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Technical Paper

Optimum Design Point to Recover Maximum Possible Exhaust Heat Over the Operating Range of a Small Diesel Truck Using Bottoming Rankine Cycle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1377
Abstract This paper focuses on waste heat recovery (WHR) system, which is an efficient technology to reduce fuel and vehicle carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per kW of power produced. Wide variations of power of a vehicle make it difficult to design a WHR system which can operate optimally at all powers. The exhaust temperature from the engine is critical to design a WHR system. Higher the temperature higher will be the gain from the WHR system. However, as power drops the exhaust temperature drops which makes the WHR system perform poorly at lower powers. In this research, a small diesel truck engine was used to design a WHR system to produce additional power using a Rankine cycle (RC). The WHR system was designed at the rated power and speed of 42.8 kW and 2600 rpm, respectively. At this design point, around 15% additional power improvement was achieved resulting around 13% break specific fuel consumption reduction.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Shot-to-Shot In-Nozzle Flow Variations in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Injector Using Real Nozzle Geometry

2018-04-03
2018-01-0303
Abstract Cyclic variability in internal combustion engines arises from multiple concurrent sources, many of which remain to be fully understood and controlled. This variability can, in turn, affect the behavior of the engine resulting in undesirable deviations from the expected operating conditions and performance. Shot-to-shot variation during the fuel injection process is strongly suspected of being a source of cyclic variability. This study focuses on the shot-to-shot variability of injector needle motion and its influence on the internal nozzle flow behavior using diesel fuel. High-speed x-ray imaging techniques have been used to extract high-resolution injector geometry images of the sac, orifices, and needle tip that allowed the true dynamics of the needle motion to emerge. These measurements showed high repeatability in the needle lift profile across multiple injection events, while the needle radial displacement was characterized by a much higher degree of randomness.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Study of LIDAR Scanner-Based Collision Avoidance and Automated Guided Systems for Autonomous Power Equipment Products

2018-04-03
2018-01-0032
Abstract Technology is continuously being developed to prevent self-driving vehicles from crashing. That technology could also be considered for other autonomous products. Collision avoidance in automated, guided systems using a light detection and ranging (LIDAR) scanner has been studied for application in low-speed autonomous Honda Power Equipment products, such as self-driving lawn mowers. The automotive application of a LIDAR scanner for autonomous driving is used for obstacle detection and offline local area. Such delineations do not exist in areas where power equipment is used, such as grass fields; therefore, identifying object height and distance, is a relatively new area. For this study, a small LIDAR scanner with a resolution of 0.01 m and a measurement range of 0.05 m to 40.00 m was used on a Honda self-driving lawn mower. The measurement distance data was directly processed in the scanner, enabling the drive unit to obtain distance information during actual operation.
Technical Paper

