current industry. Since these failures usually happen suddenly, understanding them in the most diverse components submitted to cyclic loads helps analyzing the material’s progressive deterioration along time; it acts as a return to potential improvements in the product, giving feedback of computing simulation data; and it potentially increases operational safety by mitigating the consequences it has on the productive process and on the people exposed to such failures. The tires, components that integrate great part of the on wheels vehicles fleet - amongst them: transportation equipment, industrial mobile equipment and mining equipment - are inserted in this context.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0441
Diego David Silva Diniz, Carlos Costa De Carvalho, Antônio Almeida da Silva
Abstract In the last decades, the improvement of the automotive industry and the raising market exigence have stimulated studies in vehicle dynamics. That studies force the companies to focus their efforts in producing new conceptions and optimizing the existing ones, being able to obtain faster, safer, and more comfortable vehicles. The evolution of computing has made the task of making numerical simulations for complex models of vehicles. This allow the engineers to reproduce the real dynamic behavior of the vehicle submitted to a wide range of scenarios. Therefore, this study aims to use the multibody method to model and simulate, through computers, the vertical dynamic behavior of an off-road vehicle (baja) with a Double Wishbone suspension in both front and rear.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0294
Henrique Zambon, Marcos Torres, Odair Berti
Abstract In order to optimize the development of bolted joints used to components attachments in the Sidemember of commercial vehicles, the joints development has become relevant to better definition of the fasteners size, eliminating overweight and avoiding under or super-sized. This paper presents a development sequential approach of bolted joints applied on commercial vehicles ensuring the correct specifications usage of the fasteners and the joint to keep their clamp force. The evaluations were conducted based on theoretical and practical aspects applied on products and in the definition of all elements contained in a joint. The calculation methodology was developed based on standardized bolts and forces generated through the reactions of the components required for each vehicle family.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0033
Akinori Shinagawa, Hisayuki Nozawa, Yutaro Uchiyama
Two-wheeled off-road vehicles are mainly ridden on slippery dirt roads that include steep slopes and rough, uneven surfaces. An analysis method for the driving state and the vehicle movement limits that would be suitable for analyzing the movement of such two-wheeled off-road vehicles under these conditions was examined. These movement limits were then formulated by taking into consideration the coefficient of friction and the road surface gradient in accordance with the basic laws of physics and also by focusing on the vehicle movement in the longitudinal direction. Measurements were also taken during actual off-road riding by top-class Japanese off-road motorcycle riders. It was confirmed that this measurement data was distributed within the range of the assumed vehicle movement limits. Consequently, it was confirmed that it is possible to use such measurements to accurately grasp the vehicle movement limits and the associated driving state for two-wheeled off-road vehicles.
2017-10-16
Technical Paper
2017-01-7007
Hardik Lakhlani
Abstract Turbocharging has become an important method for increasing the power output of diesel engines. A perfectly matched turbocharger can increase the engine efficiency and decrease the BSFC. For turbocharger matching, engine manufacturers are dependent on the turbocharger manufacturers. In this paper, an analytical model is presented which could help engine manufacturers to analyze the performance of turbocharger for different load and ambient condition using compressor and turbine map provided by turbo manufacturers. The analytical model calculates the required pressure at inlet and exhaust manifold for fixed vane turbocharger with waste gate using inputs like BSFC, lambda, volumetric efficiency, turbocharger efficiency and heat loss, that are available with the engine manufacturer.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2266
Bin Yang, Hu Wang, Mingfa Yao, Zunqing Zheng, Jialin Liu, Naifeng Ma, Qiping Wang, Haien Zha, Peng Chen
Abstract Gasoline partially premixed combustion shows the potential to achieve clean and high-efficiency combustion. Injection strategies show great influence on in-cylinder air flow and in-cylinder fuel distribution before auto-ignition, which can significantly affect the combustion characteristics and emissions. This study explored the effects of various injection strategies, including port fuel injection (PFI), single direct injection (DIm), double direct injection (DIp+DIm) and port fuel injection coupled with a direct injection (PFI+DIm) on the combustion characteristics and emissions in a modified single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with 92# gasoline at low load. The investigation consists of two parts. Firstly, the comparison among PFI, PFI+DIm, and DIp+DIm strategies was conducted at a fixed CA50 to explore the effects of PFI+DIm and DIp+DIm strategies on the thermal efficiency and combustion stability.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2268
Zhanming Chen, Long Wang, Tiancong Zhang, Qimeng Duan, Bo Yang