GPS Guided Autonomous Navigation of a Small Agricultural Robot with Automated Fertilizing System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0031
Abstract In this paper, the design, implementation, and testing of an autonomous agricultural robot with GPS guidance is presented. This robot is also responsible for weed detection and killing by spraying appropriate herbicide as well as fertilizing. This rover is powered by 5 12 V electric bike batteries and two electric motors. Machine learning algorithms such as Haar feature-based cascade classifiers has been utilized to detect three kinds of common weeds found in a corn field. The robot control system consists of GPS guided control of propulsion system and steering actuators, an image processing and detection system, and a spray control system for herbicide and fertilizer applications. Multiple microprocessors such as Raspberry Pi 3, Arduino, as well as an on-board computer have used to provide all control functions in an integrated fashion. Open sources software such as Mission Planner and ReachView have been used to provide autonomous guidance of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimization of Variable Flow AC Compressor for Commercial Vehicles to Reduce Parasitic Losses and Improving Efficiency of HVAC System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0056
Abstract In the modern era of commercial vehicle industry, passenger and driver comfort is one of the major parameters that improves vehicle running time which leads to fleet owner’s profitability. Air conditioning system is one such system whose primary function is to provide the required cooling inside the cabin in hot weather conditions. An Air-conditioned truck cabin creates a comfortable environment for the driver which increases his efficiency and reduces fatigue. An AC compressor consumes power directly from the engine affecting fuel economy and vehicle performance. With ever increasing demand for energy efficient systems and thermal comfort in automobiles, AC systems should be able to deliver the required cooling performance with minimum power consumption. Therefore, reducing AC power consumption in vehicles is one of the key challenges faced by climate control engineers.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Electrified Air Conditioning on a Class 8 Long Haul Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0061
Abstract Current methods employing electrified air conditioning (A/C) in class 8 long haul vehicles are hampered by insufficient capacity to cool the entire cabin both in sleeper mode and during normal on the road operation. A highly efficient single system solution is needed that meets cooling requirements under all operational modes without exceeding the power requirements that an onboard battery system can support. Results presented in this paper demonstrate the ability of an electrified A/C system to exceed cabin pulldown requirements within onboard electrical power availability while also meeting the low power draw requirements of sleeper mode operation. Results also demonstrate power electronics technology has advanced to the point that delivering ~5 kW of power at 48VDC (i.e. ~100A) can be accomplished in a reasonable sized package for commercial vehicle applications.
Technical Paper

Study of Hydraulic Steering Process for Intelligent Autonomous Articulated Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0133
Abstract Intelligent autonomous articulated vehicles (IAAVs), the most important transportations of intelligent mining system, are the future direction of mining industry. Though it could realize the unmanned drive, without supports of hydraulic steering process analyses and vehicle dynamic researches, there are no references for the IAAVs to adjust the steering angle in certain driving error. It still has to check the signal from the angle sensor repeatedly to track the planned path in the working process, which lead to the low control accuracy. In this paper, the theories of hydraulic steering process and vehicle model will be developed for the vehicle intelligent control with the analyses of road and tire characteristics based on the principle of least resistance.
Technical Paper

Parameters Analysis of on-Center Handling for Articulated Trucks

2018-04-03
2018-01-0136
Abstract On-center handling is one of the most important test conditions which are used to evaluate the handling performance of both passenger cars and commercial vehicles. This paper aims at investigating and verifying the influence of parameters on on-center handling of articulated trucks. A full vehicle model, including the steering system, suspension system, cab, frame, trailer and so on, was established in first by measuring the parameters of each component. The comparison of simulation and test results shown that the simulation precision of the vehicle model was up to 80%. Based on the model, the influence analysis of parameters, such as stiffness of steering drag link, steering ratio, kingpin friction, were carried out and were verified through the handling test.
Technical Paper

Deriving the Validation Protocol for Isolator Switches Used in Commercial Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0128
Abstract All automotive components undergo stringent testing protocol during the design validation phase. Nevertheless, there are certain components in the field which are seldom captured during design validation. One of these components is the battery isolator switch. This project aims at optimizing a validation methodology for this component based on field usage and conditions. The isolator switch is the main control switch which connects and disconnects the electrical loads from the battery. This switch is used in the electrical circuit of the vehicle to prevent unwanted draining of battery when it is not needed and when the vehicle is in switched off. An electrical version of this switch uses electromagnetic coils to short the contacts. The failure mode being investigated is a high current load causing the input and output terminal to be welded.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Methanol and Diesel Direct Injection HD Single Cylinder Engine Tests

2018-04-03
2018-01-0259
Abstract Laws concerning emissions from heavy duty (HD) internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent. New engine technologies are needed to satisfy these new requirements and to reduce fossil fuel dependency. One way to achieve both objectives can be to partially replace fossil fuels with alternatives that are sustainable with respect to emissions of greenhouse gases, particulates and nitrogen oxides (NOx). A suitable candidate is methanol. The aim of the study presented here was to investigate the possible advantages of combusting methanol in a heavy duty Diesel engine. Those are, among others, lower particulate emissions and thereby bypassing the NOx-soot trade-off. Because of methanol’s poor auto-ignition properties, Diesel was used as an igniting sources and both fuels were separately direct injected. Therefore, two separate standard common rail Diesel injection systems were used together with a newly designed cylinder head and adapted injection nozzles.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Active On-Board Alcohol Detection System with Safety Features for Commercial Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0602
Abstract Drink & drive has caused the increased rate of commercial vehicle accidents in the world due to the slow response to judgment and reasoning. According to research study 70% accidents are happened due to drunk & drive, it causes loss of human life and economic damage. Research has proven that drunk drivers exhibit aggressive driving behavior and apply more force during braking. While public health awareness and legal restrictions can assist in educating and discouraging people from drunk & drive, a more fool-proof method is not available in the market for commercial vehicles. Currently, a low cost, fail-safe onboard alcohol detection, and vehicle safety system is the need of the hour. This paper deals with the design & development of a low cost active onboard breath alcohol detection system and it’s on vehicle validation. Further, it explains the type of alcohol detection sensor used, controller design, logic programming and system packaging.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Test Facility for Suspension Dampers of Commercial Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1383
Abstract In the present scenario, delivering the right product at the right time is very crucial in automotive sector to grab the competitive advantage. In the development stage, validation process devours most of the product development time. This paper focuses on reducing the validation time for damper (shock absorber) variants which is a vital component in commercial vehicle suspension system. New test facility is designed for both performance test and endurance testing of six samples simultaneously. In addition, it provides force trend monitoring during the validation which increases the efficiency of test with an enhanced control system. This new facility is also designed to provide side loading capability for individual dampers in addition to the conventional axial loading. The key parameter during validation is control of damper seal temperature within the range of 70-90°C. A cooling circuit is designed to provide an efficient temperature control by re-circulating cold water.
Technical Paper

Vibration Isolation Analysis and Optimization of Commercial Vehicle Cab Suspension System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1405
Abstract This paper starts with study on the transfer characteristics, and the vibration isolation of the cab suspension. Vibration models of cab suspension and complete vehicle were built through multi-body dynamics software ADAMS. Finite element and multi-body dynamics were collaborated into the analysis of the transfer characteristics, the response and the isolation feature of cab suspension based on the complete vehicle. To improve the vibration performance of the cab suspension, improvements and optimization design were proposed with genetic algorithm method. The analysis results show that there only limited effectiveness on coil spring. So the improvement plans were proposed to replace the coil spring with an air spring and setting transverse damper. According to the plans, the original cab suspension was modified. The piecewise function method was used in fitting the characteristic of the air spring.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Engine-Related Restrictions for the Global Efficiency by Using a Rankine Cycle-Based Waste Heat Recovery System on Heavy Duty Truck by Means of 1D-Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1451
Abstract As a promising concept to improve fuel efficiency of a long-haul heavy duty truck with diesel engine, organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system (WHR) by utilizing the exhaust gas from internal combustion engine has continuously drawn attention from industry in recent years. The greatest achievable global efficiency may be, however, restricted by the engine. On one hand, engine operating conditions have direct impact on the temperature and the mass flow of exhaust gas, which is the waste heat source, on the other hand, the engine cooling system limits the heat rejection from the condenser of the WHR system. This paper aims to evaluate the impacts of the varied engine applications considering the effects of the WHR system on the global efficiency and engine emissions.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Sensitivity of Soot and NOx Formation to the Operating Conditions in Heavy Duty Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0177
Abstract In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are employed to describe the effect of flow parameters on the formation of soot and NOx in a heavy duty engine under low load and high load. The complexity of diesel combustion, specially when soot, NOx and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution. In this work, Multiple Representative Interactive Flamelets (MRIF) method is employed to describe the chemical reactions, ignition, flame propagation and emissions in the engine. A phenomenological model for soot formation, including soot nucleation, coagulation and oxidation with O2 and OH is incorporated into the flamelet combustion model. Different strategies for modelling NOx are chosen to take into account the longer time scale for NOx formation. The numerical results are compared with experimental data to show the validity of the model for the cases under study.
Technical Paper