Abstract Engines fuelled with Liquefied natural gas (LNG) have been widely used in the heavy-duty vehicles. However, they suffer from poor combustion performance and flame instability under fuel-lean condition. In this work, experiments were performed on a turbo-charged, spark-ignition engine fuelled with natural gas (NG) and methanol. The combustion characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate (HRR), burned mass fraction (BMF), ringing/knock intensity (RI), ignition delay, centroid of HRR, and coefficient of variation (COV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) were analyzed under light load (brake mean effective pressure=0.3876 MPa) with different methanol substitution rates (MSR=0%, 16%, 34%, 46%). The experimental results showed that combustion phase advanced with the increase in MSR due to faster burning velocity of methanol. Knock only occurred at MSR=46%, 2000 rpm.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2271
Zhongshu Wang, Mingyang Shao, Ming Li, Dan Wang, Zhongchang Liu
Abstract For diesel/natural gas dual fuel engines, the combustion of pilot diesel injection plays an important role to subsequent mixture combustion process. To better understand the effects of multiple injections, a detailed study was conducted on a 6-cylinder turbocharged intercooler diesel/natural gas dual fuel heavy-duty engine at low loads. Multiple variables were tested, including the single injection timings, the multiple injections timings and the mass ratios. The investigated results showed that the multiple pilot diesel injections have an obvious effect on not only pilot diesel combustion process but also natural gas mixture combustion process. Early injection leads to a pilot-diesel-ignition-mode and it is a two-stage auto ignition mode. This mode differs from the compression ignition mode of traditional diesel engine in regard to its random occurrence location within the spray.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2242
Boyuan Wang, Zhi Wang, Changpeng Liu, Fubai Li, Yingdi Wang, Yunliang Qi, Xin He, Jianxin Wang
Abstract A new ignition method named Flame Accelerated Ignition (FAI) is proposed in this paper. The FAI system composes of a spark plug and a flame acceleration tunnel with annular obstacles inside. The FAI was experimentally investigated on a rapid compression machine (RCM) with optical accessibility and a single-cylinder heavy duty research engine. In RCM, the flame is significantly accelerated and the combustion process is evidently enhanced by FAI. The ignition delay and the combustion duration are both sharply decreased compared with conventional spark ignition (CSI) case. According to the optical diagnostics, the flame rushes out of the exit of the flame acceleration tunnel at maximum axial speed over 40 m/s, which exceeds 10 times that of CSI flame propagation. In radial direction, the flame curls outwards near the tunnel exit and keeps growing afterwards.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2221
Peixuan Zeng, Penghao Zhang, Binyu Mei, Shiping Huang, Gangfeng Tan
Abstract It’s not easy to start the engine in winter, especially in frigid highlands, because the low temperature increases the fuel’s viscosity, decreasing the lubricating oil flow ability and the storage performance of battery. Current electrical heating method can improve the engine starting performance in low temperature condition, but this method adds an external power to the engine, leading to the engine cannot maintain an efficient energy utilization. A warming device using the solar energy is designed to conserve the energy during the daytime, and directly warm up the engine at the time when the engine turns off for a long time, especially during the night. A solar collector installed on the top of the vehicle is used to convert the solar energy to the thermal energy, which is then transferred to the heat accumulator that contain the phase-change medium which can increase the heat storage performance.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2227
Wei Guan, Vinícius Pedrozo, Hua Zhao, Zhibo Ban, Tiejian Lin
Abstract In order to meet increasingly stringent emissions standards and lower the fuel consumption of heavy-duty (HD) vehicles, significant efforts have been made to develop high efficiency and clean diesel engines and aftertreatment systems. However, a trade-off between the actual engine efficiency and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission remains to minimize the operational costs. In addition, the conversion efficiency of the diesel aftertreatment system decreases rapidly with lower exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), which occurs at low load operations. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the optimum combustion and engine control strategies that can lower the vehicle’s running costs by maintaining low engine-out NOx emissions while increasing the conversion efficiency of the NOx aftertreament system through higher EGTs.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2205
Velmurugan M A, MahendraMohan Rajagopal
Abstract Agricultural tractors are often subjected to various applications like front end loading work, cultivation work, where frequent forward and reverse gears are needed. Most of Indian agricultural tractors are equipped with mechanical transmission system which demands repeated clutching and de-clutching operation for such applications resulting in increased operator fatigue and lesser productivity. Also need of electronics in Indian agricultural industry for better farm mechanization is growing high. This research work depicts development of electronic bi-directional shifting (power shuttle) control design and calibration for farm vehicle fitted with wet clutch transmission. This research also reduces operator fatigue via frequent directional shift through electronic transmission. The control system is designed without any electronic interfacing with engine and also provides clutch-less gear shifting and auto-launch which offers ease to drive even for novice driver.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2207
Nobunori Okui