Effects of Diesel Injection Parameters in a Heavy Duty Iso-Butanol/Diesel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0197
Abstract Due to the higher combustion efficiency and fewer exhaust emissions in comparison with other diesel combustion strategies, RCCI combustion attracted lots of attention. Using two fuels with different reactivities lead to lower fuel consumption and considerably less NOx and PM emissions. An investigation has been carried out in order to examine the simultaneous effects of diesel injection pressure and single injection timing on the emissions formation and engine performance in a heavy duty single-cylinder butanol-diesel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) diesel engine. A reduced chemical n-heptane-n-butanol-PAH mechanism which consists of 76 species and 349 reactions has been used to simulate the combustion process of the dual-fuel diesel engine.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of Low Soot Spray Combustionin a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0186
Abstract This CFD study focuses on the influence of the nozzle diameter on the mixing process and the soot formation and oxidation process in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The CFD simulation is based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes approach. The engine set-up is similar to an experimental case that showed rather low soot emission. The aim of the paper is to improve the understanding of the physics of the mixing process in a real engine environment with the attention to scrutinize its effect of fuel injection on combustion and soot emission. Two non-reacting cases with different injector nozzle diameters but constant injection pressure and their corresponding reacting cases are simulated with dynamic mesh motion and fuel spray modeling. The influence of injections on the mixing, combustion and emissions is analyzed and the simulation results are compared with the measurement data.
Technical Paper

Durability Studies on Gas Engine Oil along with Performance and Emission Characteristics of Heavy Duty Turbocharged Natural Gas Powered Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0638
Abstract Natural gas has been considered and implemented as alternative fuel to gasoline and diesel powered vehicles worldwide. Although natural gas belongs to petroleum fuel family, it has considerable recourses worldwide to ensure long energy security and comparatively lower carbon to hydrogen ratio that make it more environment friendly. This paper presents the effect of long duration endurance test on gas engine oil along with performance and emission characteristics of 5.8 L turbocharged heavy duty natural gas engine. The six cylinder engine was chosen due to its importance for urban bus transportation. The engine was subjected to long duration endurance test of 800 hrs with closed loop monitoring and controlled conditions as per 6 mode engine load cycle. During the complete endurance test of 800 hours, performance and emission characteristics of the engine were analyzed after completion of every 100 hours as per Full Throttle Performance Test and European Transient Cycle (ETC).
Technical Paper

Towards Electrification of Urban Buses Using Model Based Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0408
Abstract City buses electrification gains increasing interest as a promising solution for both zero emissions in urban environment and energy consumption minimization. Nevertheless, global spread of battery electric buses may be currently questionable, mainly due to traveling range limitations. In this respect, the aim of this work is to elucidate performance aspects of battery electric powertrain systems for urban buses. Instead of exhaustive testing, cost-effective model based vehicle analysis is proposed for quantifying and understanding electric propulsion system performance and respective vehicle energy consumption. First, an indicative 12-m battery electric urban bus model was developed and its performance was simulated under both steady state conditions, as well as the legislated Braunschweig driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Study on Correlation of Commercial Vehicle Axle Response with Road Profile for ISO Road Class Categorization and Durability Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-1114
Abstract Durability analysis is essential for vehicle validation and is carried out with the inputs of different road conditions. The selection of roads for durability analysis is critical and should represent the actual working conditions for the selected vehicle. Generally, the road conditions are subject to change with respect to time. To overcome the above, road profile data is an essential parameter which helps to represent and categorize roads in terms of ISO (International Organization for Standardization) road class. The ISO road classes objectively classify the roads with respect to roughness. This classification holds good by categorizing the signals to the respective road classes rather than different test roads. The road profiles are measured using inertial profiler methodology along with vehicle acceleration and displacement responses, also analyzed and categorized with respect to ISO road class.
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