Abstract Next-generation vehicles which include the Electric Vehicles, the Hybrid Electric Vehicles and the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles are researched and expected to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in the future. In order to reduce the emissions of the heavy-duty diesel plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), it is necessary to provide the high exhaust-gas temperature and to keep the exhaust-gas aftertreatment system effective. The engine starting condition of the PHEV is cold, and the engine start and stop is repeated. And, the engine load of the PHEV is assisted by the electric motor. Therefore, the exhaust-gas aftertreatment system of the PHEV is not able to get the enough high exhaust-gas temperature. And, the warm-up of the exhaust-gas aftertreatment system for the PHEV is spent the long time. So, it is worried about a bad effect on the emission characteristics of the PHEV.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2201
Zhongye Cao, Tianyou Wang, Kai Sun, Lei Cui, Yong Gui
Abstract For uniflow scavenged two-stroke marine diesel engines, the main function of scavenging process is to replace the burned gas with fresh charge. The end state of scavenging process is integral to the subsequent compression and combustion, thereby affecting the engine’s fuel economy, power output and emissions. In this paper, a complete working cycle of a large marine diesel engine was simulated by using the 3D-CFD software CONVERGE. The model was validated by mesh sensitivity test and experiment data. Based on this calibrated model, the influences of swirl ratio and exhaust valve closing (EVC) timing on the scavenging process were investigated. The parameters evaluating the performance of scavenging process were introduced. The results show that, by adjusting the swirl orientation angle(SOA) from SOA=10° to SOA=30°, different swirl ratios are generated and have obvious differences in flow characteristics and scavenging performance.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2197
Vignesh Pandian Muthuramalingam, Anders Karlsson
Abstract Owing to increased interest in blended fuels for automotive applications, a great deal of understanding is sought for the behavior of multicomponent fuel sprays. This sets a new requirement on spray model since the volatility of the fuel components in a blend can vary substantially. It calls for careful solution to implement the differential evaporation process concerning thermodynamic equilibrium while maintaining a robust solution. This work presents the Volvo Stochastic Blob and Bubble (VSB2) spray model for multicomponent fuels. A direct numerical method is used to calculate the evaporation of multicomponent fuel droplets. The multicomponent fuel model is implemented into OpenFoam CFD code and the case simulated is a constant volume combustion vessel. The CFD code is used to calculate liquid penetration length for surrogate diesel (n-dodecane)-gasoline (iso-octane) blend and the result is compared with experimental data.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2194
Mateusz Pucilowski, Mehdi Jangi, Sam Shamun, Martin Tuner, Xue-Song Bai
Abstract Heavy-duty direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine running on methanol is studied at a high compression ratio (CR) of 27. The fuel is injected with a common-rail injector close to the top-dead-center (TDC) with two injection pressures of 800 bar and 1600 bar. Numerical simulations using Reynold Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT), and Well-Stirred-Reactor (WSR) models are employed to investigate local conditions of injection and combustion process to identify the mechanism behind the trend of increasing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions at higher injection pressures found in the experiments. It is shown that the numerical simulations successfully replicate the change of ignition delay time and capture variation of NOx emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2185
Chao He, Jiaqiang Li, Longqing Zhao, Yanyan Wang, Wei Gu
Abstract More and more stringent emission regulations and the desire to reduce fuel consumption lead to an increasing demand for precise and close-loop combustion control of diesel engines. Cylinder pressure-based combustion control is gradually used for diesel engines in order to enhance emission robustness and reduce fuel consumption. However, it increases the cost. In this paper, a new prediction method of combustion parameters is presented for diesel engines. The experiment was carried out on a test bench to obtain the ECU (Electronic Control Unit) signals of a heavy-duty diesel engine by calibration software. The combustion parameters was measured by a combustion analyzer, such as maximum cylinder pressure (MCP), maximum combustion temperature (MCT), and combustion center of gravity (CA50). A combustion model using genetic programming (GP) is built. The input parameters are chosen from the ECU signals, such as engine speed, engine load, injection quantities, inlet air flow rate.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2462
Ruipeng Zhang, Kaichuang Meng
Abstract Due to the increase of mining production and rising labor costs, manufacturers of construction and mining equipment are engaged in developing large tonnage mining truck with good dynamic performance and high transport efficiency. This paper focuses on the improvement of the dynamic performance of a 52t off-highway dump truck. According to the characteristics of its operating cycle, electric auxiliary drive system is installed in the front axle aiming at improving the utilization rate of ground adhesion. The new all-wheel drive hybrid electric system makes it possible for dump truck transports at a higher velocity. Both the conventional dump truck model and the new all-wheel drive hybrid truck model are built based on the AVL-Cruise platform. Meanwhile, under the premise of enough dynamic performance, fuel consumption can be minimized by collaborative optimization in Isight.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 7720